852 The year when the timeline of the Primary Chronicle starts



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1762-1796 Catherine the Great ruled over Russia.

1763 Russia annexed the Crimea peninsula from Crimean Tartars and Ottoman Turks.

1763-1864 The Circassians, residents of the northwest Caucasus, fought against the Russians in the Russian-Circassian War

1764 July 5 A group of soldiers attempted to release the imprisoned Ivan VI; he was murdered.

1767 Oct 13 Repnin Sejm: Four Polish senators were arrested by Russian troops and imprisoned in Kaluga.

1768 Feb 24, Lithuania-Poland signed an eternal friendship treaty with Russia along with a guarantee of protection.



  • Feb 27 Repnin Sejm: Delegates of Sejm adopted a treaty ensuring future Russian influence in Polish internal politics.

  • Feb 29 Polish nobles established the Bar Confederation in order to end Russian influence in their country.

  • Sep 25 Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774): The Ottoman sultan declared war on Russia.

1770 Jul 6, Ottoman fleet was defeated and destroyed by the Russians at the battle of Chesme [Cesme] on the Aegean Sea.

1771 Sep 15 Plague Riot: A crowd of rioters, broke into the Kremlin and destroyed the Chudov Monastery.



  • Sep 17 Plague Riot: The army suppressed the riot.

1772 Aug 5 First partition of Poland announced.

1773Sep 14, Russian forces under Aleksandr Suvorov successfully stormed a Turkish fort at Hirsov, Turkey.



  • Pugachev's Rebellion: The army of the Cossack Yemelyan Pugachev attacked and occupied Samara.

  • September 18 A confederated sejm was forced to ratify the first partition of Poland.

1774 July 21 Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774): The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca was signed.

  • The Crimean Khanate received independence from the Ottoman Empire,

  • Sep 14 Pugachev's Rebellion:, Pugachev's officers delivered him to the Russians.

1775 Catherine received an ornament containing over 1000 diamonds, the "Sultan Feather" from Turkish Sultan.

1775 The Cossack Yemelyan Pugachev was captured and beheaded.

1776 The Bolshoi Theater was founded.

1777 Dec 23, Alexander I, Czar of Russia, was born.

1779 Mar 31, Russia and Turkey signed a treaty by which they promised to take no military action in the Crimea.

1779 Catherine the Great bought the art collection of Sir Robert Walpole from Walpole’s grandson.

1783 April 8 The Crimean Khanate was incorporated into the Russian Empire.


  • Jul 24, Georgia became a protectorate of tsarist Russia.

  • Catherine the Great annexed the Crimea to the Russian empire. 83% or the residents were Tatars.

1784 Aug 14, The 1st Russian settlement in Alaska was established on Kodiak Island.

1785 Apr 21, Russian Tsarina Catharina II ended nobility privileges.

1787 Aug 13, The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia.

1787 Jan 7 –June 27 Catherine journey down the Dnieper to Crimea

1788 May 4 John Paul Jones arrives in Moscow.

Sep 15, An alliance between Britain, Prussia and the Netherlands was ratified at the Hague.

1788 Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792): The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia and imprisoned her ambassador.


  • June 27 Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790): Swedish army playacted a skirmish between themselves and the Russians.

  • July 6 Battle of Hogland: The Russian navy dispersed a Swedish invasion fleet near Hogland in the Gulf of Finland.

  • Oct 6 Great Sejm: A confederated sejm was called to restore the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

1789 Sep 22, Russians drove Turks from the Rymnik River, upsetting Turkish invasion of Russia.

1790 Jul 9, The Swedish navy captured one third of the Russian fleet at the naval battle of Svensksund in the Baltic Sea.

1790 Aug 14 Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790): The Treaty of Värälä ended the war, with no changes in territory.

1791 May 3 Great Sejm: Poland's Constitution of May 3 was ratified in secret.



  • Oct 5, Death of Potemkin

  • Dec 23 Catherine established the Pale of Settlement,

1792 Jan 9 Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792): The Treaty of Jassy was signed, ending the war.

  • May 18, Russian troops invaded Poland.

