852 The year when the timeline of the Primary Chronicle starts



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Chernobyl atomic power plant exploded.

  • Sep 29, The Soviet Union released Nicholas Daniloff, an American journalist confined in Moscow on spying charges.

  • Oct 3, Soviet nuclear submarine K-219 suffered an explosion and fire in a missile tube northeast of Bermuda; the vessel sank three days later.

  • Oct 11, Reagan and Gorbachev opened two days of talks concerning arms control and human rights in Reykjavik, Iceland.

  • Oct 12, Reykjavik, Iceland, ended in stalemate, with Reagan and Gorbachev unable to agree on arms control

  • Dec 12, Russian Tupolev-134 crashed in East Berlin and 70 of 82 people were killed.

  • Dec 19, Andrei Sakharov from internal exile, and pardoned his wife, Yelena Bonner.

  • Soviets built a half-mile concrete span, the Friendship Bridge, connecting Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.

    1987 Feb 26, USSR resumed nuclear testing at Semipalitinsk in Eastern Kazakhstan.

    • Apr 14, Sec State George P. Shultz met with Gorbachev, who proposed the elimination of short-range nuclear missiles

    • Apr 20,US deported Karl Linnas to the Soviet Union, where he had been convicted in absentia of Nazi war crimes and faced a death sentence.

    • May 28, Mathias Rust, a 19-year-old West German pilot, landed a private plane in Moscow's Red Square after evading Soviet air defenses.

    • May 30, Soviet Defense Minister Sokolov and chief of Soviet air defenses were fired,

    • Jun 12, Reagan, at Brandenburg Gate: "Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall."

    • Jul 12, For the first time in 20 years, a delegation of Soviet diplomats arrived in Israel for what was described as a "technical mission" to.

    • Sep 2, West German pilot Mathias Rust, went on trial who was convicted and given a four-year sentence, was released Aug. 3, 1988.

    • Sep 13, Shevardnadze arrived in Washington for talks aimed at a possible superpower summit

    • Sep 18, Reagan announced that he and Gorbachev would meet later in year to sign a treaty banning medium and shorter-range nuclear missiles.

    • Nov 11, Yeltsin, was dismissed as Moscow Communist Party chief for criticizing the slow pace of reform.

    • Nov 24, US and tSoviet Union agreed to scrap shorter- and medium-range missiles

    • Dec 8, Reagan and Gorbachev signed a treaty agreed to destroy their arsenals of intermediate-range nuclear missiles.

    1988 Feb 18, Soviet Communist Party leaders dropped former Moscow party chief Yeltsin from the ruling Politburo.

    • April 14 Soviet war in Afghanistan: Soviet government signed Geneva Accords, which included a timetable for withdrawing their armed forces.

    • Apr 22, Sec Shultz, visiting Soviet Union, met with Gorbachev

    • April 27 A strike at the V.I. Lenin Steel Mill in Nowa Huta touched off months of striking across Poland.

    • April 13 Singing Revolution: The Popular Front of Estonia was founded.

    • May 12, Shultz and Shevardnadze, meeting in Geneva, resolved nearly all remaining questions on an intermediate-range missile treaty.

    • May 18, A cheering crowd in the Soviet town of Termez greeted the first Soviet soldiers as they withdrew from Afghanistan.

    • May 29, President Reagan began his first visit to the Soviet Union as he arrived in Moscow for a superpower summit with Gorbachev.

    • Jun 1, Reagan and Gorbachev concluded their Moscow summit

    • June 3 Singing Revolution: The liberalization movement Sąjūdis was founded in Lithuania.

    • Jul 1, A four-day national conference of Communist Party members ended in Moscow, with Gorbachev winning approval for sweeping changes.

    • Sep 23, Shevardnadze concluded two days of talks in Washington with Secretary of State George P. Shultz

    • Sep 30, Gorbachev retired President Andrei A. Gromyko from the Politburo and fired other old-guard leaders in a Kremlin shake-up.

    • Oct 1, In a continuing shake-up of Soviet leadership, Gorbachev was confirmed as president, succeeding Andrei A. Gromyko.

    • Oct 9 Singing Revolution: The Popular Front of Latvia was founded.

    • Dec 1, Gorbachev won nearly unanimous approval for a more dynamic political structure from Supreme Soviet, which voted itself out of existence in favor of a new Congress of People's Deputies.

