852 The year when the timeline of the Primary Chronicle starts



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Sputnik (traveler),

  • Oct 26, Marshal Georgi Zhukov,relieved of his duties as Minister of Defense.

  • Nov 3, Soviet Union launched into orbit Sputnik Two,

  • Nov 15, Khrushchev asserted Soviet superiority in missiles, challenging the U.S. to a rocket-range shooting match.

  • Dmitri Shostakovich composed his 11th Symphony: "The Year 1905," a reflection on the brutality leading to the 1905 revolution.

  • Khrushchev allowed the Chechens back to the Caucasus and the Checheno-Ingush republic was set up.

    1958 Jan 6, Moscow announced a reduction in its armed forces by 300,000.

    • Jan 21, The Soviet Union called for a ban on nuclear arms in Baghdad Pact countries.

    • March 27 Khrushchev replaced Bulganin as Premier of the Soviet Union.

    • Mar 31, Moscow declared a halt on all atomic tests and asked other nations to follow.

    • Apr 14, Sputnik 2 (with dog Laika) burned up in the atmosphere.

    • May 1, Russia’s new steel mill at Cherepovets produced its 1st ingot.

    • May 15, Sputnik III, the first space laboratory, was launched in the Soviet Union.

    • Jun 16, Imre Nagy former Hungarian premier hanged.

    • Jul, Soviet fighter planes shot down an RB-50G US reconnaissance plane over the east coast of the USSR.

    • Aug 27, USSR launched Sputnik 3 with 2 dogs aboard.

    • Oct 23, Boris Pasternak won the Nobel Prize in literature. However, Soviet authorities pressured Pasternak into relinquishing the award.

    • Oct 23, USSR lent money to UAR to build Aswan High Dam.

    • Oct 29, Boris Pasternak refused the Nobel prize for literature. Pasternak's novel "Dr. Zhivago" was on the best seller list in the west.

    • Dec 14, US, Britain and France rejected Soviet demands they withdraw troops from West Berlin and liquidate Allied occupation in West Berlin.

    1959 Jan 1 Cuban Revolution: Cuban president Fulgencio Batista fled Cuba for the Dominican Republic.

    • Feb 24, Khrushchev rejected the Western plan for the Big Four meeting on Germany.

    • May 10, Soviet forces arrived in Afghanistan.

    • May 25, Khrushchev visited Angola.

    • Jun 4, The Soviet Union’s Bolshoi Ballet company arrived in San Francisco following performances in New York and Los Angeles.

    • Jul 24, During a visit to Soviet Union, VP Nixon got into a "kitchen debate" with Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev at a US exhibition.

    • Sep 14, The Soviet space probe Luna 2 became the first man-made object to reach the moon as it crashed onto the lunar surface.

    • Sep 15, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev arrived in US to begin a 13-day visit.

    • Sep 19, Khrushchev reacted angrily during a visit to LA upon being told that, for security reasons, he wouldn't be allowed to visit Disneyland.

    • Sep 22, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev visited San Francisco and dropped in at the ILWU union hall near Fisherman’s Wharf.

    • Sep 25, President Eisenhower and Soviet Premier Khrushchev began Camp David talks.

    • Oct 31, The USSR and Egypt signed contracts for building the Aswan Dam.

    1960 Feb 26, Soviet premier Khrushchev voiced support for Indonesia.

    • Apr 2, Cuba bought oil from USSR.

    • April 16 Sino-Soviet Split: A Chinese Communist Party newspaper accused the Soviet leadership of "revisionism."

    • May 7, Leonid Brezhnev replaced Marshal Kliment Voroshilov as president of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet.

    • May 7, Fidel Castro announced Cuba’s resumption of diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union.

    • May 9, US sent a U-2 over USSR.

    • May 16, Big Four summit in Paris collapsed in wake of the U-2 incident.

    • Jul 1, USSR shot down a US RB-47 reconnaissance plane.

    • Jul 8, Soviet Union charged Francis Gary Powers, with espionage.

    • Jul 9, Khrushchev threatened to use rockets to protect Cuba from the US.

    • July 16 Sino-Soviet Split: Moscow recalled thousands of Soviet advisers from China and ended econ and military aid.

    • Jul 17, Francis Gary Powers pleaded guilty to spying charges in a Moscow court after his U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union.

    • Aug 13, The Soviet Union withdrew advisors, aid and other support from China.

    • Aug 17, Gary Powers pleaded guilty at his Moscow trial for spying over the Soviet Union in a U-2 plane.

    • Aug 19, A tribunal in Moscow convicted American U2 pilot Francis Gary Powers of espionage.