1793 Jan 23 Polish-Russian War of 1792: The second partition of Poland

  • Nov 23 Grodno Sejm: The last sejm of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth ratified the second partition.

1794 March 24 Kościuszko Uprising: An announcement by Tadeusz Kościuszko sparked a nationalist uprising in Poland.

  • Jun 23, Empress Catherine II granted Jews permission to settle in Kiev.

  • Sep 28, The Anglo-Russian-Austrian Alliance of St. Petersburg, which was directed against France, was signed.

  • Oct 10, Russian Army under Gen’l. Alexander Suvorov took Warsaw

  • Nov 4 Battle of Praga: Russian troops captured the Praga borough of Warsaw and massacred its civilian population.

  • Nov 5 Kościuszko Uprising: The uprising ended with the Russian occupation of Warsaw.

  • Nov 16, Warsaw capitulated to the Russian Army and the revolution ended.

  • Odessa was founded.

1795 Sep 11 Battle of Krtsanisi: The Persian army demolished the armed forces of Kartl-Kakheti.

  • Oct 24 The third partition of Poland divided up the remainder of its territory.

1796 April Persian Expedition of 1796: expedition to punish Persia for its incursion into protectorate of Kartl-Kakheti.

  • Nov 6 Catherine died. The throne fell to her son, Paul I.

1797 Jan 15, In St. Petersburg Russia, Prussia and Austria signed and act that terminated the Lithuanian-Polish state.

1798 Dec 24, Russia and England signed a Second anti-French Coalition.

1801 Jan 8 Paul authorized the incorporation of Kartl-Kakheti into the Russian empire.


  • March 11 Paul was killed in his bed.

  • March 23 Paul's son, Alexander I, ascended to the throne.

  • South Ossetia was absorbed into the Russian Empire along with Georgia.

1802 Alexander established the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD).

1804 Russo-Persian War (1804-1813): Russian forces attacked the Persian settlement of Üçkilise.

1805 The Ottoman Empire dismissed the pro-Russian hospodars of its vassal states, Wallachia and Moldavia.


  • Aug 9, Austria joined Britain, Russia, Sweden and Piedmont-Sardinia in the Third Coalition.

  • Dec 2, Napoleon Bonaparte celebrated the first anniversary of his coronation with a victory at Austerlitz over a Russian and Austrian army.

  • Dec 26 War of the Third Coalition: The Treaty of Pressburg ceded Austrian possessions in Dalmatia to France.

1806 Oct To counter the French presence in Dalmatia, Russia invaded Wallachia and Moldavia.

  • Dec 26, Napoleon’s army was checked by the Russians at the Battle of Pultusk.

  • Dec 27 Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812): The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia.

1807 Feb 8, At Eylau, Poland, Napoleon’s Marshal Pierre Agureau attacked Russian forces in a heavy snowstorm.

  • June 14 Battle of Friedland: The Russian army suffered a defeat against the French, suffering twenty thousand dead.

  • Jun 25, Napoleon and Czar Alexander I met near Tilsit.

  • July 7 Treaty of Tilsit signed. Alexander agreed to evacuate Wallachia and Moldavia and ceded the Ionian Islands and Cattaro to the French.

  • The treaty ended Russia's conflict with France; Napoleon promised to aid Russia in conflicts with the Ottoman Empire.

  • Nov 16 Alexander demanded that Sweden close the Baltic Sea to British warships.

1808 Feb 21 Finnish War: Russian troops crossed the Swedish border and captured Hämeenlinna.

1809 March 29 Diet of Porvoo: The four Estates of Finland swore allegiance to the Russian crown.



  • Sep 17 Finnish War: The Treaty of Fredrikshamn was signed, ending the war and ceding Finland to the Russian Empire.

1809-1917 Finland was an autonomous grand duchy under the Czar of Russia.

1810 The first military settlement was established near Klimovichi.



  • Jan 1 Alexander established the State Council, which received the executive powers of the Governing Senate.