    • Dec 2, The 5 gunmen, who hijacked Soviet Aeroflot jet, surrendered in Israel.

    • Dec 6, Gorbachev arrived for his second U.S. visit to address the United Nations and meet with President Reagan and President-elect Bush.

    • Dec 10, Gorbachev visited the republic of Armenia, the scene of a devastating earthquake that had killed an estimated 25,000 people.

    1989 Feb 15 Soviet war in Afghanistan: The last Soviet troops left the country.

    • Mar 27, Yeltsin and other anti-establishment candidates claimed victory in parliamentary elections for the new Congress of People's Deputies.

    • Apr 2, Gorbachev began a visit to Cuba

    • April 4 The Polish Round Table Agreement legalized independent trade unions and reinstated the Senate.

    • Apr 6, Soviet leader Gorbachev met with British PM Margaret Thatcher in London,

    • May 15, Gorbachev arrived in Beijing for first Sino-Soviet summit in 30 years, overshadowed by pro-democracy demonstrations.

    • June 4 Free elections were held to the Polish parliament, resulting in a landslide Solidarity victory.

    • Aug 23 Singing Revolution: Two million people joined hands to form Baltic Way across Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania to demonstrate.

    • Sep 20, Gorbachev pulled off a major shake-up of the Soviet Communist Party, dropping three Politburo members.

    • Oct 23 The Hungarian parliament declared their country a republic.

    • Oct 25, Soviet leader Gorbachev began a three-day visit to Finland.

    • Nov 9 The East German government loosened restrictions on travel into the West, effecting the end of the Berlin Wall.

    • Nov 11 El Salvador Civil War: The FMLN launched an offensive which would capture part of San Salvador.

    • Nov 17 Velvet Revolution: An anti-Communist protest in Czechoslovakia was ended violently by the police.

    • Nov 28 Velvet Revolution: The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia announced the end of its monopoly on political power.

    • Dec 1, Gorbachev met with Pope John Paul II at the Vatican.

    • Dec 3, In Malta Presidents George Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev announce the official end to the Cold War.

    • Dec 7 Singing Revolution: The Lithuanian parliament ended the political monopoly of the Communist Party of Lithuania.

    • Dec 16 Romanian Revolution of 1989: A protest in Timişoara in response to eviction of dissident Hungarian Reformed pastor, László Tőkés.

    • Dec 25 Romanian Revolution of 1989: Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceauşescu was captured in the countryside and executed.

    1990 Jan 11, Gorbachev visited Lithuania

    • Jan 15, Gorbachev and Soviet Presidium declared a state of emergency in parts of Azerbaijan and Armenia

    • Jan 16, The Soviet Union sent more than 11,000 reinforcements to the Caucasus to halt a civil war between Armenians and Azerbaijanis.

    • Jan 20, The Soviets attacked Baku, leaving dozens dead and wounded.

    • Jan 31, McDonald's Corp. opened its first fast-food restaurant in Moscow.

    • Feb 4, Cheering protesters thronged Moscow streets to demand that the Communists surrender their stranglehold on power.

    • Feb 5, Gorbachev told the Communist Party it had to earn the right to rule, instead of treating it as an unchallenged right.

    • Feb 7, Communist Party agreed to let other political parties compete for control of the country, thereby giving up its monopoly on power.

    • Feb 23 Singing Revolution: Elections in Lithuania gave Sąjūdis an absolute majority in the legislature.

    • March 11 Singing Revolution: The Lithuanian government declared its independence from the Soviet Union.

    • Mar 14, Soviet Congress elected Gorbachev president of the Soviet Congress, a day after creating the post.

    • March 18 Singing Revolution: Elections to the Latvian Supreme Soviet gave the majority of seats to a pro-independence coalition,

    • Apr 1, More Soviet military vehicles rolled through Vilnius,

    • April 8 The Hungarian Socialist Party received only 8% of the seats in elections to parliament.

    • Apr 18, Soviet Union shut off a pipeline that supplied Lithuania with crude oil; a day later, the Soviets severely reduced the flow of natural gas.

    • May 1, Gorbachev and other Kremlin leaders were jeered by thousands of people during the annual May Day parade in Red Square.

    • May 14, In separate decrees, Gorbachev declared Estonia and Latvia had no legal basis for moving toward independence.

