Aachen Hungarian Chapel, Germany – A chapel built as an addition to the Cathedral of Aachen, Germany, a pilgrimage site. The quadrangular chapel, one of six chapels, is built next to the cathedral (with an octagonal basilica and a cupola, built by Charlemagne in 796). King Lajos I (Louis the Great) (1342-1382) built the original Hungarian chapel in 1367 that had become a pilgrimage site. In 1381 the king sent Ulrik, Abbot of Pilis to look after it. The original chapel was destroyed by fire and a new one was built in Baroque style in the 18th century. The Habsburg king and emperor József II (Joseph) (1780-1790), due to his antireligious sentiments, ordered the pilgrimages to cease; but later they were resumed. In the chapel there are statues of Kings István I (St Stephen, (997-1038), László (St Ladislas) (1077-1095) and Prince Imre (St Emeric) (1007-1031). Some pieces of the original treasury, such as two candelabras and the silver coat of arms of King Lajos I, as well as those of the Anjou kings are now kept in the treasury of the cathedral. Memorial tablets of famous visitors decorate the walls of the chapel. Hungarian pilgrims regularly visit the chapel. – B: 1133, 1085, 1020, 7456, T: 7617, 7456.→István I, King; László I, King; József II, King.
Aba – An ancient Hungarian male name, meaning father. As a male name it was particularly popular in Hungary in the 11th to 15th centuries; it became popular again in the 19th century. Related names include Abad, Abod, Abony, Abos, and Abosa. – B: 2006, T: 7456.→Aba, Clan.
Aba, Clan – One of the oldest Hungarian clans. According to tradition they were descendants of Attila the Hun, as well as Edömér, the powerful Kabar tribal leader. Their large holdings were in Counties Abaúj, Borsod and Heves. From this clan descend some of the noble families of Hungary, among them the Báthory, Bethlen, Lipóczy, Nekcsey, Keczer, Rhédey, Somosy, Sirokay, etc., families. The origin of the name Aba can also be traced to Anonymus’ Gesta Hungarorum in the form of “Oba” meaning “well-meaning, benevolent”. Aba is also the name of a town in County of Fejér, near Székesfehérvár. – B: 1133, 1388, T: 7617.→Aba; Kabars; Abaúj County; Aba, Sámuel; Attila; Anonymus; Gesta Hungarorum.
Aba Novák, Vilmos (William) (Budapest, 15 March 1894 - Budapest, 21 September 1941) – Painter and graphic artist. In 1912 he studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Budapest. In 1922 he had his first graphic art exhibition at the Ernst Museum, Budapest. Farmers’ markets and circus scenes were his favourite subjects, dominated by expressionism and the Italian novecento art form. From 1928 for the next three years he worked in Rome at the Hungarian Academy. His Italian experience left its mark on his works. In 1933 he painted the fresco at the Roman Catholic Church in Jászszentandrás; and in 1936 finished the Hero’s Gate in Szeged, a work that was painted over in 1945 for political reasons but since restored. His other works include The Light (A fény) (1925); Road Laborers (Kubikusok) (1926); Baptism of Christ (Krisztus megkeresztelése) (1931), and Sekler Market (Székely vásár) (1939-1940). He was one of the artists who painted monumental pictures. He taught in the Academy of Applied Art, Budapest, and was hailed as a popular artist between the two World Wars. Several exhibitions of his works were organized posthumously. Many of his paintings have found their way into public and private collections. He won the Grand Prix at the Paris World Fair in 1936. – B: 0883, 0934, T: 7653.→Ladányi, Imre.