  • Feb 20 The Russian government proclaimed the deposition of Solomon II from the throne of Imereti.

1811 Feb 2, Russian settlers established Ft. Ross trading post in northern California.

1811 March 27 Regional military companies were merged into the Internal Guard.

1812 May 28 Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812): Treaty of Bucharest ended the war and transferred Bessarabia to Russia.


  • June 24 French invasion of Russia (1812): The French army crossed the Neman River into Russia.

  • Jul 18, Great Britain signed the Treaty of Orebro, making peace with Russia and Sweden.

  • Aug 17, Bonaparte's army defeated the Russians at the Battle of Smolensk during the Russian retreat to Moscow.

  • Sep 7, On the road to Moscow, Napoleon won a costly victory over the Russians under Kutuzov at Borodino.

  • Sep 14 French invasion of Russia (1812): French army entered a deserted Moscow.

  • Sep 18, A fire in Moscow (set by Napoleon's troops) destroyed 90% of houses and 1,000 churches. [see Sep 14]

  • Oct 19, French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte began their retreat from Moscow.

  • Nov 6, The first winter snows fell on the French Army as Napoleon Bonaparte retreated form Moscow.

  • Nov 27, One of the two bridges across the Beresina River in Russia collapsed.

  • Nov 29, The last elements of Napoleon Bonaparte's Grand Armee retreated across the Beresina River in Russia.

  • Dec 6, The majority of Napoleon Bonaparte's Grand Armeé staggered into Vilnius, Lithuania.

  • Dec 14 French invasion of Russia (1812): The last French troops were forced off of Russian territory.

  • Russia acquired Bessarabia,

  • Dec, Vilnius, Lithuania, was recaptured by Russian forces.

1813 Jan 2, In Vilnius, Lithuania, Russian Army head M. Kutuzov announced the end of war in Russia.

  • Feb 18, Czar Alexander entered Warsaw at the head of his Army.

  • Feb 28, Russia and Prussia formed the Kalisz union against Napoleon.

  • Mar 4, The Russians fighting against Napoleon reached Berlin. The French garrison evacuated the city without a fight.

  • Aug 26-27, Battle of Dresden was Napoleon’s last major victory against allied forces of Austria, Russia and Prussia.

  • Oct 18, The Allies defeated Napoleon Bonaparte at Leipzig.

  • Oct 24 Russo-Persian War (1804-1813): According to the Treaty of Gulistan, the Persian Empire ceded its Transcaucasian territories to Russia.

1814 Sep, The Congress of Vienna convened in late Sep and continued to June 8, 1815.

1814 Alexander I of Russia entered Paris at the head of an anti-Napoleon coalition.

1814-1876 Mikhail Bakunin was an authoritarian anarchist.

1815 June 9 Congress of Vienna: Duchy of Warsaw divided between Prussia, Russia.



  • Sep 26, Russia, Prussia and Austria signed a Holy Alliance.

  • Nov 20, The treaties known collectively as the 2nd Peace of Paris were concluded.

1817 Mar 25, Tsar Alexander I recommended the formation of Society of Israeli Christians.

1818 Apr 17, Alexander II, son of Nicholas I and Tsar of Russia (1855-1881), was born.



  • Nov 21, Russia's Czar Alexander I petitioned for a Jewish state in Palestine.

  • Grozny was established as a Russian fortress.

1819 Russia declared Odessa to be a free port.

1820 Sep 4, Czar Alexander declared Russian influence in North America extended as far south as Oregon and closed Alaskan waters to foreigners.

1820s The last jihad started by mullahs alone forced Persian Empire to war against Christian Russia. Persia lost Caucasus.

1824 Apr 17, Russia abandoned all North American claims south of 54' 40'.

1825 Feb 22, Russia and Britain established the Alaska/Canada boundary.


  • Nov 19 Alexander died of typhus. The army swore allegiance to his eldest brother, Grand Duke Pavlovich.