    • May 17, Gorbachev met in Moscow with Lithuanian Prime Minister Kazimiera Prunskiene,

    • May 29, Yeltsin was elected president of Russian republic

    • June 9 Velvet Revolution: Elections in Czechoslovakia reduced the Communist Party to a minority.

    • Jun 12, Gorbachev eased his objection to a reunified Germany holding membership in NATO.

    • Jun 12, Yeltsin led a vote at the Congress of Peoples Deputies on a "declaration of Sovereignty for Russia."

    • Jun 20, The Communist Initiative created its neoconservative Russian Communist Party.

    • Jul 2, The 28th Communist Party congress opened with an address by Gorbachev, who conceded mistakes while defending perestroika.

    • Jul 10, Gorbachev handily won re-election as leader of the Soviet Communist Party.

    • Jul 11, Leaders of "Group of Seven" nations encouraging Gorbachev to enact reforms in return for Western aid.

    • Jul 12, Yeltsin resigning his party membership.

    • Jul 15, Gorbachev and visiting West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl held talks on the issue of a united Germany’s membership in NATO.

    • Jul 15, Tens of thousands of people marched in Moscow to protest Communist Party’s control of government, army and KGB.

    • Jul 27, White Russia declared independence.

    • Sep 24, The Supreme Soviet voted to give preliminary approval to a plan for switching the Soviet Union to a free-market economy.

    • Sep 24, East Germany signed a treaty with the Soviet Union ending its membership in the Warsaw Pact.

    • Oct 13, The 1st Russian Orthodox service in 70 yrs was held in St. Basil's Cathedral.

    • Oct 16, Gorbachev submitted to the Soviet legislature a scaled-back plan to transform the Soviet economy to a free-market system.

    • Oct 19, The Supreme Soviet voted to approve President Gorbachev’s economic reform plan.

    • Nov 9, Gorbachev signed non-aggression treaty with Germany

    • Nov 19, Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) was signed in Paris.

    • Nov 20, Soviet Union again rebuffed Pres Bush’s efforts to rally support for a UN resolution authorizing military force against Iraq.

    • Dec 10, A stand-in for Mikhail Gorbachev accepted the Nobel Peace Prize.

    • Dec 20, Shevardnadze shocked Soviet lawmakers by announcing his resignation, warning that "dictatorship is coming."

    • Dec 25, Gorbachev won sweeping new powers from the Congress of People’s Deputies.

    1991 Jan 11 Jan Events: Soviet troops violently seized important buildings in cities throughout Lithuania.

    • Jan 13, Soviet troops besieged the Vilnius TV tower and crushed a woman under a tank, but failed to quash the drive for independence. T

    • Mar 3, Latvia and Estonia voted to become independent of the USSR.

    • Mar 10, Hundreds of thousands of people demonstrated in Moscow, demanding that President Gorbachev resign.

    • Mar 28, Tens of thousands of supporters of Yeltsin marched in Moscow in defiance of Gorbachev’s ban on rallies.

    • Apr 1, The Warsaw Pact was officially dissolved.

    • Apr 9, Georgia SSR declared independence from the USSR.

    • Apr 16, Gorbachev began a visit to Japan.

    • Apr 18, Gorbachev ended a summit in Japan without winning the major aid package he’d been hoping for.

    • Apr 19, Gorbachev arrived in South Korea for talks with President Roh Tae-woo.

    • Apr 23, Gorbachev signed the so-called '9+1' agreement on a new Union Treaty.

    • May 10, Alexander Bessmertnykh became the first Soviet foreign minister to visit Israel

    • May, Victory Day parade, celebrating the WW II Soviet victory, was suspended with the collapse of the Soviet Union.

    • May 23 The Moldavian SSR became the Republic of Moldova.

    • Jun 5, Gorbachev delivered his delayed Nobel Peace lecture in Oslo, Norway,

    • June 12 Russian presidential election, 1991: Boris Yeltsin was elected to the presidency of the Russian SFSR.

    • Jun 20, Boris Yeltsin, the newly elected president of the Russian republic, was welcomed to the White House by President Bush.

    • Jul 31, President Bush and khail S. Gorbachev signed START I, the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty in Moscow.

    • Aug 19 Soviet coup attempt of 1991: State Emergency Committee announced Yanayev was to replace Gorbachev as President of Soviet Union.