    • Oct 12, Khrushchev disrupted a UN General Assembly session by pounding his desk with a shoe when a speaker criticized his country.

    • Dec 20 Vietnam War: National Front for Liberation of Vietnam was formed.

    1961 Feb 5, The Soviets launched Sputnik V, the heaviest satellite at 7.1 tons.

    • Apr 12, Yuri Gagarin, Russian cosmonaut, experienced the weightlessness of space for 108 minutes.

    • April 20 Bay of Pigs Invasion: Castro announced that all the invaders had been defeated.

    • Apr 30, Premier Fidel Castro of Cuba received the Lenin Peace Prize.

    • Jun 3, JFK and Khrushchev met in Vienna.

    • Jun 4, A Soviet K-19 nuclear submarine with 139 crew members experienced a nuclear accident. 22 later died from radiation poisoning.

    • Aug 7, Soviet premier Khrushchev predicted that the USSR economy would surpass that of the US.

    • Aug 13 Construction began on the Berlin Wall.

    • Oct 30, The Soviet Union tested a hydrogen bomb, the "Tsar Bomba," with a force estimated at about 50 megatons.

    • Oct 30, Soviet Party Congress unanimously approved a resolution ordering removal of Josef Stalin's body from Lenin's tomb.

    • Nov 11, Molotov, Malenkov & Kaganovich were kicked out of Russia's communist party.

    • Nov 11, Stalingrad was renamed Volgograd.

    • Dec 2 In a nationally broadcast speech, Castro declared he was a Marxist-Leninist and that Cuba was going to adopt Communism.

    • Dec 10 Sino-Albanian split: The Soviet Union severed diplomatic ties with Albania.

    1962 Jan 23, British spy Kim Philby defected to USSR.

    • Feb 10, Soviet Union exchanged captured American U2 pilot Francis Gary Powers for Rudolph Ivanovich Abel,

    • June 2 Novocherkassk massacre: Soviet workers gathered in town square of Novocherkassk to protest an increase in food prices and work quotas. The government fired on the rioters, killing nearly a hundred.

    • June 25 Mozambican War of Independence: The Mozambican Liberation Front (FRELIMO) was founded.

    • Aug 5, Russia set off a 40-megaton atomic bomb as part of a new test series.

    • Aug 11, The Soviet Union launched cosmonaut Andrian Nikolayev on a 94-hour flight.

    • Aug 25, USSR performed a nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya, Eastern Kazakh, Semipalitinsk.

    • Oct 14, The American CIA U-2 mission detected Soviet ballistic missiles in Cuba.

    • Oct 16 Cuban Missile Crisis: President Kennedy was shown U-2 surveillance images of SS-4 launch sites in Cuba.

    • Oct 18, JFK met Russian minister of Foreign affairs Andrei Gromyko.

    • Oct 22 Cuban Missile Crisis: Kennedy announced that any nuclear missile attack from Cuba would be regarded as an attack by the Soviet Union, and that the island would be placed under "quarantine" to prevent further weapons shipments.

    • Oct 25, Adlai E. Stevenson presented evidence of Soviet missile bases in Cuba to the UN Security Council.

    • Oct 26 Cuban Missile Crisis: Soviet Union offered to withdraw missiles in return for U.S. guarantee not to invade Cuba or support any invasion.

    • Oct 27, Khrushchev offered to remove Soviet missile bases in Cuba if the U.S. removed its missile bases in Turkey.

    • Oct 28 Cuban Missile Crisis: Khrushchev announced that he had ordered the removal of the Soviet missiles in Cuba.

    • Nov 2, Pres. Kennedy reported that Soviet missile bases in Cuba were being dismantled.

    • Nov 19, Fidel Castro accepted the removal of Soviet weapons.

    • Nov 20, USSR agreed to remove bombers from Cuba and US lifted its blockade.

    • Alexander Solzhenitsyn (43) published "One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovitch." It first appeared in the Soviet magazine Novy Mir.

    1963 Jan 16, Nikita Khrushchev claimed the USSR had a 100-megaton nuclear bomb.

    • Jan 17, Soviet leader Khrushchev visited the Berlin Wall. [see Feb 17]

    • Feb 19, The Soviet Union informed President Kennedy it would withdraw "several thousand" of an estimated 17,000 Soviet troops in Cuba.

    • Feb 20, Moscow offered to allow on-site inspection of nuclear testing.

    • Feb 22, Moscow warned the U.S. that an attack on Cuba would mean war.

    • Feb 27, The U.S.S.R. said that 10,000 troops would remain in Cuba.