Aba Sámuel (Samuel Aba) – King of Hungary (1041-1044) and Lord of Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania). According to tradition he was a descendant of Edömér, the Khabar tribal leader and ancestor of the Aba clan. His father was the Palatine of Hungary. Aba was married to Sarolt (Sarah), a younger sister of King István I (St Stephen) (997-1038). When insurrection broke out in 1041 against the despotic king Peter Orseolo, Aba was elected king. However, Peter turned to the Holy Roman Emperor Henry III for help. Henry defeated Aba in 1042 and then withdrew his forces. During that winter Aba’s army sacked the German city of Tulln; whereupon the Emperor attacked Hungary once again and forced Aba to relinquish his ownership of the Vienna Woods. This had a demoralizing effect on his followers, who secretly began to conspire to reinstate King Péter. Upon learning of the plot, Aba had 50 of the conspirators executed and banished the rest of them from the realm. For this Gellért (St Gellért), Bishop of Csanád took him to task and refused to crown him at Easter. However, the rest of the clergy supported the king, not wanting to give the impression of national disunity. Some of the banished nobles fled to Germany and called on Henry and Peter. Then on 5 July 1044, due to treachery, Aba was defeated at the Battle of Ménfő and had to flee. He rode eastward to join his supporters by the River Tisza and gather an army. His enemies caught up with him at the town of Füzesabony and he was killed. They buried him at the same monastery he established at Sár (today, Abasár). Consequently, Péter was put on the throne with German help and for a while Hungary became a vassal of Germany. According to local legend, when Aba’s coffin was opened a few years later his wounds were healed. This demonstrates Aba’s popularity among the common people. – B: 0883, 1388, 1389, T: 3312, 7617.→Aba Clan; Kabars; Kaliz; István I, King; Orseolo, Peter, King.
Aba Scythians – In the times of Homer (ca. 8th century BC), they lived in the Carpathian Basin and after an absence of 1600 years they returned there; they were supposed to have been descendants of Attila the Hun, as well as of Edömér, the powerful Kabar tribal leader. In the Iliad they were called Abio Scythians and considered the most righteous of mankind, who fought on the side of Righteousness. In all probability, well before Attila, these Aba Scythians, together partly with the Huns and Árpád’s Magyars, entered or returned to the Carpathian Basin; with the latter came also the Indo-European Kaliz of Islamic faith, originally from Chorezm, who spoke a language similar to Middle Iranian. Abu Hamid al-Andalusi al-Garnati, who traveled to Hungary, wrote in 1151, that thousands of the descendants of the Chorezmians lived there serving the king. Publicly they were Christians, keeping their Islamic faith secret. They were the managers of the Royal Treasury and worked as minters. Their name survived in place names like Kál, Káló, Kalász, Kálóz, and Kálozd. Also, according to ancient Hungarian chronicles, the Chorezmian clan (de gente Corosima) joined the Magyars just before the Carpathian conquest (895 AD); these must have been the Kabars of Aba Scythian origin and various other ethnic fragments, all of whom gradually merged with the Magyars. The heros eponymos of the Aba Clan who traced their genealogy to Chorezm, was King Aba Samuel (1041-1044). – B: 1906, T: 7456.→Kabars; Scythians; Chorezm; Huns; Kaliz; Aba Sámuel.
Abádi, Benedek (Benedict) (First half of the 16th century) – Printer, Protestant preacher. In 1534 he studied at the University of Krakow, Poland, where he also learned his printing skills at János Vietor’s flourishing printing press. Tamás (Thomas) Nádasdy founded a printing shop at Újsziget. Here, Abády printed János (John) Sylvester’s Grammatica Hungaro-Latin; and in 1641 he printed János Sylvester’s New Testament (Új Testamentom), the first Hungarian language book printed in Hungary. Mátyás (Matthias) Dévai Bíró’s Ortographia Ungarica was printed under his supervision with his foreword. Subsequent to the closure of the Újsziget printing press, he became a student at Wittenberg in 1543 and was ordained there in 1544. He was a Protestant minister first in Eperjes (now Prešov, Slovakia) and later, between 1545 and 1552, in Szeged. – B: 0931, 1031, T: 7666.→Nádasdy, Baron Tamás; Sylvester, János; Dévai Bíró, Mátyás.
Abauj County – Its name is derived from the Aba clan who settled in the valley of the Hernád River during the years of the Carpathian conquest; they built the fort of Abaújvár in 1038. The famous battle of Rozgony of 1312 took place in this county. Up to the 14th century the seat of the county was Abaújvár, later it became the fast developing Kassa (now Košice, Slovakia). – B: 2006, T: 7456.→Aba, Clan.
