A "calendar stick" carved centuries ago by the Winnebago tribe may provide the first evidence



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  1. A “calendar stick” carved centuries ago by the Winnebago tribe may provide the first evidence that the North American Indians have developed advanced full-year calendars basing them on systematic astronomical observation.

(A) that the North American Indians have developed advanced full-year calendars basing them

(B) of the North American Indians who have developed advanced full-year calendars and based them

(C) of the development of advanced full-year calendars by North American Indians, basing them

(D) of the North American Indians and their development of advanced full-year calendars based(E)

(E) that the North American Indians developed advanced full-year calendars based


  1. A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump

(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping

(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump

(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump(A)

(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities


  1. A collection of 38 poems by Phillis Wheatley, a slave, was published in the 1770’s, the first book by a Black woman and it was only the second published by an American woman.

(A) it was only the second published by an American woman

(B) it was only the second that an American woman published

(C) the second one only published by an American woman

(D) the second one only that an American woman published(E)

(E) only the second published by an American woman


  1. A common disability in test pilots is hearing impairment, a consequence of sitting too close to large jet engines for long periods of time.

(A) a consequence of sitting too close to large jet engines for long periods of time

(B) a consequence from sitting for long periods of time too near to large jet engines

(C) a consequence which resulted from sitting too close to large jet engines for long periods of time

(D) damaged from sitting too near to large jet engines for long periods of time

(E) damaged because they sat too close to large jet engines for long periods of time


  1. A controversial figure throughout most of his public life, the Black leader Marcus Garvey advocated that some Blacks return to Africa, the land that, to him, symbolized the possibility of freedom.

(A) that some Blacks return to Africa, the land that, to him, symbolized the possibility of freedom

(B) that some Blacks return to the African land symbolizing the possibility of freedom to him

(C) that some Blacks return to Africa which was the land which symbolized the possibility of freedom to him

(D) some Black’s returning to Africa which was the land that to him symbolized the possibility of freedom(A)

(E) some Black’s return to the land symbolizing the possibility of freedom to him, Africa


  1. A fire in an enclosed space burns with the aid of reflected radiation that preheats the fuel, making ignition much easier and flames spreading more quickly.

(A) flames spreading

(B) flame spreads

(C) flames are caused to spread

(D) causing flames to spread(D)

(E) causing spreading of the flames


  1. A firm that specializes in the analysis of handwriting claims from a one-page writing sample that it can assess more than three hundred personality traits, including enthusiasm, imagination, and ambition.

(A) from a one-page writing sample that it can assess

(B) from a one-page writing sample it has the ability of assessing

(C) the ability, from a one-page writing sample, of assessing

(D) to be able, from a one-page writing sample, to assess(D)

(E) being able to assess, from a one-page writing sample,


  1. A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.

(A) believed to be

(B) and that is believed to be

(C) and it is believed to have been

(D) which was, it is believed,(C)

(E) which is believed to be


  1. A Labor Department study states that the numbers of women employed outside the home grew by more than a thirty-five percent increase in the past decade and accounted for more than sixty-two percent of the total growth in the civilian work force.

(A) numbers of women employed outside the home grew by more than a thirty-five percent increase

(B) numbers of women employed outside the home grew more than thirty-five percent

(C) numbers of women employed outside the home were raised by more than thirty-five percent

(D) number of women employed outside the home increased by more than thirty-five percent(D)

(E) number of women employed outside the home was raised by more than a thirty-five percent increase


  1. A large rise in the number of housing starts in the coming year should boost new construction dollars by several billion dollars, making the construction industry’s economic health much more robust than five years ago.

(A) making the construction industry’s economic health much more robust than five years ago

(B) and make the construction industry’s economic health much more robust than five years ago

(C) making the construction industry’s economic health much more robust than it was five years ago

(D) to make the construction industry’s economic health much more robust than five years ago(C)

(E) in making the construction industry’s economic health much more robust than it as five years ago


  1. A letter by Mark Twain, written in the same year as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn were published, reveals that Twain provided financial assistance to one of the first Black students at Yale Law School.