  • Constantine, however, following Alexander's choice of successor, swore allegiance to his younger brother, Nicholas I.

  • Dec 12 Under pressure from Constantine, Nicholas published Alexander's succession manifesto.

  • Dec 14 Decembrist revolt: 1825 Decembrists consisted of idealistic military officers who plotted unsuccessfully against the Russian tsar.

1826 decree established Second Section of Chancery, concerned with codifying and publishing law, and Third Section, which operated secret police.

  • July Nicholas established the office of Chief of Gendarmes, in charge of the Gendarmerie units of the Internal Guard.

  • July 16 Russo-Persian War (1826-1828): The Persian army invaded the Russian-owned Talysh Khanate.

  • Sep 26, The Persian cavalry was routed by the Russians at the Battle of Ganja in the Russian Caucasus.

1827 Oct 20, British, French and Russian squadrons entered Navarino, Greece, and destroyed most of Egyptian fleet.

1828 Feb 21 Russo-Persian War (1826-1828) Persia signed the Treaty of Turkmenchay.

1828 Apr 26, Russia declared war on Turkey to support Greece's independence.


  • May The Russian army occupied Wallachia.

  • June Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829): The Russian armed forces crossed into Dobruja, an Ottoman territory.

  • 1828 Russia conquered the Armenian provinces of Persia,

1829 Feb 11, Alexander Griboyedov Russian diplomat was beheaded by a mob attack on the Russian embassy in Tehran.

1829 Sep 14 Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829): Treaty of Adrianople signed, ceding eastern shore of Black Sea and mouth of Danube to Russians.

1829 Nov 20, Jews were expelled from Nikolayev and Sevastopol, Russia.

1830 Nov 29 Nov Uprising: A group of Polish nationalists attacked Belweder Palace, the seat of the Governor-General.

1831 Jan 25 Nov Uprising: An act of the Sejm dethroned Nicholas from the Polish crown.


  • Jan 29 Nov Uprising: A new government took office in Poland.

  • Feb 4 Nov Uprising: Russian troops crossed the Polish border.

  • Feb 20, Polish revolutionaries defeated the Russians in the Battle of Growchow.

  • Feb 25, The Polish army halted the Russian advance into their country at the Battle of Grochow.

  • May 26, Russians defeated the Poles at battle of Ostrolenska.

  • Sep Battle of Warsaw (1831): The Russian army captured Warsaw, ending the Nov Uprising.

1832 Feb 26, The Polish constitution was abolished by Czar Nicholas I.

1833 May 2, Czar Nicholas banned the public sale of serfs.

1835 Trinity Cathedral in St. Petersburg, Russia, was consecrated.

1836 The Gendarmerie of the Internal Guard was spun off as the Special Corps of Gendarmes.

1837 In St. Petersburg Alexander Pushkin, was killed in a duel with his wife's suitor, D'Anthes, a French nobleman.

1840 Aug 15, English Lt. Shakespear began a 500-mile trek with 416 freed Russian slaves to Russian Fort Alexandrovsk on Caspian Sea.

1840 Nov 3, Lt. Shakespear reached St. Petersburg, Russia, where Czar Nicholas thanked him for freeing Russian slaves from Khan of Kiva.

1841 Alexander II married Maria of Hessen-Darmstadt (Maria Alexandrovna). The marriage produced seven children.

1849 Jun 17, Russian troops invaded Hungary.


  • Aug 9, Russian forces defeated the Hungarians at the Battle of Temesovar.

  • Aug 11, Lajos Kossuth, pres of Hungary, abdicated in favor of Gen. Gorgey as Russia intervened in Hungarian rev.

  • Aug 13, Hungary’s Gen. Gorgey surrendered to the Russian forces. Russia gave Hungary back to Austria.

1852 Dec Ottoman sultan confirmed the supremacy of France and the Catholic Church over Christians in the Holy Land.

1853 July 3 Russia invaded the Ottoman provinces of Wallachia and Moldavia.



  • Sep 20, The Allies defeated the Russians at the battle of Alma on the Crimean Peninsula.