Ábel, András (Andrew) (Sóskút, 19 February 1931 - ) – Engineer. On completion of his high school studies in 1949 at the Árpád High School, Budapest, he enrolled in mechanical engineering at the Polytechnic of Budapest. After two years of compulsory study for all engineering students, specialization followed, culminating in graduation from Aeronautical Engineering. In his first job at Budaörs he was engaged in development projects relating to military applications such as antitank weaponry, serving the Soviet markets. During the 1956 Hungarian Revolution he became chairman of the Workers’ Revolutionary Committee at his workplace and actively took part in the freedom fight. After its defeat he became a refugee and started a new life in England working as an engineer by day at Murex Ltd. and as barman at night. In 1960 he enrolled as an external student at the University of London to study economics and political science more as a hobby than a desire to change profession. On acquiring a scholarship for full time study at MacMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, he left for Canada in 1962 to work on the fatigue of aircraft materials. After obtaining an MSc Degree in metallurgy he was invited to Australia by the University of New South Wales as a teaching fellow, where he completed his Ph.D. studies in “fatigue”. In 1969 he joined the University of Sydney as temporary lecturer and served in the Civil Engineering Department until his retirement at the age of 70. Since his official retirement the University has engaged him in an honorary position of lecturer and consultant. From 1975 to 1976 he spent a year in Stuttgart, Germany on a Max Plank Fellowship and worked on single crystals in the Low Cycle Fatigue area. His research on fundamental and applied topics resulted in over 100 publications, and invitations to lecture on five continents. Three of his publications appeared in the Philosophical Magazine. He is founding member and director of the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers. He is a fellow member of six learned societies in England, Australia and the USA. He published three books in his native language and was awarded a Golden Diploma from the Polytechnic of Budapest. He also received two awards for his work and contributions. – B&T: 1084.→Freedom Fight of 1956.
Abeles, Peter Sir (Emil Herbert Abeles) (Vienna, Austria, April, 25 1924 - Sydney, Australia, June 25 1999) – Economist. He was born in Austria of Jewish parentage but lived in Hungary. In Budapest he attended the Fasor Evangelical (Lutheran) Secondary School. In 1949, just at the time of the Communist takeover, he emigrated to Australia. His success story began with “Samson and Delilah”, two small run-down second-hand trucks in the drayage business. In 1950 he founded the Alltrans Pty Ltd Transport Co. that in 1967 was taken over by Thomas Nationwide Transport Ltd (TNT), an international transport empire stretching over 180 countries. He became managing director and deputy chairman of TNT, and chairman of Ansett Airlines of Australia owned jointly by TNT and Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation. Eventually he became president of the Australian Cancer Research Foundation. He was an advisor to the Australian government and a prime mover of that country’s economic life. He was knighted in 1972. – B: 0883, 1031, T: 7680.
Abódi Nagy, Béla (Székelyszenterzsébet, now Eliseni, Romania, 13 July 1918 - ) – Transylvanian painter (Erdély, now in Romania). He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts, Bucharest, 1940, and at the Academy of Fine Arts, Budapest, 1942. In 1942 he became a teacher at Kolozskovácsi (now Faueni, Romania); later a POW in the Soviet Union (1944-1948). From 1949 until his retirement in 1983, he taught at the Academy of Fine Arts in Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania). Among his paintings are In Church (Templomban) (1943), Waiting for Godot (Godotra várva) (1967), Cheerfulness (Vidámság) (1970), Source (Forrás) (1980), and Where to? (Hová?) (1991). He also illustrated books and painted portraits of classical writers. He exhibited in several countries, among them in the Soviet Union, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Italy and Egypt. He received Romanian honors, such as the Order of Labor Medal (1954), State Prize (1954, 1955), and the Cultural Order of Labor (1968). – B: 1036, T: 7103.
Abódy, Béla (Budapest, 14 June 1931 - Budapest, 17 August 1990) – Writer, reviewer, literary translator. He studied philosophy at the University of Budapest (1949 - 1953). He started publishing his writings, literary and music reviews in 1948. During the years 1955-1957 he was literary manager at Magvető Publishers. After working as a primary school teacher for several years, he became a contributor to the literary review Life and Literature (Élet és Irodalom). In 1962 his drama Investigation (Nyomozás) was presented at the Gárdonyi Theater (Gárdonyi Színház), Eger. In 1965 the Jókai Theater (Jókai Színház), Békéscsaba, performed his play Családi Kör (Family Circle). From 1970 he worked for the Budapest Opera House, publishing its Opera Guide and writing articles and reviews of singers and performances. Between 1971and 1975 he was director of the Comedy Theater (Vígszinház), Budapest. He found his forte when he worked at the Hungarian Radio and Television. In 1978 he launched the periodical Four Seasons (Négy Évszak), editing it until 1985. From 1987 until his death he was editor-in-chief of Pallas Publishers (Pallas Könyvkiadó). His translations were mainly from English classics. His works include Dialogue with the Saint (Párbeszéd a szenttel); Short Stories (1960), and The Fourth Quarter (Negyedik negyed), autobiography (1981). He received the Attila József Prize in 1973. – B: 0883, 0878, 1257, T: 3240, 7103, 7456.
