A bibliography of Ugaritic Grammar and Biblical Hebrew Grammar in the twentieth century

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A Bibliography of Ugaritic Grammar

and Biblical Hebrew Grammar

in the twentieth century
Mark S. Smith
Department of Hebrew and Judaic Studies

New York University


Last Modified: May 2004

Table of Contents

Introduction x

Purpose x

Origins and Acknowledgements xi

Standard Abbreviations xiii

1. Basic Texts and Tools 1

1.1. General and Historical Linguistics 1

1.1.2. Afroasiastic and Semitic Languages 3

1.2. Ugaritic 8

1.2.1. General Introductions 8

1.2.2. Texts 8 Resources for Text-Information 9

1.2.3. Grammars and Grammatical Studies of Ugaritic 9

1.2.4. Dictionaries for Ugaritic 10

1.2.5. Concordances 10

1.2.6. Further Resources for Studying Ugaritic 11 Bibliographies of Ugaritic Studies 11 Major Journals publishing in Ugaritic Studies 11 Translations of Ugaritic Texts 11 Internet Resources 12

1.2.7. The Relation of Ugaritic to Other Semitic Languages 13

1.2.8. Other Second Millennium West Semitic Languages 14

1.3. Hebrew 16

1.3.1. Bibliography 16

1.3.2. General Works in Grammar 16 Biblical Hebrew 16 Epigraphic Hebrew 18

1.3.3. Grammars of Specific Biblical Books or Passages 19

1.3.4. Hebrew and Other Semitic Languages 34 Surveys of Research 34 The Relation of Hebrew to Other Semitic Languages 34

1.3.5. Stages/Dialects of Hebrew in the Iron I-Persian Periods 35 Early Hebrew 35 North versus South 35 Regional Dialects 36 Hebrew in Direct Discourse and Narrative 37 Studies 37 Context for Direct Discourse and Speech-Act Theory 39 Bilingualism 40 Hebrew Language and the Culture of Israel 41 Pre-exilic versus Post-exilic Hebrew 41 General Works 41 Texts for Study of Samuel and Kings versus Chronicles 44

1.3.6. Other First Millennium West Semitic Languages 44

2. Alphabet 48

2.1. Ugaritic 48

2.2. Old West Semitic (non-cuneiform) and the Origin of the Alphabet 49

2.3. From West Semitic to the Periphery: South Semitic and Greek Alphabets 50

2.3.1. South and West Semitic Alphabets 50

2.3.2. Greek Borrowing of the Phoenician Alphabet 50

2.4. Textual Uses of the Alphabet in Hebrew 51

2.4.1. Alphabetic Acrostics 51

2.4.2. Atbash 51

2.4.3. “Shared Consonants” 51

3. Consonantal Phonology 52

3.1. Ugaritic 52

3.2. Hebrew 52

3.2.1. General Works 52

3.2.2. Sibilants 53

3.2.3. Gutturals 53

3.2.4. l, m, n, r 54

4. Phonology of Vowels 55

4.1. Ugaritic 55

4.2. Hebrew 55

4.2.1. General Works 55

4.2.2. Vowels 55

4.2.3. Philippi's Law 56

4.2.4. Diphthongs 57

4.2.5. Vowel Sandhi 57

4.2.6. Stress and Vowel Changes 57

4.2.7. Spirantization 58

4.2.8. Vowel Signs (Matres Lectionis/’Immot Haqqrî’â) 59 Ugaritic 59 Hebrew 59

4.2.9. Hebrew Traditions 60 General Works 60 Septuagint 61 Qumran 61 Samaritan Hebrew 62 Second Column in Origen's Hexapla 62 Jerome 63 Hebrew Texts in Babylonian and Palestinian Vocalizations 63 Masora 64 Appendix: Mishnaic Hebrew 65

5. Nominal Endings/Case System 67

5.1. Ugaritic 67

5.1.1. General Works 67 "Genitive" and Vocative in Ugaritic 67 "Case" Endings on Construct in Ugaritic 67 Duals in Ugaritic 67

5.2. Hebrew 67

5.2.1. General Works 67

5.2.2. "Cases": General Studies 67 "Nominative" 67 "Genitive" 68 Construct and Determination 68 "Hireq Compaginis" 68 "Accusative" 68