    • Aug 20, More than 100,000 people rallied outside the Russian Parliament building as protests against the Soviet coup increased.

    • Aug 20 Singing Revolution: The Estonian government declared its independence.

    • Aug 21, The hard-line coup against Gorbachev collapsed in the face of a popular uprising led by Russian federation President Yeltsin.

    • Aug 21 Singing Revolution: The government of Latvia declared its independence.

    • Aug 22, Gorbachev returned to Moscow following the collapse of the hard-liners' coup.

    • Soviet coup attempt of 1991: The military refused State Emergency Committee orders to take the capital. leaders of the coup were arrested.

    • Aug 24, Gorbachev resigned as head of Communist Party, culminating a stunning Kremlin shakeup that followed the failed coup by hard-liners.

    • Aug 24, Ukraine declared independence from USSR.

    • Aug 24 The Ukrainian parliament adopted the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine.

    • Aug 25, White-Russia (Belarus) declared it's independence.

    • Aug 26, Gorbachev promised national elections in a last-ditch effort to preserve his government,

    • Aug 27, Moldova (Moldavia) declared independence from USSR.

    • Aug 27 Moldova declared independence.

    • Aug 28, Gorbachev ordered a shake-up of the KGB and sacked his cabinet in the wake of the failed coup by hard-liners.

    • Aug 30 The Kyrgyz SSR became the Republic of Kyrgyzstan.

    • Aug 31 The Republic of Kyrgyzstan declared independence.

    • Aug 31, Uzbekistan and Kirghizia declared their independence, raising to 10 the number of republics seeking to secede from the Soviet Union.

    • Sep 5, In Moscow, Soviet lawmakers approved the creation of an interim government to usher in a new confederation.

    • Sep 6 Singing Revolution: The Soviet Union recognized the independence of the Baltic states.

    • Militants belonging to the separatist stormed Supreme Soviet of Chechen-Ingush ASSR.

    • Sep 11, Gorbachev announced the Kremlin would withdraw thousands of troops from Cuba,

    • Sep 28, Gorbachev praised President Bush's pledge to drastically reduce the U.S. nuclear arsenal, and promised to "reciprocate."

    • Oct 5, Gorbachev announced sweeping cuts in nuclear weapons in response to President Bush's arms reduction initiative.

    • Nov 2, Chechnya proclaimed independence following the collapse of the Soviet Union.

    • Nov 6, Yeltsin outlawed Communist Party.

    • Nov 7, Pro- and anti-Communist rallies took place in Moscow on the 74th anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution.

    • Dec 8 The leaders of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine signed Belavezha Accords. Commonwealth of Independent States.

    • Dec 13, Five Central Asian republics of Soviet Union agreed to join new Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

    • Dec 17, Boris Yeltsin and Gorbachev agreed to dissolve the Soviet Union by the new year.

    • Dec 21, 11 of the 12 former Soviet republics proclaimed the birth of the Commonwealth of Independent States.

    • Dec 23, Bush spoke with Yeltsin, after which an official said US would extend diplomatic recognition to Russian republic.

    • Dec 24, A day before resigning, Gorbachev briefed Yeltsin on nuclear weapons-firing procedures.

    • Dec 25, Gorbachev went on television to announce his resignation

    • Dec 25 Renaming RSFSR to Russian Federation (Russia).

    • Dec 26 The Soviet Union was officially self-dissolved. De jure Russian independence from self-dissolved USSR

    • Dec 26, The Republic of Tatarstan declared entry into the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).

    • Dec 28, Boris Yeltsin ordered state land privatized as he pushed ahead with his reforms.

    • Dec, remains of Czar Nicholas II, his wife Empress Alexandra, and their five children, were exhumed from a mine shaft in Yekaterinburg.

    1992 Jan 2, Russian shoppers experienced their first day of "sticker shock" after President Boris Yeltsin lifted price controls to stimulate production.

    • Jan 29, Yeltsin aid his republic's weapons would no longer be aimed at any U.S. targets.

    • Jan 29, A multinational Middle East peace conference ended in Moscow with participants sounding upbeat.

    • Feb 1, President George H.W. Bush and Yeltsin met at Camp David.

    • Feb 7, President Yeltsin and French President Francois Mitterrand signed a cooperation treaty in Paris.