  • Oct 4 Crimean War: The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia.



1854 March 28 Crimean War: Britain and France declared war on Russia.

  • Aug Crimean War: In order to prevent the Austrian Empire entering the war, Russia evacuated Wallachia and Moldavia.

  • Oct 25, Charge of the Light Brigade

  • Nov 5, The British and French defeated the Russians at Inkerman, Crimea.

  • In northern Russia Solovki monks fought off a British naval siege.

1855 Feb 18 Nicholas died. His son, Alexander II, became tsar.

  • Sep 10, Sevastopol, under siege for nearly a year, capitulated to the Allies.

  • Nov 26, Allies captured of the Malakoff fortress in Sevastopol.

1856 Feb 29, Hostilities in Russo-Turkish war ceased.

  • March 30 Crimean War: The Treaty of Paris was signed, officially ending the war.

  • Black Sea was demilitarized. Russia lost territory it had been granted at the mouth of the Danube, abandoned claims to protect Turkish Christians, and lost its influence over the Danubian Principalities.

  • Apr 29, A peace treaty between England and Russia was signed.

  • In Alaska the Russian occupants of the Batzulnetas outpost were massacred by natives.

1857 The last military settlements were disbanded.

1857 Sep 23, The Russian warship Leffort disappeared in the Finland Gulf in a storm; 826 died.

1858 May 28 The Treaty of Aigun was signed, pushing the Russo-Chinese border east to the Amur river.

1858 Jul 2, Czar Alexander II freed the serfs working on imperial lands.

1859 Imam Shamil (1797-1871), Caucasian (Chechen) warrior, surrendered and became an honorary captive of Alex II.

1859 Muslim North Caucasus region of Chechnya was incorporated into the Russian empire.

1860 Russian pioneers founded Vladivostok.

1860 Oct 18 The Convention of Peking transferred the Ussuri krai from China to Russia.

1861 Feb 27, In Warsaw, Russian troops fired on a crowd protesting Russian rule over Poland. Five marchers were killed.

1861 March 3 Emancipation reform of 1861: Alexander issued a manifesto emancipating the serfs.

1863 Jan 22 Jan Uprising: An anti-Russian uprising began in Poland.

1864 Jan 1 Zemstva were established for the local self-government of Russian citizens.

1864 Mar 2, Russian Czar Alexander II upheld reforms in Poland that gave landholders ownership of their lands.


  • May 1 The Russian army began an incursion into the Khanate of Kokand.

  • May 21 Caucasian War: Alexander declared the war over.

  • Aug 5 Jan Uprising: Romuald Traugutt, the dictator of the rebellion, was hanged.

  • Nov 20 Judicial reform of Alexander II.

1867 The conquered territories of Central Asia became a separate Guberniya, the Russian Turkestan.

  • March 30 Alaska purchase: Russia agreed to the sale of Alaska to US of America.

1865 Mar 1, Anna Paulowna Romanova (70), great monarch of Russia, died.

  • 1865 June 17 The Russian army captured Tashkent.

1866 Apr 16, Karakozov attempted to assassinate Tsar Alexander II of Russia.

  • Dec 4, Wassily Kandinsky (d.1944), Russian artist, was born. He is credited with the invention of abstract art.

1867 Feb 15, Fyodor Dostoevsky married his stenographer Anna Snitkina in St. Petersburg.

1867 Mar 29, US purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million dollars. [see Mar 30]

1867 Oct 18, US took formal possession of Alaska from Russia.

1868 May 18, Nicholas II, the last Russian czar, was born.

1868 The Khanate of Kokand became a Russian vassal state.

1869 Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleyev (1834-1907), Russian chemist, formulated the periodic table of elements .

1870 Municipal dumas were established.

1871 Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleyev developed the periodic table listing the elements in 1871.

1872 Jan 12, Russian Grand Duke Alexis began a gala buffalo hunting expedition with Sheridan and Custer.

1873 The Narodnik rebellion began.



  • The Emirate of Bukhara became a Russian protectorate.