5.2.3. Gender: General Works 68 Feminine Singular Endings 69

5.2.4. Number 69 Dual 69 Plurals 69

6. Nominal and Adjectival Types 70

6.1. Ugaritic 70

6.2. Hebrew 70

6.2.1. General Works 70

6.2.2. Specific Types (without Preformatives or Sufformatives) 70 Cv (Monoconsonantals) and CvC (Biconsonantals) 70 CvCC ("Segholates") 71 CvCvC 71 CvCCvC 71

6.2.3. Preformatives 71 ’Aleph 71 Mem 71 ‘Ayin 72 Taw 72

6.3.4. Sufformatives 72 Lamed 72 Taph 72

6.4. Internally Added Consonants (l, n, r) 72

7. Numerals 73

7.1. Ugaritic 73

7.2. Hebrew: General 73

7.2.1 One 73

7.2.2. Two 73

7.2.3 Three 74

7.2.4. Tens 74

7.2.5. Twelve 74

7.2.6. Seventy 74

8. Pronouns and Pronominal Suffixes 75

8.1. Ugaritic 75

8.2. Hebrew 75

8.2.1. General Works 75

8.2.2. Independent Pronouns 75

8.2.3. Pronominal Suffixes 76

8.2.4. Demonstrative Pronouns 77

8.2.5 Relative Pronouns 77 ’aser 77 sh- 78

8.2.6. Interrogative Pronouns 78 Interrogative Pronouns of Place 78

9. Particles and Prepositions 79

9.1. Ugaritic 79

9.2. Hebrew 79

9.2.1. General Works 79

9.2.2. ’az 80

9.2.3. ’ahar 80

9.2.4. ’ôy 80

9.2.5. ’ak 80

9.2.6. ’l 80

9.2.7. ’im 80

9.2.8. ’ên/yes 81

9.2.9. ’et 81

9.2.10. b- 81

9.2.11. bal 82

9.2.12. bn 82

9.2.13. gam. 82

9.2.14. h- (article) 82

9.2.15. h- (interrogative) 83

9.2.16. -h (locative) 83

9.2.17. hôy 83

9.2.18. hl 83

9.2.19. hm 83

9.2.20. hn 84

9.2.21. hinneh 84

9.2.22. w- 84

9.2.23. wn 85

9.2.24. w‘th 85

9.2.25. -y ("enclitic") 85

9.2.26. y‘n 85

9.2.27. hay/hê 85

9.2.28. k- (conjunction) 85

9.2.29. k- (preposition) 86

9.2.30. ken 86

9.2.31. l- ("asseverative") 86

9.2.32. l- ("negative") 86

9.2.33. l- ("preposition") 86

9.2.34. l- ("vocative") 87

9.2.35. lmh ("lest") 87

9.2.36. lm‘n 87

9.2.37. lpny 87

9.2.38. -m ("enclitic") 87

9.2.39. mn 88

9.2.40. ‘d 88

9.2.41. p- 88

9.2.42. raq 88

10. Verb: G-stem Suffix and Prefix Indicative 89

10.1. Ugaritic 89

10.2. Hebrew 90

10.2.1. General Studies/Tense and Aspect 90

10.2.2. Qatala 94 Qatala forms 95

10.2.3. Yaqtul/Yaqtulu/*Yeqattal 95 "Paragogic" forms 96 Yaqtul forms 96

10.2.4. Waw-consecutive 97 Forms of the waw-consecutive 99

10.2.5. Barth-Ginsberg's Law 99

10.2.6. Vowel Classes 100

10.2.7. G-stem passive (Qal passive) 100

11. Verb: G-stem Volitive (Cohortative, Imperative, Jussive) 101

11.1. Cohortative, Imperative, Jussive, Energic 101

11.2. "Energic" Nun 102

11.3. -na’ particle 102

12. Verb: G-Stem Participle and Infinitive 103

12.1. Participle 103

12.2. Infinitive 104

12.3. G-Passive Participles: *qatul/*qut(t)al (?) 105

13. Verb: Derived Stems 107

13.1. Ugaritic 107

13.1.1. General Works 107

13.1.2. Gt-stem 107

13.1.3. N-stem 107

13.1.4. D-stem 107

13.1.5. Dt-stem 107

13.1.6. C-stem (Shaphel/Aphel?) 107

13.2. Hebrew 107

13.2.1. General Works 107

13.2.2. Gt-stem (-t- of Qal) 108

13.2.3. N-stem (Niphal) 108

13.2.4. D-stem (Piel and Pual) 108

13.2.5. Dt/tD-stems (Hithpael) 109

13.2.6. C-stem (Hiphel and Hophal/Shaphel?) 109

14. Verb: Irregular ("Weak") Roots 111

14.1. General Works 111

14.1.1. Ugaritic 111

14.1.2. Hebrew 111

14.2. Weak Roots 111

14.2.1. First 111

14.2.2. First w/y/h 111

14.2.3. First y/n 111

14.2.4. First n 112

14.2.5. Middle ’/w/y/h 112

14.2.6. Final 112

14.2.7. Final w/y 112

14.2.8. Middle = Final (Geminates) 112

14.2.9. Quadriliterals 112