    • Feb 23, In Moscow, thousands of pro-Communist demonstrators, some shouting, "Down with the Russian government!," clashed with police.

    • Mar 14, Soviet newspaper "Pravda" suspended publication.

    • Apr 1, President Bush pledged US would help finance a $24 billion international aid fund for the former Soviet Union.

    • Apr 15, Russia's deeply divided Congress of People's Deputies endorsed President Boris Yeltsin's economic reforms.

    • Apr 26, Worshippers celebrated the first Russian Orthodox Easter in Moscow in 74 years.

    • Jun 1, Russia was granted full membership to the IMF.

    • Jun 21, Boris Yeltsin returned home from his North America tour.

    • Jul 8, Boris Yeltsin met with Group of Seven leaders holding their economic summit in Munich,

    • Jul, Russia brokered a cease fire between South Ossetia and Georgia.

    • Oct 14, Russia's worst serial killer, Andrei Chikatilo, was convicted of mutilating and killing 52 women and children.

    • Dec 1, President Boris Yeltsin survived an impeachment attempt by hard-liners at the opening of the Russian Congress.

    • Dec 14, Pres. Yeltsin dismissed prime minister Yegor Gaidar after 7 months.

    • Dec 29, US and Russia announced agreement on a nuclear arms reduction treaty.

    • Dec 30, President Bush heading to a Black Sea summit with Yeltsin, with a stopover in Somalia to visit U.S. troops

    • The tax police force was established to fight tax crime.

    • Russian intelligence archivist Vasili Mitrokhin defected to British intelligence. He brought along 6 trunkfuls of KGB files.

    • A bloody conflict took place between Ingushetia and North Ossetia that left hundreds dead and forced 30,000 Ingush to flee their homes.

    1993 Jan 3, The START II Treaty was signed between the US and Russia by President Bush and Boris Yeltsin.

    • Feb, Communists of all stripes gathered and created the Communist Party of the Russian Federation,

    • Mar 13, The Russian Congress adjourned after a session that seriously weakened President Boris Yeltsin's power.

    • Mar 20, Boris Yeltsin declared emergency rule,

    • Apr 4, President Clinton and Boris Yeltsin wrapped up their two-day summit in Vancouver, B.C. Clinton extended $1.6 billion in aid

    • Apr 15, The Group of Seven nations unveiled a $28.4 billion aid package for Russia

    • Apr 25, Voters in Russia participated in a referendum, giving President Yeltsin a sturdy vote of confidence.

    • May 1, Violence erupted during a May Day protest in Moscow.

    • Jul 24, The Russian government announced it would invalidate billions of pre-1993 rubles.

    • 1993 Sep 21 Russian constitutional crisis of 1993: Yeltsin announced the dissolution of the Russian legislature.

    • The legislature, in turn, responded by impeaching Yeltsin and declaring Aleksandr Rutskoy the new President of the Russian Federation.

    • Sep 22, Yeltsin disbanded the Supreme Soviet.

    • Oct 2, Hundreds of opponents of Boris Yeltsin battled police in Moscow and set up burning barricades

    • Oct 3, Boris Yeltsin declared a state of emergency in Moscow,

    • Oct 4, The Russian White House was shelled.

    • Oct 4 Russian constitutional crisis of 1993: The army occupied the parliament building and arrested a number of its leaders.

    • Nov 8, Yeltsin approved a draft constitution that would strengthen executive power; it was ratified in a referendum the following month.

    • Dec 12 Russian constitutional crisis of 1993: new 5th Russian constitution was approved by referendum, vastly increasing power of presidency.

    • Dec 25 5th Constitution of Russia was published and entered into force.

    1994 Jan 13, Clinton held talks in Moscow with Russian Boris Yeltsin.

    • Feb 23, Russia's new parliament took a swipe at Boris Yeltsin by granting amnesty to leaders of the 1991 Soviet coup

    • Mar, Sergei Stepashin was appointed as head of the new KGB. He later played a central role in sending troops into Chechnya.

    • Jul 10, IYeltsin joined leaders of the Group of Seven nations for political talks following their annual economic summit in Naples, Italy.