    • Apr 27, Cuban premier Fidel Castro arrived in Moscow.

    • Jun 28, Khrushchev visited East-Berlin.

    • Jul 25, US, Soviet Union and Britain initialed a treaty in Moscow prohibiting testing of nuclear weapons in atmosphere, in space or underwater.

    • Aug 5, US, Britain and Soviets signed Limited Test Ban Treaty in Moscow banning nuclear tests in the atmosphere, space and underwater. Pub

    • Aug 30, The hot line, a rapid communications link between Washington, D.C., and Moscow went into operation

    • Oct 7, Kennedy signed the documents of ratification for a nuclear test ban treaty with Britain and the Soviet Union.

    1964 Jan 28, The Soviets downed a U.S. jet over East Germany killing three.

    • Feb 9, The U.S. embassy in Moscow was stoned by Chinese and Vietnamese students.

    • Feb, Yuri Nosenko (1927-2008), Soviet KGB officer, defected under CIA guidance in Geneva.

    • May 14, Khrushchev joined Nasser in setting off charges, diverting Nile River from site of Aswan High Dam project.

    • May 19, The State Department announced U.S. embassy in Moscow had been bugged.

    • Oct 14 Khrushchev deposed at a Central Committee meeting. Brezhnev and Alexei Kosygin assumed power as First Secretary and Premier.

    1965 Jan 1 The Marxist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) held its first congress.

    • Mar 3, USSR performed a nuclear test at Eastern Kazakhstan, Semipalitinsk, USSR.

    • Mar 18, The first spacewalk took place as Soviet cosmonaut Aleksei Leonov

    • Dec 5, activists in central Moscow demand trial of two Soviet writers charged, Andrei Sinyavsky (d.1997) and Yuliy Daniel, be open.

    • Dec 9, Nikolai V. Podgorny replaced Anastas I. Mikoyan as president of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet.

    1966 Jan 10, The Tashkent Agreement, was signed in the Soviet city of Tashkent, and officially ended a 17-day war between Pakistan and India.

    • Jan 31, The Soviets launched Luna 9, the first spacecraft to land softly on the moon.

    • Feb 3, The Soviet probe Luna 9 became the first manmade object to make a soft landing on the moon.

    • Mar 1, Moscow reported that a space probe had crashed on Venus. Venera 3 became the 1st man-made object to impact on a planet (Venus).

    • Mar 29, Brezhnev became First Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party.

    • Oct 22, The Soviet Union launched Luna 12 for orbit around the moon.

    1967 Jan 27, US signed Outer Space Treaty with Russia. More than 60 nations signed a treaty banning the orbiting of nuclear weapons.

    • Feb 7 Sino-Soviet split: Chinese government announced that it could no longer guarantee safety of Soviet diplomats outside embassy building.

    • Feb 26, USSR performed an underground nuclear test at Eastern Kazakhstan, Semipalitinsk, USSR.

    • Mar 6, Svetlana Alliluyeva, the daughter of Josef Stalin, appeared at the US Embassy in India and announced her intention to defect to West.

    • Mar 31, President Lyndon Johnson signed the Consular Treaty, the first bi-lateral pact with the Soviet Union since the Bolshevik Revolution.

    • Apr 23, Soyuz 1 was launched, and Vladimir Komarov became the first in-flight casualty.

    • June 10 The Soviet Union severed diplomatic relations with Israel. see Soviet Union and the Arab-Israeli conflict

    • Jun 12, Venera 4, a space probe of the Soviet Union, was launched. It transmitted information on the atmosphere of Venus.

    • Jun 23, President Johnson and Soviet Premier Aleksei Kosygin held the first of two meetings in Glassboro State College in New Jersey.

    • Sep 23, Soviets signed a pact to send more aid to Hanoi.

    • Oct 18, A Russian unmanned spacecraft made the first landing on the surface of Venus.

    • Yuri Andropov became the Chief of the Soviet KGB.

    1968 Jan5 Prague Spring: Liberal Dubček was appointed to succeed Antonín Novotný as First Secretary of Communist Party of Czechoslovakia.

    • Mar 8, Russian submarine armed with nuclear missiles, sank in 16,000 feet of water northwest of Oahu.

    • April 5 Prague Spring: Czech Communist Party published their Action Programme.

    • Jul 1, The United States, Britain, the Soviet Union and 58 other nations signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. India refused to sign.

    • Jul 15, Commercial air travel began between US & USSR.

    • Aug 3, The Bratislava statement conceded Czechoslovakia’s right to pursue its own path.