14.3. Specific Roots 112

14.3.1. *’rk 112

14.3.2. *gbh 113

14.3.3. *hlk 113

14.3.4. *hyh 113

14.3.5. *hyy/*hwy 113

14.3.6. *hll 113

14.3.7. *yr’ 113

14.3.8. *lqh 113

14.3.9. *‘mq 113

14.3.10. *qwm 113

14.3.11. *qsr 114

14.3.12. *sbb 114

14.3.13. *swb 114

14.4. Roots: Patterning and the Issue of Biconsonantalism 114

15. Syntax and Text-Linguistics 116

15.1. Supra-Clause Structure: Text Linguistics/Discourse Analysis 116

15.2. Complex Clauses and Traditional Syntax 118

15.2.1. Standard Works 118

15.2.2. Complex Clauses 119

15.2.3. Subordinate/Relative Clauses 120

15.2.4. Casus Pendens/Cleft Sentences 120

15.2.5. Verbal Sequences 120

15.2.6. Rhetorical Questions 121

15.3. Clauses 121

15.3.1. Verbal Clauses 121

15.3.2. Nominal Clauses 121

15.3.3. Word Order 122

15.4. Inner-Clause Features 124

15.4.1. Verb Complementation 124

15.4.2. Agreement 124

15.4.3. Pronominal Syntax 124

15.4.4. Apposition 124

15.4.5. Co-ordinate Subjects 125

15.4.6. Co-ordinate Objects 125

15.4.7. Superlatives 125

16. Words: Lexicography, Semantics, Loanwords and Proper Names 126

16.1. Lexicography 126

16.2.1. Ugaritic 126

16.2.2. Hebrew 126 Bibliography 126 Studies 126

16.2. Semantics and Word-Fields 129

16.2.1. General Studies 129

16.2.2. Specific Studies 131

16.3. Loanwords 132

16.3.1. Ugaritic 132

16.3.2. Hebrew 132 General Works 132 Akkadian 132 Aramaic 132 Egyptian 133 Indo-European/Hittite 133

16.4. West Semitic Proper Names 134

16.4.1. General 134

16.4.2. Ebla 134

16.4.3. Amorite 134

16.4.4. Ugaritic 134

16.4.5. Emar 135

16.4.6. Hebrew Names and the Bible 135

16.4.7. First-Millennium Extra-Biblical Hebrew Names 135



At present, a beginning course on Ugaritic might use either D. Sivan, A Grammar of the Ugaritic Language (HdO 1/28; Leiden: Brill, 1997), J. L. Cunchillos and J. A. Zamora, Gramática Ugaritica Elemental (Madrid: Ediciones Clásicas, 1995), or J. Tropper, Ugaritisch. Kurzgefasste Grammatik mit Übungstexten und Glossar (Elementa Linguarum Orientis 1; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2002). These books will be joined shortly by Joel H. Hunt and William M. Schniedewind’s work, A Primer for Ugarit: Language, Culture and Literature (in preparation), which will be particularly suitable for beginning students. J. Tropper’s Ugaritische Grammatik (AOAT 273; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2000) is a research grammar appropriate for advanced courses and research. For an advanced course on Biblical Hebrew, one might consult N. Waldman's reference work, The Recent Study of Hebrew: A Survey of the Literature with Selected Bibliography (Bibliographica Judaica 10; Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1989). Readers will find good bibliography (as well as direction) in B. Waltke and M. P. O'Connor's study, An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1990). Building on these works and others, this work of mine is offered as a resource for the study of Ugaritic grammar and the grammar of Biblical Hebrew. Although such a bibliography may appear tedious, scholars cannot afford to work in a bibliographical vacuum. The linguist E. H. Sturtevant made this point over five decades ago when he wrote that "a writer who neglects the work of his predecessors and contemporaries is wasting his time and the time of his readers."1