    • 1994 Aug 2 First Chechen War: Leader of Russian-backed Provisional Council of Chechen announced his intention to overthrow Dudaev gov

    • Sep 3, China and Russia proclaimed an end to any lingering hostilities, pledging they would no longer target nuclear missiles

    • Nov 26, A major offensive by the Russian-backed opposition failed to wrest Grozny, the capital of Chechnya from its government.

    • Dec 11 First Chechen War: Russian troops invaded Chechnya.

    • Dec 31, Russian ground forces launched a ferocious assault on the Chechen capital of Grozny.

    • Gazprom, a natural gas monopoly, was privatized on terms highly favorable to company insiders.

    1995 Jan 8, Russian forces in Chechnya pounded capital of Grozny with rocket and mortar fire

    • Jan 10, Russia announced a 48-hour truce in breakaway Chechnya, but the cease-fire fell apart after a few hours.

    • Jan 14, Russian troops in Chechnya captured Council of Ministers building, a key rebel position in the capital Grozny.

    • Jan 19, Russian troops regained control of the presidential palace in Grozny.

    • May 9, Clinton arrived in Moscow for a summit with Russian Boris Yeltsin.

    • Jun 14, Shamil Basayev, Chechen commander, led a hostage raid on the a Russian hospital in Budyonnovsk [Budennovsk].

    • Jun 30, Yeltsin fired three top security ministers for the botched handling of Chechen rebels in southern Russia.

    • Jul 30, Russia and Chechen rebels signed an agreement calling for a gradual withdrawal of Russian troops and the disarmament of rebel fighters.

    • Oct 14, An armed gunman seized a bus carrying South Korean tourists in Moscow’s Red Square.

    • Nov, Boris Yeltsin laid sick after suffering his second heart attack in four months.

    • Nov, A container of radioactive cesium was found buried in Izmailovo Park in Moscow following a tip by Shamil Basayev, a Chechen rebel.

    • Dec 14, Heavy fighting erupts in Gudermes, Chechnya, when rebels disrupted Kremlin-imposed elections.

    • Dec 17, Communists and right-wing nationalists scored big wins in parliamentary elections on a platform of rolling back democratic reforms.

    • Dec 31, Russian ground forces launched a ferocious assault on Grozny.

    1996 Jan 10, convoy of Chechen rebels and 160 hostages surrounded them in village of Pervomayskaya.

    • Jan 10, Chechen rebels seized as many as 3,000 hostages in the Russian Republic of Dagestan.

    • Jan 16, Chechens hijacked a ferry with 165 passengers and crew from the Turkish port of Trabzon bound for the Russian city of Sochi.

    • Feb 22, Russia and the head of the IMF reached a deal for a loan of more than ten billion dollars to back up free-market reforms.

    • Feb, Anatoly Chubais attended the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.

    • Mar 15, The Duma voted overwhelmingly for a Communist resolution calling the 1991 Soviet breakup illegal.

    • Mar 31 Yeltsin announced halt to combat operations in Chechnya, limited troop withdrawals and willingness to hold indirect talks.

    • Apr 25, Top Chechen officials confirmed that their leader, Dzhokar Dudayev, was killed in a Russian air strike.

    • Apr 26, Shanghai Five grouping was created with the signing of the Treaty on Deepening Military Trust in Border Regions in Shanghai.

    • Apr, Russia’s richest men gathered in Moscow and drafted a letter asking Yeltsin and Zyuganov to reach a compromise.

    • May 27, Chechen leader and Yeltsin agreed to a peace accord and prime minister Victor Chernomyrdin signed agreement with Yanderbiyev.

    • May, Communist leader Zyuganov wanted Russia’s president to stop being czar and its mayors to stop being little czars. "

    • July 3 Russian presidential election, 1996: Yeltsin narrowly defeated his Communist challenger, Gennady Zyuganov.

    • Jun 3, Yeltsin signed a decree recently calling for an end to the draft by the year 2000 and an all-volunteer professional army.

    • Jun 9, A rebel spokesman said that the two sides have agreed on the withdrawal of Russian troops from Chechnya by the end of August.

    • Jun 11, A bomb ripped through a Moscow subway and killed 12 people.

    • Jun 13, Viktor Mosalov, mayor of Zhukovsky, was found shot to death.

    • Jun 18, Boris Yeltsin named Gen’l. Alexander Lebed to head the Security Council.

    • Jun 25, Yeltsin fired 7 top generals and ordered a pullout from Chechnya.