Ábrahám, Dezső (Desider) (Old, 1920 - Roebling, NJ, USA, 7 October 1997) – Reformed prelate in the USA. He completed his secondary school education at Kiskunhalas in 1938; then enrolled at the Reformed Theological Academy in Budapest. He first served in the rural community of Soltvadkert. A year later he was transferred to Fót, and from there went on to serve in the Calvin Square Church, Budapest. He took an active part in missionary work amongst young people. He was a member of the Soli Deo Gloria Youth Organization (Soli Deo Gloria Ifjúsági Szervezet), the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) (Keresztyén Ifjúsági Egyesület – KIE) in Hungary, as well as the Boy Scouts. He served as Secretary of the YMCA in 1945-1946. At the end of World War II he received a scholarship from the Church of Scotland to study in Glasgow. In 1947 he received an invitation from Princeton Theological Seminary in the USA. From there he visited the Hungarian congregations in the vicinity, gathering statistical data for a study he published under the title A Short History of the Hungarian Reformed Christian Communities in the United States (A magyar református keresztyénség rövid története az Egyesült Államokban) that served as the thesis for his Master’s Degree in Theology. In 1948 he became minister of the Hungarian Reformed Church in Roebling, NJ. In 1954 he received a call from the Hungarian congregation of Perth Amboy, NJ, where he served for 20 years. Between 1957 and 1967 he edited the official paper of the American Hungarian Reformed Church. On 16 June 1968 he was installed as Bishop of the American Hungarian Reformed Churches, a post he held for 18 years. One of his many achievements was the publication of a revised Constitution and the Book of Rules. Between 1974 and 1988 he served the largest American Reformed congregation, the Allen Park Church in Michigan, from where he retired. He was Director, later Vice-President of the American Hungarian Reformed Association, a member of the American Hungarian Foundation, and a contributor to Radio Free Europe. He received an Honorary Doctorate from the Reformed Theological Academy, Budapest (1990). – B: 0906, T: 7617.→Soli Deo Gloria; Young Men’s Christian Association; Reformed Churches in America.
Ábrahám, Pál (Paul) (Apatin, now Serbia-Montenegro 2 November 1892 - Hamburg, Germany, 6 May 1960) – Composer. He studied music at the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest. He was a bank-clerk for a time. In 1928 he became conductor at the Operetta Theater (Operett Színház), Budapest. His operettas, such as Rose of Hawaii (Hawai rózsája) (1931), Ball in the Savoy (Bál a Savoyban) (1931), and Viktória were successful at home and abroad. He moved to Berlin; but in 1933 was forced to leave for political reasons and went to the United States. His career was broken and he fell into a state of dementia. After years of treatment he returned to Germany and settled in Hamburg. Some of his works were filmed, e.g. Happy Hearts (Boldog szívek) (1932) and Antonia (1935). His operettas are still popular worldwide. He belongs to the line of the great Hungarian operetta composers of J. Huszka, Sz. Fényes, F. Lehár and V. Jacobi. – B: 0883, 1427, T: 7103.→Lehár, Ferenc; Jacobi, Victor; Huszka, Jenő; Fényes, Szabolcs.