(A) A letter by Mark Twain, written in the same year as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn were published,

(B) A letter by Mark Twain, written in the same year of publication as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,

(C) A letter by Mark Twain, written in the same year that The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was published,

(D) Mark Twain wrote a letter in the same year as he published The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn that(C)

(E) Mark Twain wrote a letter in the same year of publication as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn that


  1. A little under a million years ago, the briny waters of the Baltic Sea began flooding into the cold North Atlantic: geologists are still debating whether the flood was gradual or created a cataclysm.

(A) whether the flood was gradual or created a cataclysm

(B) if the flood was gradual or created a cataclysm

(C) about whether the flood was gradual or cataclysmic

(D) whether the flood was gradual or cataclysmic(D)

(E) whether the flood was gradual or it created a cataclysm


  1. A majority of the international journalists surveyed view nuclear power stations as unsafe at present but that they will, or could, be made sufficiently safe in the future.

(A) that they will, or could,

(B) that they would, or could,

(C) they will be or could

(D) think that they will be or could(D)

(E) think the power stations would or could


  1. A migraine typically afflicts one side of the head, lasts for hours or days, and may recur as infrequently as once every other month or often, as daily.

(A) as infrequently as once every other month or often, as

(B) as infrequently as once every other month or as often as

(C) infrequently, as often as once every other month, or often, like

(D) infrequently, like once every other month, or often, like(B)

(E) infrequently, like once every other month, or as often as


  1. A new phenomena, which is visible at Managua’s major intersections, are waves of vendors and beggars, which include many children and mob cars at the stoplights.

(A) A new phenomena, which is visible at Managua’s major intersections, are waves of vendors and beggars, which include many children and

(B) Visible at Managua’s major intersections are waves of vendors and beggars with many children, new phenomena that

(C) A new phenomenon visible at Managua’s major intersections is waves of vendors and beggars, many of them children, who

(D) Phenomenally new waves of vendors, beggars, and many children are visible at Managua’s major intersections, which(C)

(E) A wave of vendors and beggars, many of whom are children, are visible at Managua’s major intersections, where they are a new phenomenon and


  1. A number of linguists contend that all of the thousands of languages spoken by the world’s five billion people can be traced back to a common root language.

(A) that all of the thousands of languages spoken by the world’s five billion people can be traced

(B) that the world’s five billion people speak thousands of languages of which all can be traced

(C) the world’s five billion people speak thousands of languages which are all traceable

(D) all of the thousands of languages spoken by the world’s five billion people to be traceable(A)

(E) the ability to trace all of the thousands of languages that are spoken by the world’s five billion people


  1. A patient accusing a doctor of malpractice will find it difficult to prove damage if there is a lack of some other doctor to testify about proper medical procedures.

(A) if there is a lack of some other doctor to testify

(B) unless there will be another doctor to testify

(C) without another doctor’s testimony

(D) should there be no testimony from some other doctor(C)

(E) lacking another doctor to testify


  1. A peculiar feature of the embryonic mammalian circulatory system is that in the area of the heart the cells adhere to one another, beating in unison and adopting specialized orientations exclusive of one another.

(A) beating in unison and adopting

(B) they beat in unison while adopting

(C) beat in unison, and adopt

(D) beating in unison yet adopting(D)

(E) even though they beat in unison and adopt


  1. A President entering the final two years of a second term is likely to be at a severe disadvantage and is often unable to carry out a legislative program.

(A) likely to be at a severe disadvantage and is often unable to

(B) likely severely disadvantaged and often unable to

(C) liable to be severely disadvantaged and cannot often

(D) liable that he or she is at a severe disadvantage and cannot often(A)

(E) at a severe disadvantage, often likely to be unable that he or she can


  1. A prolific architect who worked from the turn of the century until the late 1950’s, Julia Morgan designed nearly 800 buildings in California, perhaps most notably William Randolph Hearst’s monumental estate at San Simeon.