I have had misgivings about compiling a bibliography on Ugaritic grammar with bibliography of Biblical Hebrew grammar. After all, Ugaritic is not the only West Semitic source to provide important information for the background of Hebrew (especially "archaic Hebrew" and "classical Hebrew"). Indeed, readers will note from the organization of section one that Ugaritic and Hebrew are preceded by -- and therefore located bibliographically within -- their larger context of general linguistics and Semitics. This bibliography generally reflects the overall weight given to Ugaritic and Biblical Hebrew over and against other West Semitic material; these, too, are included but to a lesser degree. Missing from the listings for the West Semitic corpora is Aramaic, which deserves a treatment in its own right; readers may turn to J. A. Fitzmyer and S. A. Kaufman, ed., An Aramaic Bibliography, Part I: Old, Official, and Biblical Aramaic (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1992).

The weight given to Ugaritic and Biblical Hebrew may be justified based on the relative distribution of texts that currently survive in the West Semitic languages of the second and first millennia. For continuous texts, Ugaritic and Hebrew clearly enjoy a disproportionately superior place among the attested corpora. Readers may find it nonetheless misleading to juxtapose Ugaritic and Hebrew material in parallel sections, as if to suggest that Ugaritic is a direct antecedent to Hebrew. In order to be clear on this point, I would refer to the balanced view expressed by Anson Rainey over thirty years ago:

Ugaritic is not Hebrew; it is not an older stage of Hebrew; it must even be differentiated from the dialect(s) reflected in the Amarna glosses. Its closest relative is undoubtedly Phoenician; but there are marked differences between them. One might agree that Ugaritic is a North-West Semitic language, evidently standing alongside Phoenician, Hebrew, Moabite and the Amarna glosses over against Aramaic.2

As this statement suggests, Ugaritic and Hebrew belong to a larger group within the West Semitic languages. As the Ugaritic and Hebrew texts comprise the two largest corpora within this group, comparison of their grammatical features has often proved illuminating despite considerable differences between the two languages. A word about the listing for Hebrew: delineating the boundaries of what constitutes bibliography pertinent to the historical development of biblical Hebrew, or "Hebrew historical grammar," is not always obvious, and what I have provided perhaps tends toward the more inclusive end of the spectrum (with the exceptions of introductory grammars and dictionaries, which are not included here).

In order to make this bibliography more "user friendly," I have presented it in the order of topics found in a grammar. The order here is largely traditional (with the customary division of phonology, morphology and syntax), although since the 1960s linguists have paid a great deal of attention to the interface between these levels of grammar.3 In section 15, the organization for syntax gives precedence of text linguistics before the syntax of clauses and their subunits, reflecting the current view that the sentence does not constitute the largest unit of grammatical analysis.4 One might go further and present syntax as theoretically prior to, and the context for, situating morphology, and, by extension, phonology as well; however, the traditional order of grammars is retained here for the sense of familiarity that it affords readers.

I have included bibliography for the alphabet (under section 2), although properly speaking the alphabet is not a grammatical topic but a matter of the graphic representation of languages.5 However, the alphabet's historical importance for the study of West Semitic languages dictates its inclusion here. I have included some entries for Hebrew phonology or morphology with little or no mention of Ugaritic, in part to be more inclusive in these areas and in part to promote such work in the study of Ugaritic. Also included are entries for the syntax of particles (under 9.2) and for the verb (under 10.2.1) as well as some select individual verbal roots (under 14.11 and following). The bibliography in section 16 includes both basic and illustrative entries in the areas of lexicography, loanwards and semantics as well as personal names, but listings for dictionaries and lexica for Biblical Hebrew have not been included.6 As this discussion and the many entries in 1.1.1 and 1.1.2 illustrate (not to mention specific references in many other sections), the study of ancient Hebrew has benefited from the application of modern linguistics more than Ugaritic. The borders between some areas of grammar and other subjects are not always simple to delineate. For example, some bibliography for grammatical aspects of Hebrew poetry are included (word-order and semantics), but other aspects of Hebrew poetry are not. Some entries are listed more than once when they pertain to multiple grammatical topics. Standard abbreviations have been used (see the list in the final section of this introduction); these are found also in Ugarit-Forschungen and Journal of Biblical Literature).