Ábrányi, Emil (Pest, 31 December 1850 - Szentendre, 20 May 1920) – Poet, journalist, translator of literary works. He published his first poem in 1866. From 1873 he worked for the Pest Journal (Pesti Napló); from 1879 for Hungary (Magyarország), and from 1896 for the Budapest Journal (Budapesti Napló). From 1904 to 1907 he was permanent contributor to the daily Sun (Nap). In 1889 he was elected Member of Parliament. He was a member of the Petőfi Association from 1876, and between 1880 and 1890 he was second secretary of the Association. In 1885 he became a member of the Kisfaludy Association and edited the weekly Wreath (Koszorú). His poems had a great effect on the country’s youth at the end of the 19th century. His literary translations are still considered classics, the most important ones being Byron’s Don Juan (1892); Rostand’s Cyrano de Bergerac (1898), The Eaglet (L'Aiglon – A sasfiók) (1903). His poetry includes His Poems (Költeményei) (1876); His Newer Poems (Újabb költeményei) (1882); Freedom, Country (Szabadság, Haza) (1888); Songs of March (Márciusi dalok) (1899), and His Selected Poems (Válogatott költeményei) (1903). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 3240.
Abrudbánya, and Massacres of (now Abrud, Transylvania in Romania) – A mining town and important transportation junction with a population of more than 5,000, situated 600m above sea level. Even before the Romans it was famous for its gold and silver mines. Its Roman name was Ambrutus. It was a wealthy town during the era of the Hungarian Principality of Transylvania (16th and 17th centuries). On 7 November 1784, Vlach (original name of Romanians) freebooters of Hora and Kloska massacred its Hungarian population. On 9 May 1849, Iancu’s Vlachs ransacked and burned the town and killed the Hungarian population. This time only a small part of the population survived. – B: 1133, 0883, T: 7672.→Vlach, The; Atrocities against Hungarians.
Academic Legion – A special force of the Viennese university students, who participated in the 1848 Viennese uprising. It was in their assembly hall that demands were first made public on the 12th of March for free speech, freedom of the press and religion and, above all, the freedom to study. Next day the Legion was formed and was armed from the public arsenal. After the suppression of the uprising the student troops, about one hundred in number, escaped to Hungary, and under the command of General Bem were incorporated into the Transylvanian (Erdély, now Romania) army and fought in the 1848-1849 War of Independence. – B: 1078, T: 7668.→Freedom Fight of 1848-1849; Bem, József.
Academy of Sciences, Hungarian (Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, Budapest, MTA) – The highest Hungarian scientific organization. Before its foundation in 1825, attempts had been made, both in Hungary and in Transylvania, for at least two hundred years, to establish a learned society of Hungarian researchers and scholars. Some of the attempts were twarted by the Habsburg rulers who encouraged such efforts mainly in the Austrian parts of their empire. However, in 1825, Pál (Paul) Felsőbüki Nagy made such an influential speech at the Diet of Pozsony, (now Bratislava, Slovakia) – seat of the Hungarian Parliament at the time – urging the foundation of an organization to refine the Hungarian language and to help science flourish, that Count István (Stephen) Széchenyi, one of the wealthiest magnates, son of Count Ferenc (Francis) Széchényi, offered one year’s income from his large estate for the purpose. Other magnates followed his example, and in 1827 a law was passed by Parliament for the establishment of the Academy with six departments, those of linguistics, philosophy, history, mathematics, science, and law. The king, after some delaying maneuvers, at last confirmed the law in 1830, and the Academy began to function.
During its first period it had 42 regular and 24 honorary members, and an indefinite number of correspondents, all of them elected by the general assembly and directed by a Board of 25 that represented the four estates of the feudal society. It soon became the motor of scientific and cultural life in Hungary, launching great undertakings one after the other, like publishing the Rules of Hungarian Orthography, the Great Hungarian Dictionary and the Collection of Ancient Hungarian Texts, starting different scientific journals, financing scientific research projects, distributing scientific, literary and artistic awards, publishing school textbooks, bilingual dictionaries, and translations of important foreign works, etc. Its first President was Count József (Joseph) Teleki, its Vice-President Count István Szécheny, its General Secretary Gábor (Gabriel) Döbrentei.
During the 1848-1849 Revolution and War of Independence, the Academy greeted the abolishment of censorship and made its sessions public. When the united Austrian and Russian armies defeated the Hungarian forces, several academicians were imprisoned. During the oppressive absolutist rule that followed, new members could not be elected nor could general sessions be held until 1858. The nation however strived to maintain the spirit of freedom by concentrating on making the arts and sciences flourish in the country, and the Academy became the leader of these efforts. In 1859, a campaign was launched to raise money for a home for the Academy, which until then held its sessions in the National Museum. The construction of a fine neoclassical palace for the Academy on the banks of the Danube in central Budapest was completed in 1864. It houses, in its magnificent assembly hall and fine office and research rooms, the second largest library in Hungary and a number of valuable collections of art and science, as well as the original manuscripts of many Hungarian scientists, explorers, writers of fiction, poetry, drama and music.
