9th Grade Chapter 11 Test The Civil War 5/12/09 Matching identifying key terms, people, and places. For Scantron f = ab; g=ac; h=ad; i=ae; j=bc



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9th Grade - Chapter 11 Test - The Civil War - 5/12/09

Matching

IDENTIFYING KEY TERMS, PEOPLE, AND PLACES. For Scantron - f = ab; g=ac; h=ad; i=ae; j=bc You will not use all the terms

a.

greenbacks

f.

draft

b.

contraband

g.

Thirteenth Amendment

c.

recognition

h.

guerrillas

d.

war of attrition

i.

Copperheads

e.

canister

j.

martial law

1. conflict in which one side inflicts continuous losses on its enemy to wear down enemy strength

2. legal means of forcing people to serve in the armed forces

3. paper money not backed by gold

4. emergency rule by military authority

5. antiwar Northern Democrats

6. bands of soldiers who use hit-and-run tactics

7. property seized from one side in a war that becomes the property of the other side

8. addition to the Constitution that ended slavery

IDENTIFYING KEY TERMS, PEOPLE, AND PLACES. For Scantron - f = ab; g=ac; h=ad.

a.

writ of habeaus corpus

e.

Emancipation Proclamation

b.

Anaconda Plan

f.

Gettysburg Address

c.

draft

g.

siege

d.

recognition

h.

Thirteenth Amendment

9. In a ____, an arrested person can force the government to explain to a judge in the arrested person’s presence, what legal right the government has to keep them in prison.

10. The Confederate government was the first to pass ____ laws to force people to serve in the military.

11. The Confederacy hoped to gain status as an independent nation by gaining ____ from Britain and France.

12. During a ____, a city is surrounded and starved to make it surrender.

13. President Lincoln issued the ____ to free enslaved people in areas under Confederate control.

14. President Lincoln’s ____ redefined the ideas of freedom and equality in the United States.

15. The ____ ended slavery in the United States.

16. Northern newspapers called the Union strategy of surrounding the Confederacy the ____.

Multiple Choice

IDENTIFYING MAIN IDEAS

17. What was the first major battle of the Civil War?



a.

the Battle of Shiloh

c.

the First Battle of Bull Run

b.

the Battle of Chancellorsville

d.

the Battle of Antietam

18. Which of the following was an advantage the North had over the South?



a.

more experienced generals

c.

more money to spend on war

b.

military support from Britain

d.

full support of all its citizens

19. What caused President Lincoln to become dissatisfied with General McClellan’s command?



a.

He thought McClellan took unnecessary risks.

b.

He thought McClellan was too slow to take action.

c.

He objected to McClellan’s political views.

d.

He said that McClellan was a coward.

20. Which of the following was a strategy of the Confederate government?



a.

blockading the North’s Atlantic coast

b.

attacking the North by way of the Mississippi River

c.

seeking support from Britain and France

d.

limiting the upper draft age to 35

21. During the Civil War, the Republican-controlled Congress



a.

removed General Lee as commander of Union forces.

b.

dominated the Union military strategy.

c.

passed laws repealing the tariffs on manufactured goods.

d.

passed a law calling for the construction of a railroad line from Nebraska to the Pacific Coast.

22. The Emancipation Proclamation freed



a.

all enslaved people living in the United States.

b.

enslaved people living in areas controlled by the Confederacy.

c.

enslaved people living in the Union states.

d.

enslaved people living in the territories.

23. After the South’s victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville,



a.

some Northern leaders began to talk about making peace with the South.

b.

the Confederate government declared victory in the war.

c.

President Lincoln’s popularity increased.

d.

Northern industrial production began to fall.

24. Grant’s victory at Vicksburg



a.

ended the South’s naval domination.

b.

cut the Confederacy in two.

c.

caused Lee to surrender.

d.

forced Jefferson Davis to resign as president of the Confederacy.

25. In the Gettysburg Address, Lincoln



a.

condemned the use of total war.

c.

declared that slavery was moral.

b.

promised a new birth of freedom

d.

offered forgiveness to the South.

26. What was a major significance of the presidential election of 1864?



a.

The Copperheads supported Lincoln.

b.

Voters showed their approval of Lincoln’s stand against slavery.

c.

Voters showed their disapproval of Lincoln’s war policy.

d.

Votes showed their approval of Lincoln’s peace plan.