    • Jul 3, Russians went to the polls to re-elect Boris Yeltsin president over his Communist challenger, Gennady Zyuganov.

    • Aug 30 First Chechen War: The Khasav-Yurt Accord was signed, signaling the end of the war.

    • Nov 5, Pres. Boris Yeltsin had successful heart bypass surgery. Five clogged arteries were circumvented.

    1997 Mar 11, Pres. Yeltsin reorganized the government and only kept Prime Minister Chernomyrdin and top economic deputy Chubais.

    • Mar 21, Clinton and Russian Boris Yeltsin wrapped up their summit in Helsinki, Finland, still deadlocked over NATO expansion, but able to agree on slashing nuclear weapons arsenals.

    • Apr 1, In Russia Yeltsin signed an agreement with Belarus for limited economic, military and political integration.

    • Apr 1, A bomb in Moscow destroyed the statue of Nicholas II, the city’s only monument to the last czar of Russia.

    • May 27, In Paris, Yeltsin joined 16 NATO leaders, including Clinton, to sign a historic agreement giving Moscow a voice in NATO affairs.

    • Sep 26, US and Russia signed a package of arms control agreements that extended parts of START II to 2007.

    1998 Jan 1, The government knocked 3 zeroes off national currency. The old ruble notes will be exchangeable until 2002.

    • Mar 23, Pres. Yeltsin fired prime minister Chernomyrdin and his entire cabinet.

    • Apr 9, Some 1 million workers across Russia protested against government and called for the resignation of Yeltsin.

    • Apr 19, In Japan Pres. Yeltsin held a summit with Prime Minister Ryutaro Hasimoto at the Kawana resort.

    • Jun 1, In Russia the stock market tumbled 10% in panic selling.

    • Jun 10, The Russian market fell for a 5th straight day

    • Jul 1, The Russian market reached its lowest level in 25 months.

    • Jul 13, The IMF announced a $17.1 billion rescue package for Russia.

    • Jul 17, Nicholas II, Czar of Russia, was buried in St. Petersburg.

    • Aug 17, Russia devalued its ruble and allowed the ruble's value to drop by up to 34 percent.

    • Aug 23, Pres. Yeltsin dismissed the Russian government.

    • Aug 25, Russian ruble fell 9% and the government introduced a plan to stretch out its debts.

    • Aug 26, The Russian ruble fell another 5% as government attempts to support it failed.

    • Sep 1, In Russia the Duma rejected the nomination by pres. Yeltsin for Viktor Chernomyrdin as premier.

    • Sep 2, Pres. Clinton met with Pres. Yeltsin and held a news conference.

    • Sep 16, The ruble fell to 14-16 to the dollar in street trading.

    • Sep 21, The central bank began issuing 900 million new rubles valued at $55 million.

    • Sep 28, Russia’s Justice Ministry announced that it would release 115,000 prisoners to ease over-crowding in its cash-strapped jails.

    • Oct 7, The anti-Yeltsin protests turned out only some 600,000 people.

    • Nov 20, Galina Starovoitova, a member of the State Duma, was shot to death in St. Petersburg.

    1999 Mar 26, UN Security Council defeated a Russian resolution demanding an immediate end to NATO attacks on Yugoslavia.

    • May 6, Russia joined NATO to back a framework for ending the conflict in Kosovo

    • May 15, The Communist-led drive to impeach Pres. Yeltsin failed

    • May 22, The new All Russia Party was formed in St. Petersburg

    • Jun 3, Pres. Yeltsin commuted all the remaining death sentences

    • Jun 12, NATO troops began entering Kosovo.

    • Jun 18, In Chechnya the worst fighting in months broke out as Chechen fighters attacked Russian border posts in Dagestan.

    • Jun 19, The G7 nations pledged billions in aid to help Russia.

    • Jun 20, Clinton met with Yeltsin in Germany and they agreed to rekindle efforts to reduce their nuclear arsenals.

    • Jul 5, Russian troops attacked some 150 militants in Chechnya and a number of people were killed.

    Aug 7, In Russia Islamic fighters based in Chechnya seized at least 2 village in Dagestan.

    • Aug 7 Dagestan War: A Chechnya-based militia invaded Russian republic of Dagestan in support of local separatists.

    • Aug 14, Russia bombed guerrilla bases in Dagestan and Chechnya as 4 Russian soldiers were killed and 13 wounded.