The bibliography is not entirely consistent. On the one hand, it is not entirely inclusive of references in the twentieth century. On the other hand, it extends beyond 2000 for a number of major bibliographical items. Moreover, some of terms or words in foreign language fonts as well as some diacritical marks have not come through. I trust that the contexts where these terms or words appear will indicate what foreign words (mostly in Hebrew) they refer to. For words spelled in Hebrew I have substituted English spellings in square brackets. As a result of working on this project at different times, I have produced other inconsistencies of format as well. I hope to correct these flaws in future revisions; in the meantime, I hope this bibliography will nonetheless serve the field.

Origins and Acknowledgments

This bibliography originated in the early 1980s during my studies at Yale University. In the summer of 1981, Marvin Pope hired me to produce a general bibliography regarding Ugaritic mythological texts. The following year Robert R. Wilson put into my hands a basic bibliography for a reading course on Hebrew historical grammar that he had inherited from his own teacher at Yale, S. Dean McBride. Professor Wilson's bibliography as well as the bibliographical learning gained under Professor Pope were useful later for courses that I offered. I have also found it useful to maintain the bibliography as a resource for my own research and for course readings. A couple of years ago I made this bibliography available to interested scholars and students in the form of xerox copies. At that time, it was suggested to me that this bibliography should be published. Despite the flaws of this edition and despite some misgivings, I have decided to proceed with this web-version so that the bibliography can be made more widely available.

I am indebted in particular to the students who went through courses with me. The bibliography was advanced through the labors of the interlibrary office of Drexel Library of Saint Joseph's University. I am grateful also to the Simor Bible Bibliographical Computer Service, which provided me with a printout of its listings for Ugarit and Ugaritic. A number of colleagues kindly provided help with references: Professors S. A. Fassberg, J. Huehnergard, T. Muraoka, F. H. Polak, G. A. Rendsburg and G. Rubio. John Huehnergard generously shared his bibliography with me. I thank Charles E. Jones, Research Archivist and Bibliographer, and Thomas G. Urban, Senior Editor, both of the Oriental Institute, for their time and energy in preparing this work for the web.

Standard Abbreviations

AAL Afro-Asiastic Linguistics

AB Anchor Bible

ABD Anchor Bible Dictionary (ed. D. N. Freedman; six vols.; Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1992)

AbrN Abr-Nahrain

AcOr Acta Orientalia

AfO Archiv für Orientforschung

AION Annali dell’istituto orientale di Napoli

AJBA Australian Journal of Biblical Archaeology

AJSL American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures (now JNES)

ALASP Abhandlungen zur Literatur Alt-Syrien-Palästinas und Mesopotamiens

AnBib Analecta Biblica

AnOr Analecta Orientalis

ANET Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (ed. J. B. Pritchard; third ed.; Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969).

AO Aula Orientalis

AOAT Alter Orient und Altes Testament

AOS American Oriental Society

ArO Archiv orientální

AS Assyriological Studies

ATSAT Arbeiten zu Text und Sprache im Alten Testament

AUSS Andrews University Seminary Studies

BA Biblical Archaeologist (now Near Eastern Archaeology)

BASOR Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research

BeO Bibbia e oriente

Bib Biblica

BibetOr Biblica et orientalia

BJPES Bulletin of the Jewish Palestine Exploration Society

BN Biblische Notizen

BO Bibliotheca Orientalis

BR Biblical Research

BSOAS Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies

BZ Biblische Zeitschrift

BZAW Beiheft zur ZAW

CahRB Cahiers de la Revue biblique

CAT M. Dietrich, O. Loretz and J. Sanmartín, ed. The Cuneiform Alphabetic Texts from Ugarit, Ras Ibn Hani and Other Places (KTU: second enlarged edition) (ALASP 8; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 1997)

CBQ Catholic Biblical Quarterly

CBQ Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series

ConBOT Coniectanea biblica, Old Testament

CRAIBL Comptes rendus de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres

CR:BS Currents in Research: Biblical Studies

CTA A. Herdner, Corpus des tablettes en cunéiforms alphabétiques découvertes à Ras Shamra-Ugarit de 1929 à 1939 (MRS 10; Paris: Imprimerie Nationale/Geuthner, 1963)