27. Which of the following was an advantage the South had in the Civil War?



a.

larger army

c.

greater number of factories

b.

more miles of railroad

d.

more experienced generals

28. The First Battle of Bull Run and the Battle of Shiloh proved that the



a.

war would be long and difficult.

b.

South would soon capture Washington, D.C.

c.

Union soldiers were better trained than Confederate soldiers.

d.

South could not win the war.

29. Lincoln urged General McClellan to attack the Confederate capital of



a.

New Orleans, Louisiana.

c.

Richmond, Virginia.

b.

Memphis, Tennessee.

d.

Atlanta, Georgia.

30. During the Civil War, the South hoped to



a.

capture New York City.

b.

convince Britain and France to intervene on the Confederate side.

c.

form armies of enslaved African Americans.

d.

build a huge, modern navy.

31. The Emancipation Proclamation had the effect of



a.

discouraging white males from joining the Union army.

b.

encouraging African Americans to serve in the Union army.

c.

prohibiting African Americans from service in the Union army.

d.

prohibiting African Americans from service in the Confederate army.

32. General Lee marched his troops into Pennsylvania because he



a.

had been defeated at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville.

b.

hoped to win a victory on Union soil.

c.

had been ordered to capture Washington, D.C.

d.

wanted to punish the North for Stonewall Jackson’s death.

33. The single greatest cause of death of Confederate and Union soldiers was



a.

canisters.

b.

shells.

c.

disease.

d.

gunboats.

34. At the start of the war, the South’s basic strategy could be summarized as



a.

prepare and wait.

c.

blockade the North.

b.

rely on railroads.

d.

invade and attack.

35. Battles in the West took place mainly



a.

in the mountains.

c.

on the Great Plains.

b.

along rivers.

d.

near the Great Lakes.

36. Union forces won the battle of Shiloh, thanks to



a.

Confederate casualties totaling nearly 11,000.

b.

the arrival of the Merrimack.

c.

a counterattack by Grant’s forces, supported by newly arrived troops.

d.

a month-long delay caused by a cautious southern general.

37. If Grant’s army could gain control of the Mississippi River, the Confederacy would be



a.

defeated.

c.

assured of victory.

b.

forced to invade the North.

d.

split into two parts.

38. In battles in the East, McClellan was best known for his



a.

caution.

c.

bold attacks.

b.

wise strategies.

d.

use of technology.

39. The Battle of Antietam denied Robert E. Lee a chance to



a.

use any battlefield strategies.

c.

save Virginia.

b.

lead the Confederate army.

d.

win a battle on Union soil.

40. The Confederate war effort was hurt by Southerners’ fierce devotion to



a.

slavery.

c.

family.

b.

Great Britain and France.

d.

states’ rights.

41. During the Civil War, both the Confederate and Union governments created



a.

a central bank.

c.

a draft.

b.

a railroad line across the West.

d.

new tariffs.

42. During the early part of the war, Lincoln’s main goal was to



a.

reduce the power of the states.

c.

stop the spread of slavery.

b.

preserve the Union.

d.

free the slaves.

43. One of the major hardships faced by the Confederacy during the war was



a.

a food shortage.

c.

a lack of cotton.

b.

an oversupply of labor.

d.

a lack of prisoners.

44. After the Emancipation Proclamation, many African Americans



a.

boarded trains for the West.

c.

rushed to join the Union army.

b.

opened weapons factories.

d.

started getting paid by planters.

45. Burnside lost the Battle of Fredericksburg by trying to



a.

surround the Union army.

c.

charge into Confederate gunfire.

b.

attack from behind.

d.

approach Lee’s forces secretly.

46. Lee won a brilliant victory at Chancellorsville through the tactic of



a.

dividing his forces.

c.

holding the high ground.

b.

taking a defensive position.

d.

relying on artillery.

47. Lee crossed into Pennsylvania because he wanted a



a.

rest from constant battle.

c.

direct route into New England.

b.

chance to break the Union blockade.

d.

victory on northern soil.

48. At Gettysburg, the Union and Confederate lines positioned themselves



a.

on opposite sides of a river.

c.

along separate ridges.

b.

in the middle of a large, open field.

d.

in a winding valley.

49. Confederate forces at Gettysburg were blown apart by canister shells in



a.

Pickett’s Charge.

c.

the battle of Devil’s Den.

b.

the siege of Champion’s Hill.

d.

the battle of Little Round Top.