    • Aug 20 Prague Spring: Between 200,000 and 600,000 Warsaw Pact troops crossed the Czechoslovakian border.

    • Aug 21 Prague Spring: Leading KSČ liberals - including Dubček - were arrested, flown to Moscow and forced to repeal the reforms

    • Aug 21, After 5 years Russia once again jammed Voice of America radio.

    • Aug 25, Seven dissidents came out in the Red Square to protest against the invasion of the soviet troops in Czechoslovakia

    • Sep 11, The Soviet troops started leaving Prague for the countryside.

    • Sep 13, Albania officially withdrew from the Warsaw Pact. Albania had condemned the Aug Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia.

    1969 March 2 Sino-Soviet border conflict: A Soviet patrol came into armed conflict with Chinese forces on Zhenbao Island.

    • Mar 2, Chinese and Russian soldiers clashed on Damansky Island and approximately 70 died.

    • Mar 15, A violent Chinese-Russian border dispute left 100s dead.

    • Jun 11, Soviet and Chinese troops clashed on Sinkiang border.

    • Oct 21 Somali military and police occupied the capital of Mogadishu.

    • Nov 4, Author Alexander Solzhenitsyn was expelled from Soviet Writers Union.

    1970 Oct 8, Soviet author Alexander Solzhenitsyn was named winner of the Nobel Prize for literature.

    • Nov 4, Andre Sakharov, Russian nuclear physicist, formed a Human Rights Committee.

    • Sep 4, Natalia Makarova (b.1940), Russian ballet dancer, requested asylum while on tour in Britain.

    1971 Feb 14, Moscow publicized a new five-year plan geared to expanding consumer production.

    • Mar 23, USSR performed underground nuclear test.

    • pr 23, The Soviet Union launched Soyuz 10; the cosmonauts became the first in Salyut 1 space station.

    • Sep 3, Quadripartite Agreement on Berlin, between US, Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and France. ended a long time source of tension.

    • Sep 25, Over 100 Russian officials were expelled from Britain for spying.

    1972 Apr 10, Biological and Toxins Weapons Convention (BWC).

    • Apr, Iraq and the USSR signed a Treaty of Friendship.

    • May 26, Nixon and Brezhnev signed in Moscow the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty,

    • Jun 5, Tito (1892-1980) visited USSR and received Order of Lenin.

    • Jul 8, US signed an agreement to sell grain to USSR for $750 million.

    • Jul 18, Sadat demanded that the USSR withdraw all military advisors from Egypt.

    1973 Jan 27 Vietnam War: Paris Peace Accords

    • May 18, Brezhnev visited West Germany.

    • Jun 19, Nixon met with Brezhnev at the White House.

    • Dec 21, Geneva Conference to negotiate a solution to the Arab-Israeli conflict.

    • Dec 28, Alexander Solzhenitsyn published "Gulag Archipelago" in Paris. It was an expose of the Soviet prison system.

    1974 Aug, The CIA in Project Azorian recovered part of a Soviet submarine that had sunk in the Pacific on March 8, 1968.

    • Sep 12 Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie was overthrown by a council of military officers, the Derg.

    • Nov 23-24, Ford attended a summit in Vladivostok, with Brezhnev.

    • Alexander Solzhenitsyn published "The Gulag Archipelago." [see Dec 28, 1973]

    1975 Jan 3, President Gerald Ford signed the Jackson-Vanik amendment into law,

    • Jan 31 Angolan War of Independence: A transitional unity government, of NLF, MPLA, and UNITA, took office under Alvor Agreement.

    • March 11 Vietnam War: A large-scale North Vietnamese offensive began with the conquest of Buon Ma Thuot.

    • March 27 The Pathet Lao began a military offensive against the Laotian government.

    • April 30 Fall of Saigon

    • June 25 Mozambican War of Independence: FRELIMO government received independence from Portugal.

    • Oct 9, Soviet scientist Andrei Sakharov was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

    • Nov 11 Angolan Civil War: Portugal accepted a declaration of independence from the MPLA.

    • Dec 2 The king of Laos abdicated, leaving leadership to Pathet Lao.

    1976 Sep 6, A Soviet pilot landed his MIG-25 in Tokyo and asked for political asylum in the United States.

    1977 July 23 Ogaden War: Somali National Army invaded the Ogaden region in eastern Ethiopia.



    • September 7 Ogaden War: The Soviet Union ended its arms shipments to the Somali government.

    • Nov 13 Ogaden War: Barre cancelled the Somali-Soviet treaty of friendship.

    1978 April 28 Saur Revolution: Military units loyal to PDPA assaulted the Afghan Presidential palace, killing President Mohammed Daoud Khan.