    • Aug 16 The State Duma confirmed the appointment of Vladimir Putin as Prime Minister of Russia.

    • Aug 23 Dagestan War: The militias began their retreat back into Chechnya.

    • Aug 24, In Dagestan rebels forces pulled back and Russian forces took control of 5 villages that had been seized 3 weeks earlier.

    • Aug 26 Second Chechen War: The militia that had invaded Dagestan was bombed inside Chechnya.

    Sep 4 Russian apartment bombings: A car bomb outside of an apartment building in Buynaksk killed sixty-four people.

    • Sep 5, In Dagestan several thousand rebels began a 2nd siege from Chechnya.

    • Sep 6, Dagestan Russian forces used artillery and air power against rebel guerrillas

    • Sep 9, An explosion shattered a 9-story apartment building in Moscow and at least 14 people were killed.

    • Sep 12, In Dagestan Russian troops seized control of the villages of Karamakhi and Chabanmakhi.

    • Sep 13, In Moscow a suspected bomb blast destroyed an apartment building and at least 28 people were killed.

    • Sep 15, In southern Russia a truck exploded next to a 9-story apartment building in the Rostov region and at least 11 people were killed.

    • Sep 18, Russian forces attacked rebel targets in Chechnya to prevent guerrilla raids in Dagestan.

    • Sep 27, In Chechnya Russian jets dropped bombs for a 5th day and thousands of civilians fled to towns and villages in the region.

    • Sep 30, Russian troops began a ground offensive into Chechnya aimed at creating a buffer zone to block the infiltration of Chechen guerrillas.

    • Sep, "Operation Whirlwind" 11,000 bombing suspects were arrested, most because they had dark skin and might come from the Caucasus.

    • Sep, Tamerlan Khasaev and fellow Chechens under orders killed 6 Russian conscripts who had surrendered. The killings were videotaped.

    Oct 2 Second Chechen War: Russian ground troops invaded Chechnya.

    • Oct 5, In Chechnya Russian troops seized the northern third of the country.

    • Oct 6, The Chechen president called for a holy war against Russia.

    • Oct 14, In Chechnya the Russians pressed an offensive below the Terek River as the Chechens rallied in Grozny.

    • Oct 21, In Chechnya Russian rockets hit and market and 2 other sites in Grozny and as many as 140 people were killed.

    • Oct 24, In Chechnya Russian artillery and jet bombers killed at least 27 people during a dawn attack at Serzhen-Yurt.

    • Oct 27, In Chechnya Russian warplanes and artillery closed in on Grozny.

    • Oct 29, In Chechnya Russian warplanes and artillery launched fierce strikes and 25 refugees were killed while trying to flee the assaults.

    • Nov 4, Russia allowed thousands of refugees to flee Chechnya and the crossing at the Sleptsovskaya border reached 500 people per hour.

    • Nov 7, In Chechnya Russian soldiers dislodged rebels in Bamut.

    • Nov 12, In Chechnya Russian forces took control of Gudermes and proposed to move the capital there from Grozny.

    • Nov 21, In Chechnya some 5,000 rebels barricaded themselves in Grozny in preparation for a Russian offensive.

    • Nov 25, In Chechnya Russian forces fired hundreds of rockets into Grozny in its fiercest assault in the 3-month offensive.

    Dec 4, In Chechnya Russian troops pillaged the Alkhan-Yurt village 10 miles southwest of Grozny and killed 17 civilians.

    • Dec 8 The treaty of creation of the Union of Russia and Belarus was signed.

    • Dec 8, In Chechnya Russian forces ousted rebels from Urus-Martan.

    • Dec 10, In China Yeltsin of Russia and Pres. Jiang Zemin ended a 2-day summit and swapped pledges of support for Chechnya and Taiwan.

    • Dec 11, In Chechnya Russian forces halted attacks on Grozny to give an estimated 10-40,000 civilians a chance to leave.

    • Dec 15, In Chechnya at least 115 Russian soldiers were killed by rocket propelled grenades fired by Chechen guerrillas in Grozny.

    • Dec 25, Russian forces launched an attack on Grozny led by 700 pro-Moscow Chechen volunteers.

    • Dec 31 Boris Yeltsin abdicated as President of the Russian Federation. Prime minister Vladimir
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