50. Union forces sought to capture the stronghold of Vicksburg, a city on



a.

the road to Washington, D.C.

c.

the Atlantic Ocean.

b.

a bluff overlooking the Mississippi.

d.

the outskirts of Gettysburg.

51. Grant’s successful strategy for taking Vicksburg involved



a.

charging the walls.

c.

digging a canal.

b.

marching through swamps.

d.

mounting a siege.

52. Union victories at Vicksburg and Port Hudson



a.

offset the loss at Gettysburg.

c.

ensured that Richmond would fall.

b.

cut the Confederacy in half.

d.

left the North at its lowest point.

53. Grant and Sherman followed the same general strategy, which called for



a.

burning enemy cities.

c.

confronting the enemy.

b.

outrunning the enemy.

d.

marching to the sea.

54. The Battles of the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, and Cold Harbor



a.

were big victories for Grant.

c.

saved Washington, D.C.

b.

took a huge toll on Grant’s army.

d.

destroyed Lee’s will to fight.

55. George McClellan said that if he were elected President in 1864, he would



a.

fight on to victory.

c.

negotiate an end to the war.

b.

surrender to the South.

d.

march to the sea.

56. Lincoln gained much-needed voter support in the 1864 election after



a.

the Battle of the Wilderness.

c.

Grant captured Richmond.

b.

the siege of Petersburg.

d.

Sherman captured Atlanta.

57. Passage of the Thirteenth Amendment showed that Congress accepted



a.

Lincoln’s stand against slavery.

c.

its responsibility for the war.

b.

Lee’s terms for ending the war.

d.

Sherman’s destruction of Atlanta.

58. Sherman treated South Carolina harshly because



a.

it was the home state of Robert E. Lee.

b.

his troops had been treated harshly in the state.

c.

he wanted to force Lee to send reinforcements to the state.

d.

it had been the first Confederate state to secede.

59. After Lee was unable to save Richmond or unite with Johnston, he



a.

headed south to Atlanta.

c.

surrendered to Grant.

b.

headed north to Washington, D.C.

d.

fought the Battle of Cold Harbor.

60. At Ford’s Theater on April 14, 1865,



a.

Lincoln was shot.

c.

the Civil War officially ended.

b.

Lee signed the terms of surrender.

d.

Lincoln gave the Gettysburg Address


Essay - 3 points each (total of 12 points)

CRITICAL THINKING

61. Identifying Assumptions Why did the South assume that France and Britain would back the Confederacy? Was this assumption correct?

62. Demonstrating Reasoned Judgement At the start of the Civil War, why do you think many Americans thought the North would win easily?

63. Making Comparisons Identify two advantages that the North had over the South during the Civil War, and two advantages that the South had over the North.

64. Testing Conclusions Mr. Mermelstein stated that, for the North, “the Fourth of July 1863 was the most joyous independence day since the first one 87 years earlier.” Explain this statement.

Extra Credit - 5 points

65. What is a 6-word summary of the Civil War?



9th Grade - Chapter 11 Test - The Civil War - 5/12/09

Answer Section

MATCHING

1. ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 383 OBJ: 11.1.2

TOP: Civil War | War of attrition | Battle strategies

NOT: 11.1.2—Find out how the North and the South prepared for war.

2. ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: 390 OBJ: 11.2.1

TOP: Civil War | Military strategies | Draft

NOT: 11.2.1—Learn how wartime politics affected the Confederate and Union governments.

3. ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 393 OBJ: 11.2.1

TOP: Civil War | Economics | Union strategies

NOT: 11.2.1—Learn how wartime politics affected the Confederate and Union governments.

4. ANS: J DIF: Average REF: 394 OBJ: 11.2.1

TOP: Civil War | Union strategies | Martial law

NOT: 11.2.1—Learn how wartime politics affected the Confederate and Union governments.

5. ANS: I DIF: Average REF: 393 OBJ: 11.2.1

TOP: Civil War opposition

NOT: 11.2.1—Learn how wartime politics affected the Confederate and Union governments.

6. ANS: H DIF: Easy REF: 416 OBJ: 11.4.1

TOP: Civil War | Confederate strategies

NOT: 11.4.1—Determine General Grant’s strategy for defeating the South and how he and General Sherman implemented it.