    • May 1 Saur Revolution: The PDPA installed its leader, Nur Muhammad Taraki, as President of Afghanistan.

    • July A rebellion against the new Afghan government began with an uprising in Nuristan.

    • Dec 5 A treaty was signed which permitted deployment of the Soviet military at the Afghan government's request.

    • Dec 25 Cambodian-Vietnamese War: Vietnamese army invaded Cambodia.

    1979 Jan 7 Cambodian-Vietnamese War: Vietnamese army captured Phnom Penh, ending the reign of the Khmer Rouge.

    • Jan 10 Cambodian-Vietnamese War: People's Republic of Kampuchea was established.

    • Jan 15, The Soviet Union vetoed a United Nations resolution and called for the withdrawal of all Vietnamese troops from Cambodia.

    • Jun 18, President Carter and Soviet Brezhnev signed the SALT II strategic arms limitation treaty in Vienna.

    • July 19 The armed forces of the Marxist Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) entered Managua.

    • Sep 14 Taraki was murdered by supporters of Prime Minister Hafizullah Amin.

    • Dec 24 Soviet war in Afghanistan: Fearing the collapse of the Amin regime, the Soviet army invaded Afghanistan.

    • Dec 27 Operation Storm-333: Soviet troops occupied major governmental, military and media buildings in Kabul,

    1980 Jan 14, UN voted 104-18 to deplore the Soviet Afghan acts.

    • Jan 20, President Carter announced the US boycott of Olympics in Moscow.

    • Jan 22, Sakharov and his wife Jelena Bonner were banished from Moscow to Gorky.

    • Feb 22, In a stunning upset, the U.S. Olympic hockey team defeated the Soviets at Lake Placid, N.Y., 4-3.

    • Sep 17 The trade union Solidarity was founded in Poland.

    • Oct 10 Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN) was founded from an assortment of leftist and Communist Salvadoran organizations

    • Dec 14, NATO warned the Soviets to stay out of the internal affairs of Poland.

    1981 May 13, John Paul II was shot and seriously wounded in St. Peter's Square by Turkish assailant Mehmet Ali Agca.

    • Nov 30, US and the Soviet Union opened negotiations in Geneva aimed at reducing nuclear weapons in Europe.

    • Dec 13 Jaruzelski, First Secretary of Communist Party, declared martial law in Poland.

    1982 Jan 25 Suslov died after a severe stroke.

    • Nov 10 Brezhnev died of a heart attack.

    • Nov 12 Yuri Andropov was elected General Secretary of the CPSU.

    1983 Mar 8, Pres Reagan called the USSR an "Evil Empire."

    • Aug 25, The US and USSR signed a $10 billion grain pact.

    • Sep 1, KAL flight 007 was downed by a Soviet jet fighter

    • Sep 26, Soviet Union's early warning system wrongly signaled launch of a US missile. Lt. Col. Petrov, decided the alarm was false.

    • Oct 19 Grenadian military overthrew the government of Maurice Bishop and installed the pro-Soviet Stalinist Bernard Coard to lead the nation.

    • Oct 25 Invasion of Grenada: US and her Caribbean allies toppled the Coard government.

    1984 Feb 9 Andropov died after long kidney disease and was succeeded as General Secretary by Konstantin Chernenko.

    • Feb 13, Chernenko was chosen to be general secretary.

    • Aug 11, Reagan sparked controversy when he joked during a voice test for a paid political radio address: "My fellow Americans, I'm pleased to tell you today that I've signed legislation that will outlaw Russia forever. We begin bombing in five minutes."

    1985 March 10 Chernenko died of Emphysema.

    • March 11 The Politburo unanimously supported Mikhail Gorbachev as General Secretary of the Communist Party.

    • Mar 11, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev visited Lithuania.

    • Mar 12, The US and the USSR began arms control talks in Geneva.

    • Apr 23, Gorbachev announced economic reforms known as perestroika (reconstruction and opening).

    • May 20, FBI arrested John A. Walker. US Navy Chief Petty Officer spy.

    • Nov 19, Reagan and Gorbachev met for the first time as they began their summit in Geneva.

    • Gorbachev told Communist leaders in Eastern Europe that Moscow would not interfere in their domestic affairs.

    • 1985-1994 Aldrich H. Ames, a CIA counterintelligence official, passed information over this time to the Soviet Union that included the names of US agents. The deaths of at least 9 agents were blamed on his disclosures.

    1986 Feb 19, The Soviet Union launched the first component of its Mir space station. Mir meant peace.

    • Apr 26,
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