(A) Julia Morgan designed nearly 800 buildings in California, perhaps most notably William Randolph Hearst’s monumental estate at San Simeon

(B) perhaps the most notable of the nearly 800 buildings in California designed by Julia Morgan was William Randolph Hearst’s monumental estate at San Simeon

(C) of the nearly 800 buildings in California designed by Julia Morgan, perhaps the most notable was William Randolph Hearst’s monumental estate at San Simeon

(D) nearly 800 buildings in California were designed by Julia Morgan, of which William Randolph Hearst’s monumental estate at San Simeon is perhaps the most notable(A)

(E) William Randolph Hearst’s monumental estate at San Simeon is perhaps the most notable of the nearly 800 buildings in California designed by Julia Morgan


  1. A proposal has been made to trim the horns from rhinoceroses to discourage poachers; the question is whether tourists will continue to visit game parks and see rhinoceroses after their horns are trimmed.

(A) whether tourists will continue to visit game parks and see rhinoceroses after their horns are

(B) whether tourists will continue to visit game parks to see one once their horns are

(C) whether tourists will continue to visit game parks to see rhinoceroses once the animals’ horns have been

(D) if tourists will continue to visit game parks and see rhinoceroses once the animals’ horns are(C)

(E) if tourists will continue to visit game parks to see one after the animals’ horns have been


  1. A recent national study of the public schools shows that there are now one microcomputer for every thirty-two pupils, four times as many than there were four years ago.

(A) there are now one microcomputer for every thirty-two pupils, four times as many than there were

(B) there is now one microcomputer for every thirty-two pupils, four times as many than there were

(C) there is now one microcomputer for every thirty-two pupils, four times as many as there were

(D) every thirty-two pupils now have one microcomputer, four times as many than there were(C)

(E) every thirty-two pupils now has one microcomputer, four times as many as


  1. A recent New York Times editorial criticized the city’s election board for, first of all, failing to replace outmoded voting machines prone to breakdowns, and secondarily, for their failure to investigate allegations of corruption involving board members.

(A) secondarily, for their failure to

(B) secondly, for their failure to

(C) secondly, that they failed and did not

(D) second, that they failed to(E)

(E) second, for failing to


  1. A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face

(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing

(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing

(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing(E)

(E) have elected to retire early rather than face


  1. A recent study of ancient clay deposits has provided new evidence supporting the theory of global forest fires ignited by a meteorite impact that contributed to the extinction of the dinosaurs and many other creatures some 65 million years ago.

(A) supporting the theory of global forest fires ignited by a meteorite impact that

(B) supporting the theory that global forest fires ignited by a meteorite impact

(C) that supports the theory of global forest fires that were ignited by a meteorite impact and that

(D) in support of the theory that global forest fires were ignited by a meteorite impact and that(B)

(E) of support for the theory of a meteorite impact that ignited global forest fires and


  1. A recording system was so secretly installed and operated in the Kennedy Oval Office that even Theodore C. Sorensen, the White House counsel, did not know it existed.

(A) A recording system was so secretly installed and operated in the Kennedy Oval Office that

(B) So secret was a recording system installation and operation in the Kennedy Oval Office

(C) It was so secret that a recording system was installed and operated in the Kennedy Oval Office

(D) A recording system that was so secretly installed and operated in the Kennedy Oval Office(A)

(E) Installed and operated so secretly in the Kennedy Oval Office was a recording system that


  1. A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes.

(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes

(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come

(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes

(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come(E)

(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come


  1. A representative of the Women’s Bureau of the United States Department of Labor contends that employers who offer benefits which permit that employees can balance home and work responsibilities better, realizing gains in attendance, recruiting, and retention.