7. ANS: B DIF: Average REF: 396 OBJ: 11.2.3

TOP: Civil War | Contraband | Slavery

NOT: 11.2.3—Find out the causes and effects of African Americans’ joining the Union army.

8. ANS: G DIF: Easy REF: 414 OBJ: 11.4.2

TOP: Slavery | Thirteenth Amendment NOT: 11.4.2—Outline the issues and results of the election of 1864.

9. ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 383 OBJ: 11.1.2

TOP: Civil War | Confederate strategies | War of attrition

NOT: 11.1.2—Find out how the North and the South prepared for war.

10. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 390 OBJ: 11.2.1

TOP: Civil War | Confederate strategies | Draft

NOT: 11.2.1—Learn how wartime politics affected the Confederate and Union governments.

11. ANS: D DIF: Average REF: 392 OBJ: 11.2.1

TOP: Civil War | Confederate strategies

NOT: 11.2.1—Learn how wartime politics affected the Confederate and Union governments.

12. ANS: G DIF: Easy REF: 408 OBJ: 11.3.3

TOP: Military strategies | Siege

NOT: 11.3.3—Find out why 1863 was a pivotal year in the Civil War.

13. ANS: E DIF: Easy REF: 395 OBJ: 11.2.2

TOP: Emancipation Proclamation | Abraham Lincoln | Slavery

NOT: 11.2.2—Discover how the Emancipation Proclamation affected both the North and the South.

14. ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: 408 OBJ: 11.3.4

TOP: Abraham Lincoln | Gettysburg Address

NOT: 11.3.4—Interpret the message of the Gettysburg Address.

15. ANS: H DIF: Easy REF: 414 OBJ: 11.4.2

TOP: Slavery | Thirteenth Amendment NOT: 11.4.2—Outline the issues and results of the election of 1864.

16. ANS: B DIF: Average REF: 383 OBJ: 11.1.2

TOP: Civil War | Union strategies | Siege

NOT: 11.1.2—Find out how the North and the South prepared for war.

MULTIPLE CHOICE

17. ANS: C DIF: Average REF: 380 OBJ: 11.1.1

TOP: Civil War | Battles | First Battle of Bull Run

NOT: 11.1.1—Understand the significance of the First Battle of Bull Run.

18. ANS: C DIF: Average REF: 382 OBJ: 11.1.2

TOP: Civil War | Union resources

NOT: 11.1.2—Find out how the North and the South prepared for war.

19. ANS: B DIF: Challenging REF: 387 OBJ: 11.1.4

TOP: Abraham Lincoln | Union strategies | Union defeats

NOT: 11.1.4—Discover the outcome of each of the battles in the East in 1862.

20. ANS: C DIF: Challenging REF: 384 OBJ: 11.1.1

TOP: Civil War | Confederate strategies

NOT: 11.1.1—Understand the significance of the First Battle of Bull Run.

21. ANS: D DIF: Challenging REF: 393 OBJ: 11.2.1

TOP: Civil War | Union strategies | Republican Congress

NOT: 11.2.1—Learn how wartime politics affected the Confederate and Union governments.

22. ANS: B DIF: Average REF: 395 OBJ: 11.2.2

TOP: Slavery | Emancipation Proclamation

NOT: 11.2.2—Discover how the Emancipation Proclamation affected both the North and the South.

23. ANS: A DIF: Average REF: 403 OBJ: 11.3.1

TOP: Civil War | Confederate victories | Fredericksburg

NOT: 11.3.1—Identify the importance of Lee’s victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville.

24. ANS: B DIF: Average REF: 408 OBJ: 11.3.2

TOP: Civil War | Union victories

NOT: 11.3.2—Describe how the Battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg turned the tide of the war.

25. ANS: B DIF: Average REF: 408 OBJ: 11.3.4

TOP: Abraham Lincoln | Gettysburg Address

NOT: 11.3.4—Interpret the message of the Gettysburg Address.

26. ANS: B DIF: Average REF: 414 OBJ: 11.4.2

TOP: Election of 1864 | Abraham Lincoln

NOT: 11.4.2—Outline the issues and results of the election of 1864.

27. ANS: D DIF: Average REF: 382 OBJ: 11.1.2

TOP: Confederate resources | Confederate strategies

NOT: 11.1.2—Find out how the North and the South prepared for war.

28. ANS: A DIF: Average REF: 380 OBJ: 11.1.2

TOP: Civil War | First Battle of Bull Run | Battle of Shiloh

NOT: 11.1.2—Find out how the North and the South prepared for war.