Did Didaskalia

EncJud Encyclopedia Judaica (Jerusalem: Keter, 1971)

ErIs Eretz Israel

ETL Ephemerides theologicae Lovaniensis

FAT Forschungen zum Alten Testament

FRLANT Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testaments

GLECS Comptes rendus du Groupe Linguistique d’Études Chamito-Sémitiques

HAR Hebrew Annual Review

HdO Handbuch der Orientalistik

HS Hebrew Studies

HSM Harvard Semitic Monograph

HSS Harvard Semitic Studies

HTR Harvard Theological Review

HUCA Hebrew Union College Annual

IDBS Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, Supplementary Volume (ed. K. Crim et al.; Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 1976)

IEJ Israel Exploration Journal

IOS Israel Oriental Studies

JA Journal asiatique

JANES Journal of the Ancient Near East Society of Columbia University

JAOS Journal of the American Oriental Society

JBL Journal of Biblical Literature

JBLMS Journal of Biblical Literature Monograph Series

JBQ Jewish Bible Quarterly

JCS Journal of Cuneiform Studies

JEA Journnal of Egyptian Archaeology

JEOL Jaarbericht van het Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch Gezelschap (Genootschap) <>

JETS Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society

JJS Journal of Jewish Studies

JNES Journal of Near Eastern Studies (formerly AJSL)

JNSWL Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages

JPOS Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

JQR Jewish Quarterly Review

JRAS Journal of the Royal Asiastic Society

JSem Journal for Semitics/Tydskrif vir Semitistiek

JSJ Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Periods

JSOT Journal for the Study of the Old Testament

JSOTSup Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, Supplement Series

JSS Journal of Semitic Studies

JTS Journal of Theological Studies

KTU M. Dietrich, O. Loretz and J. Sanmartín, Die keilalphabetischen Texte aus Ugarit: Einschliesslich der keilalphabetischen Texte ausserhalb Ugarits. Teil 1. Transkription (AOAT 24/1; Kevelaer: Verlag Butzon & Bercker; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1976; second edition, 1997 = CAT, above)

LAPO Littératures anciennnes du Proche-Orient

Lesh Leshonenu

MARI Mari: Annales des recherches interdisciplinaires

MDOG Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft

MGWJ Monatsschrift für Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums

MRS Mission de Ras Shamra

NEA Near Eastern Archaeology (formerly Biblical Archaeologist)

NUS Newsletter for Ugaritic Studies

OBO Orbis biblicus et orientalis

OLA Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta

OLP Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica

OLZ Orientalistiche Literaturzeitung

Or Orientalia

OrAnt Oriens Antiquus

OrSu Orientalia Suecana

OTS Oudtestamentische Studiën

PEQ Palestine Exploration Quarterly

PRU Palais royal d’Ugarit

RA Revue assyriologie et d’archéologie orientale

RB Revue biblique

RdQ Revue de Qumran

RIH Ras ibn Hani (excavation number)

RivB Rivista biblica

RS Ras Shamra (excavation number)

RSO Ras Shamra - Ougarit

SBLDS Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series

SBLMS Society of Biblical Literature Monograph Series

SBLSBS Society of Biblical Literature Sources for Biblical Study

SBLWAW Society of Biblical Literature Writings from the Ancient World

Sef Sefarad

SEL Studi epigrafici e linguistici sul Vicino Oriente Antico

Sem Semitica

SJOT Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament

SSN Studia Semitica Neerlandica

STDJ Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah

TA Tel Aviv

TZ Theologische Zeitschrift

UBL Ugaritische-Biblische Literatur

UF Ugarit-Forschungen

UT C. H. Gordon, Ugaritic Textbook (AnOr 38; Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1965; fourth ed., 1998)

VT Vetus Testamentum

VTSup Vetus Testamentum Supplements

WMANT Wissenschaftliche Monographien zum Alten und Neuen Testaments

WO Welt des Orients

WZKM Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes

ZA Zeitschrift für Assyriologie

ZAH Zeitschrift für Althebraistik

ZAW Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft

ZDMG Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft

ZDPV Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins

1. Basic Texts and Tools

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