(A) which permit that employees can balance home and work responsibilities better, realizing

(B) which permit employees balancing home and work responsibilities better will realize

(C) that permit employees to balance the responsibilities of home and work better will realize

(D) that permit employees a better balance between the responsibilities of home and work, thus realizing(C)

(E) such that employees are permitted a balance between home and work responsibilities, and they will realize


  1. A shy, religious-minded publisher who had married a duke’s daughter, Harold Macmillan’s rise to the position of Prime Minister in 1957 surprised many, though Churchill had since the 1930s been extolling Macmillan’s courage.

(A) Harold Macmillan’s rise to the position of Prime Minister in 1957 surprised many

(B) Harold Macmillan’s rise in 1957 to the position of Prime Minister surprised many

(C) Harold Macmillan’s becoming Prime Minister in 1957 surprised many

(D) Harold Macmillan surprised many by rising to the position of Prime Minister in 1957(D)

(E) the position of Prime Minister attained by Harold Macmillan in 1957 surprised many


  1. A special Japanese green tea called genmai-cha contains brown rice and is considered as a delicacy fit for a gourmet by most Japanese, though it is virtually unavailable outside Yokohama.

(A) A special Japanese green tea called genmai-cha contains brown rice and is considered as a delicacy fit for a gourmet by most Japanese, though it is virtually unavailable outside Yokohama.

(B) Considered to be a delicacy fit for a gourmet by most Japanese, genmai-cha is a special green tea that contains brown rice, virtually unavailable outside Yokohama.

(C) A special Japanese green tea called genmai-cha contains brown rice and is considered a gourmet delicacy by most Japanese, though it is virtually unavailable outside Yokohama.

(D) Most Japanese consider genmai-cha, a special green tea which contains brown rice, as a delicacy virtually unavailable outside Yokohama.(C)

(E) Though virtually unavailable outside Yokohama, most Japanese consider genmai-cha, a special green tea that contains brown rice, a gourmet delicacy.


  1. A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass.

(A) A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass.

(B) After passing through a red giant stage, depending on its mass, a star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.

(C) After passing through a red giant stage, a star’s mass will determine if it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.

(D) Mass determines whether a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.(D)

(E) The mass of a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will determine whether it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.


  1. A study commissioned by the Department of Agriculture showed that if calves exercise and associated with other calves, they will require less medication and gain weight quicker than do those raised in confinement.

(A) associated with other calves, they will require less medication and gain weight quicker than do

(B) associated with other calves, they require less medication and gain weight quicker than

(C) associate with other calves, they required less medication and will gain weight quicker than do

(D) associate with other calves, they have required less medication and will gain weight more quickly than do(E)

(E) associate with other calves, they require less medication and gain weight more quickly than


  1. A substance derived from the Madagascar periwinkle, which has proved useful in decreasing mortality among young leukemia patients, is cultivated in China as part of a program to integrate traditional herbal medicine into a contemporary system of health care.

(A) A substance derived from the Madagascar periwinkle, which has proved useful in decreasing mortality among young leukemia patients,

(B) A derivative, which has proved useful in decreasing mortality among young leukemia patients, of the Madagascar periwinkle,

(C) A Madagascar periwinkle derivative, which has proved useful in decreasing mortality among young leukemia patients,

(D) The Madagascar periwinkle has a derivative which has proved useful in decreasing mortality among young leukemia patients, that(E)

(E) The Madagascar periwinkle, a derivative of which has proved useful in decreasing mortality among young leukemia patients,


  1. A wildlife expert predicts that the reintroduction of the caribou into northern Minnesota would fail if the density of the timber wolf population in that region is more numerous than one wolf for every 39 square miles.

(A) would fail if the density of the timber wolf population in that region is more numerous than

(B) would fail provided the density of the timber wolf population in that region is more than

(C) should fail if the timber wolf density in that region was greater than

(D) will fail if the density of the timber wolf population in that region is greater than(D)

(E) will fail if the timber wolf density in that region were more numerous than


  1. According to a panel of health officials, there has been a great deal of confusion in the medical profession about whether obesity is a biological disorder posing serious health risks or a condition more related to appearance than to health.

(A) about whether obesity is a biological disorder posing serious health risks or a condition more related to appearance than to

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