29. ANS: C DIF: Challenging REF: 387 OBJ: 11.1.4

TOP: Abraham Lincoln | Union strategies | McClellan

NOT: 11.1.4—Discover the outcome of each of the battles in the East in 1862.

30. ANS: B DIF: Average REF: 392 OBJ: 11.2.1

TOP: Civil War | Confederate strategies

NOT: 11.2.1—Learn how wartime politics affected the Confederate and Union governments.

31. ANS: B DIF: Average REF: 395 OBJ: 11.2.2

TOP: Slavery | Emancipation Proclamation

NOT: 11.2.2—Discover how the Emancipation Proclamation affected both the North and the South.

32. ANS: B DIF: Average REF: 405 OBJ: 11.3.2

TOP: Confederate strategies | Robert E. Lee

NOT: 11.3.2—Describe how the Battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg turned the tide of the war.

33. ANS: C DIF: Average REF: 384 OBJ: 11.1.2

TOP: Confederate losses | Union losses

NOT: 11.1.2—Find out how the North and the South prepared for war.

34. ANS: A DIF: Average REF: 382 OBJ: 11.1.2

TOP: Civil War | Strategy

NOT: 11.1.2—Find out how the North and the South prepared for war.

35. ANS: B DIF: Average REF: 384–386 OBJ: 11.1.3

TOP: Civil War | Western battles NOT: 11.1.3—Learn why the battles in the West were important.

36. ANS: C DIF: Average REF: 386 OBJ: 11.1.3

TOP: Civil War | Battle of Shiloh NOT: 11.1.3—Learn why the battles in the West were important.

37. ANS: D DIF: Average REF: 387 OBJ: 11.1.3

TOP: Civil War | Importance of Mississippi River to Confederacy

NOT: 11.1.3—Learn why the battles in the West were important.

38. ANS: A DIF: Average REF: 387 OBJ: 11.1.4

TOP: Civil War | McClellan

NOT: 11.1.4—Discover the outcome of each of the battles in the East in 1862.

39. ANS: D DIF: Average REF: 389 OBJ: 11.1.4

TOP: Civil War | Antietam | Robert E. Lee

NOT: 11.1.4—Discover the outcome of each of the battles in the East in 1862.

40. ANS: D DIF: Average REF: 390 OBJ: 11.2.1

TOP: Civil War | Southern states’ rights

NOT: 11.2.1—Learn how wartime politics affected the Confederate and Union governments.

41. ANS: C DIF: Average REF: 391 OBJ: 11.2.1

TOP: Civil War | Draft

NOT: 11.2.1—Learn how wartime politics affected the Confederate and Union governments.

42. ANS: B DIF: Average REF: 394 OBJ: 11.2.1

TOP: Lincoln | Preservation of the Union

NOT: 11.2.1—Learn how wartime politics affected the Confederate and Union governments.

43. ANS: A DIF: Average REF: 398 OBJ: 11.2.4

TOP: Civil War | Confederacy’s food shortage

NOT: 11.2.4—List the kinds of hardships that befell the North and the South during the war.

44. ANS: C DIF: Average REF: 396 OBJ: 11.2.3

TOP: Emancipation Proclamation | African Americans in the military

NOT: 11.2.3—Find out the causes and effects of African Americans’ joining the Union army.

45. ANS: C DIF: Average REF: 403 OBJ: 11.3.1

TOP: Civil War | Burnside | Battle of Fredericksburg

NOT: 11.3.1—Identify the importance of Lee’s victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville.

46. ANS: A DIF: Average REF: 403 OBJ: 11.3.1

TOP: Civil War | Battle of Chancellorsville

NOT: 11.3.1—Identify the importance of Lee’s victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville.

47. ANS: D DIF: Average REF: 405 OBJ: 11.3.2

TOP: Civil War | Robert E. Lee | Battle strategies

NOT: 11.3.2—Describe how the Battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg turned the tide of the war.

48. ANS: C DIF: Average REF: 405 OBJ: 11.3.2

TOP: Civil War | Battle of Gettysburg

NOT: 11.3.2—Describe how the Battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg turned the tide of the war.

49. ANS: A DIF: Average REF: 406 OBJ: 11.3.2

TOP: Civil War | Pickett’s Charge

NOT: 11.3.2—Describe how the Battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg turned the tide of the war.