In 1870 the Academy adopted new regulations reducing the number of departments to three: (1) Linguistics and Arts, (2) Philosophy and Social Sciences, and (3) Mathematics and Natural Sciences, with altogether 240 members (26 honorary, 64 regular and 160 corresponding), plus a 26-member Board of Directors. Continuing and extending its original activities, the Academy became one of the most important centers of the sciences and arts in Europe, its members contributing to the advance of European civilization with outstanding discoveries and inventions (e.g. the principle of the dynamo discovered by Ányos Jedlik, the proof of the proportionality of inertial and gravitational mass by Count Loránd (Roland) Eötvös, the carburetor of internal combustion engines of Donát Bánki, etc.). However, their most important contributions were in the fields of Hungarian culture, history, linguistics, and arts.
In the first part of the 20th century, before the Second World War, the Academy continued to function as the most important center of scholarship in Hungary, publishing countless studies and essays in all fields of science and culture, nurturing the advancement of knowledge with its numerous publications and periodicals that were printed and published by its own publishing firm. A brief exception was the short lived Communist dictatorship of 1919 in the wake of the First World War, when the dictatorial government took on the managing of the Academy and excluded all the members who expressed their disagreement with the deeds and ideas of Communism. After their fall, the leader of the new democratic regime, Regent Miklós (Nicholas) Horthy, gave all his help to the Academy to regain its self-government and financial independence, so that high standard scientific and cultural work could continue.
Shortly after the Second World War, it was again reorganized after the second communist takeover of 1949, which occurred as a result of the Russian Red Army occupying Hungary and remaining there in accordance with the 1945 Yalta Agreement between the Western Powers and Russia. Again, all members expressing disagreement with communist ideology or being labelled as “idealists” or “bourgeois thinkers” were excluded, deported, imprisoned, or executed, with such great names among them as professor Ferenc (Francis) Orsós, the great anatomist, professor Bálint (Valentine) Hóman, the great historian, and many others. Still others had to flee the country to avoid harassment, like Albert Szent-Györgyi, the Nobel Prize winner biologist, or János (John) Selye, proposer of the “stress” theory in psychology.
As a result of its reorganization, the Academy lost its independence and became an organ of the Hungarian Communist Party, with the Academy’s party secretary as the most important person, and with many new members whose only merit was their association with the Party. The Arts Department was terminated, and the Academy was given administrative functions to become a sort of “ministry of science” of the Communist government. Still, life did not stand still, and as years passed the old members who managed to stay, together with their disciples, slowly raised the standard of scholarship in and outside of the Academy as high as circumstances could allow, and much valuable scientific work was carried out by Academicians or under their management. Many institutes were established under the auspices of the Academy to function as centers of a certain field of study, as e.g. Institute of History, Institute of Mathematics, Institute of Musicology, etc. These usually have their headquarters in Budapest, some of them with offices in other cities as well.
Beginning with the late 1980s, a reform process began to take place with the proposal of a new set of laws for the Academy. In 1989, many of the members, excluded and persecuted by the Communist Party, were rehabilitated. In 1990, new by-laws were adopted and the Academy did not function any longer as an administrative organ of the government. In order to rehabilitate the most outstanding members of the Arts Department that was terminated in 1949, the Academy initiated the establishment of an associated but mainly independent institution for the cultivation of Arts and Literature, as a result of which the Széchenyi Academy of Literature and Arts (Széchenyi Irodalmi
és Művészeti Akadémia) has come into being. The culmination of the reform process was the codification of the new Academy’s laws and its enactment by Parliament in 1994, which also made new by-laws necessary. The 40th Law of 1994 says that the Hungarian Academy of Sciences is a self-governed public institution for the sciences, whose main functions are the cultivation of science and art, the dissemination of the achievements of science, the promotion of research work, and the representation of Hungarian scientific life. – B: 0961, 7696, T: 7696.→Most of the persons and events have their own word entry; Yalta Conference.