8th Grade us history and Government: Growth of Industry

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8th Grade US History and Government: Growth of Industry

Unit Topic and Length:

  • The Growth of Industry

  • 2-3 weeks

Common Core Content Standards:
Reading Standard for Literature: Key Ideas and Details
3 Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision.

4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.

Reading Standard for Informational Text: Craft and Structure

4.Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative
meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.

Reading Standard Information Texts: Key Ideas and Details

1.Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

2.Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text.

7. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., print or digital text, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea.

Writing Standard: Text Types and Purposes

1.Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

3.Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

BigIdeas/Enduring Understandings:

  • Unregulated business can be harmful to society.

  • Laissez-Faire economics, Supply and Demand

  • Monopolies are harmful to the public.

  • Competition is good the consumer but less profitable for the company.

  • Barons of Industry helped shape what America is today.

  • Students may struggle with the economics part of this unit.

Essential Questions:

  • What were the benefits and drawbacks of US growth as an industrial power?


  • Railroad growth 20,000 miles  350,000 miles

  • Railroad Barons: Cornelius Vanderbilt, James J. Hill, Collis P. Huntington.

  • Methods of railroad growth: consolidation, government subsidies, and, selling of homesteads along the railroad line, rebates.

  • InventionsPatents

  • Railroad Inventions:, Air Break, Standard Gage, Couplings, Refrigerator Car, Pullman Luxury Car

  • Communication Changes: Samuel Morse, Telegraph, Cyrus Field, Trans Atlantic telegraph cable, Alexander Graham Bell, Telephone,

  • Inventions in everyday life: Typewriter, Adding Machine, Vacuum Cleaner, Thomas Edison, Light bulb, phonograph, Power plant, George Westinghouse, Louis Latimer, Granville Woods, Elijah McCoy.

  • Henry Ford creates the assembly line and pioneers mass production with interchangeable parts. Mass production of the Model T.

  • Petroleum Oil and its use in America

  • Factors of Production: Land, Labor, Capital.

  • Corporation: shares, stock, shareholders, dividends, capital to invest in business.

  • Andrew Carnegie: Steel Industry

  • John D. Rockefeller: Standard Oil trust.

  • JP Morgan Chase

  • Philanthropy: Carnegie Hall, Rockefeller Center, Vanderbilt University, Huntington Beach.

  • Mergers Sherman Anti-Trust Act.

  • Working Conditions were horrible in the 1900s. Sweatshops are created.

  • Trade Unions are established to improve working conditions. 8hrs for work, 8hrs for rest, 8hrs for what we want.

  • American Federation of Labor

  • Strikes Homestead strikefederal troops break up strike.

  • Government begins to regulate big business with Interstate Commerce Act, Sherman Antitrust Act, and Clayton Antitrust Act.


  • Students will be able to identify the three major railroad barons: Cornelius Vanderbilt, James J. Hill, Collis P. Huntington.

  • Students will be able to define the word patent.

  • Students will be able to justify how technological advancements changed America.

  • Students will be able to showcase how the growth of industry both hurt and helped America.

  • Students will be able to sequence the event leading to the creation of trade unions.

  • Students will understand what Interstate Commerce Act, Sherman Antitrust Act, and Clayton Antitrust Act all regulate.

  • Students will be able to analyze various political cartoons using the 4PS method.

  • Students will compare and contrast trade unions from 19002013

Vocabulary/Key Terms:

  • Consolidation, Vertical Integration, Horizontal Integration, Railroad Baron, Cornelius Vanderbilt, James J. Hill, Collis P. Huntington, Homestead Act, Government Subsidies, Rebates, Henry Ford, Assembly Line, Model T, Mass Production, Interchangeable Parts, Standard Gage, Patents, Samuel Morse, Morse Code, Telegraph, Transatlantic Telegraph, Alexander Graham, Telephone, Thomas Edison, Factors of Production, Corporations, Shares, Stock, Dividends, Capital, JP Morgan, Philanthropy, Mergers, Sherman Anti-Trust Act, Trade Unions, AFL, Strikes, Homestead Strike.

Assessment evidence and activities:

  • Written reflections comparing trade unions today to 1913.

  • Notes

  • Discussion

  • Exit Cards

  • 4ps analysis

  • Student creation of political cartoon

  • HW check

  • Notes and Analysis worksheets

  • Test with former regents questions.

  • Document Based Questions from former regents/teacher created

Initial Assessment : (IF APPLICABLE)

KWL chart

Formative Assessment: (IF APPLICABLE)

  • HW checks

  • Checklist for discussion

  • Summary of topics covered in class

  • Notes and analysis worksheets

  • Written responses based on given prompts.

  • Exit Cards

  • 4PS analysis (people, place, period, purpose, symbols)

  • Student made political cartoon.

Final Performance Task:

45 multiple-choice questions combine with 10 DBQ questions compromised from former regents.

Learning Plan & Activities:

  • What other learning experiences and instruction will enable students to achieve the desired results? We will look at various images depicting society and their inventions. We will use short videos discussing the growth of industry in America. We will analyze charts and graphs that highlight railroad growth, business growth, and labor statistics. We will read an excerpt from Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle to showcase the working conditions of factories. We will analyze photos by Lewis Hine, which depicts the horrors of child labor. Students will analyze various political cartoons, which showcase the Barons of Industry in a negative light.

  • Is there enough information provided to direct educators in developing lesson plans building towards the assessments? Yes the content provides an overview of the topics to be covered and can easily be assigned towards assessments.

  • Are there adequate descriptions of learning activities that could be used for teaching? Yes the presentation that accompanies this unit plan provides detailed information for teaching.

  • Is there guidance for teachers on how to sequence lessons and formative assessments leading to the final performance task? Yes the content is listed in the order it is to be sequenced.

  • Through what other evidence (e.g. quizzes, tests, academic prompts, observations, homework, journals) will students demonstrate achievement of the desired results? All evidence has been listed previously.

  • How will students reflect upon and self-assess their learning? What should they eventually be able to do as a result of such knowledge and skill? Students should be able to both make a relevant political cartoon about The Growth of Industry using the 4PS method and they should be able to score at least an 80 on the test given. Students should also be able to answer the essential questions. What were the drawbacks and benefits of US growth as an Industrial Power? During the unit we will use worksheets with guided notes, these notes require students to read and then analyze what they have read.

Possible Challenges:

  1. Students struggle with explaining and recalling content vocabulary.

  2. Students find it difficult to create their own notes and analysis.

Additional Support Strategies: For students who struggle with vocabulary I will create a group activity where students use the words in present day sentences. Next I will ask the students to turn their sentences into visual aids by drawing the scene they created. I plan to use pictures and videos to help aid students who struggle with creating self-made notes. I stress the importance of asking yourself the 5 Ws. (Who, What, Where, When, and Why) My daily checklist will allow me to assess my students who need help on a daily basis.

Resources: Resources:

  • Images of inventions/key figures

  • Brainpop.com

  • Video from history channel on Big Business

  • Current event article on unions

  • Political Cartoons

  • Guided Notes

  • Cause and effect graphic organizer

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