50. ANS: B DIF: Average REF: 407 OBJ: 11.3.2

TOP: Civil War | Vicksburg | Grant | Battle strategies

NOT: 11.3.2—Describe how the Battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg turned the tide of the war.

51. ANS: D DIF: Average REF: 408 OBJ: 11.3.2

TOP: Civil War | Vicksburg | Grant | Battle strategies

NOT: 11.3.2—Describe how the Battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg turned the tide of the war.

52. ANS: B DIF: Average REF: 408 OBJ: 11.3.2 | 11.3.3

TOP: Civil War | Vicksburg | Grant | Port Hudson

NOT: 11.3.2—Describe how the Battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg turned the tide of the war; 11.3.3—Find out why 1863 was a pivotal year in the Civil War.

53. ANS: C DIF: Average REF: 411 OBJ: 11.4.1

TOP: Civil War | Grant | Sherman | Battle strategies

NOT: 11.4.1—Determine General Grant’s strategy for defeating the South and how he and General Sherman implemented it.

54. ANS: B DIF: Average REF: 411 OBJ: 11.4.1

TOP: Civil War | Grant

NOT: 11.4.1—Determine General Grant’s strategy for defeating the South and how he and General Sherman implemented it.

55. ANS: C DIF: Average REF: 414 OBJ: 11.4.2

TOP: Civil War | McClellan NOT: 11.4.2—Outline the issues and results of the election of 1864.

56. ANS: D DIF: Average REF: 414 OBJ: 11.4.2

TOP: Lincoln | Election of 1864 NOT: 11.4.2—Outline the issues and results of the election of 1864.

57. ANS: A DIF: Average REF: 414 OBJ: 11.4.2

TOP: Lincoln | Slavery | Thirteenth Amendment

NOT: 11.4.2—Outline the issues and results of the election of 1864.

58. ANS: D DIF: Average REF: 415 OBJ: 11.4.3

TOP: Civil War | Sherman | South Carolina

NOT: 11.4.3—Explain how the South was finally defeated on the battlefield.

59. ANS: C DIF: Average REF: 416 OBJ: 11.4.3

TOP: Civil War | Lee’s surrender | Richmond

NOT: 11.4.3—Explain how the South was finally defeated on the battlefield.

60. ANS: A DIF: Average REF: 417 OBJ: 11.4.4

TOP: Lincoln’s assassination

NOT: 11.4.4—State how and why John Wilkes Booth assassinated President Lincoln.

ESSAY

61. ANS:

The textile mills of Britain and France relied on southern cotton. Southern leaders assumed that European industrial leaders would pressure their governments into supporting the Confederacy. The assumption was incorrect. The Europeans turned to India and Egypt for cotton.

DIF: Challenging REF: 383–384 OBJ: 11.1.1 TOP: Confederate strategies

NOT: 11.1.1—Understand the significance of the First Battle of Bull Run.

62. ANS:

The North was better prepared for a major war. The North had more miles of railroad track, twice as many factories, a much larger population, a balanced economy, and a functioning government already in place.

DIF: Average REF: 381–384 OBJ: 11.1.1

TOP: Union resources | Union victories | Battle of Bull Run

NOT: 11.1.1—Understand the significance of the First Battle of Bull Run.

63. ANS:

Northern advantages: double the miles of railroad tracks, for shipment of troops and goods; twice as many factories; an economy balanced between farming and industry; more money to spend on war production; a functioning government; an existing army and navy; and a larger population. Southern advantages: more trained military leaders; ability to fight a defensive war; and the emotional advantage of fighting to preserve way of life.

DIF: Average REF: 382–384 OBJ: 11.1.2

TOP: Civil War | Union resources | Confederate resources

NOT: 11.1.2—Find out how the North and the South prepared for war.

64. ANS:

In July 1863, for the first time, a northern victory was in sight. Lee had just lost a third of his army at Gettysburg and was retreating into Virginia. Grant had just captured Vicksburg, giving the Union control of the entire Mississippi River. Freed southern slaves could celebrate Independence Day for the first time.

DIF: Challenging REF: 404–408 OBJ: 11.3.3

TOP: Civil War | Union victories | Emancipation

NOT: 11.3.3—Find out why 1863 was a pivotal year in the Civil War.



OTHER

65. ANS:



Grant’s determination beat Lee’s military strategy


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