  • May 18 Khiva was captured by Russian troops.

  • Aug 12 A peace treaty was signed that established the Khanate of Khiva as a quasi-independent Russian protectorate.

1874–81 Growing anti-government terrorist movement and government reaction.

1876 March The Khanate of Kokand was incorporated into the Russian Empire.



  • April 20 April Uprising: Bulgarian nationalists attacked the Ottoman police headquarters in Oborishte.

  • May Alexander signed the Ems Ukaz, banning the use of the Ukrainian language in print.

  • July 8 A secret treaty for division of Balkans between Russia and Austria-Hungary, depending on outcome of local revolutionary movements.

  • Dec 6 Kazan demonstration: A political demonstration in front of Kazan Cathedral in Saint Petersburg marked the appearance of the revolutionary group Land and Liberty.

1877 Feb The Trial of the 193 occurred, punishing the participants of the Narodnik rebellion.

  • Mar 4, The Russian Imperial Ballet staged the first performance of Tchaikovsky’s incomplete ballet "Zwanenmeer" (Swan Lake) in Moscow.

  • April 24 Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878): Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire.

  • Nov 17, Russians launched a surprise night attack that overran Turkish forces at Kars, Armenia.

  • Dec 14, Serbia joined Russia in war on Turkey.

1877-1878 The Russo-Turkish War.

1878 March 3 Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878): The Treaty of San Stephano was signed, concluding the war



  • July 13 Congress of Berlin: Treaty of Berlin, imposed on Russia by West, divided Bulgaria into Eastern Rumelia and Principality of Bulgaria.

1879 Aug Land and Liberty split into the moderate Black Repartition and the radical terrorist group People's Will.

1880 Feb 17, Tsar Alexander II of Russia survived an assassination attempt.



  • Apr 26, Mikhail Fokine (d.1942), choreographer, founder of modern dance, was born in Russia.

  • Jul 6, Russia’s Tsar Alexander II, less than a month after Tsarina Maria's death on June 8, formed a morganatic marriage with his mistress Princess Catherine Dolgoruki, with whom he already had three children. A fourth child would be born to them before his death.

  • Aug 6 Special Corps of Gendarmes and Third Section were disbanded; their functions transferred to new Department of State Police.

1881 March 10 Alexander was assassinatedl. His son, Alexander III, becomes tsar.

  • Apr 27, Pogroms against Russian Jews started in Elisabethgrad.

  • Sep 21 Persia officially recognized Russia's annexation of Khwarazm in the Treaty of Akhal.

1882 May 15, May Laws: Czar Alexander III banned Jews from living in rural Romania.

1882 In Russia the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society was founded to support Russian pilgrimages to the Holy Land.

1883 Mar 13, Sergei Degaev (26) shot and killed Lt. Col. Georgii Sudeikin, security chief of Czar Alexander III.

1883 First Russian Marxist group formed.

1884 Alexander III commissioned jeweler Carl Gustavovich Faberge (1846-1920) to make an Easter egg for the Empress.

1885 Mar 30, In Afghanistan, Russian troops inflicted a crushing defeat on Afghan forces Ak Teppe

1885 Nov 17, The Serbian Army, with Russian support, invaded Bulgaria.

1887 May 8, Alexander Ulyanov, brother of Lenin, was hanged for assassination of tsar.

1890 Anton Chekhov visited the Russian penal colony at Sakhalin. The experience crystallized his political awareness.

1890 June 12 An imperial decree subordinated the zemstva to the authority of the appointed regional governors.

1891 Apr 23, Jews were expelled from Moscow.

1891-1892 A severe famine led to the death of many peasants.

1892 Dec 18, Tchaikovsky's "The Nutcracker Suite" ["Nutcracker Ballet"] publicly premiered in St. Petersburg

1893 The Kresty Prison in St. Petersburg was built to hold political prisoners.

1893The Russalka, a 19th century ironclad, Russian vessel sank in the Baltic Sea with 177 sailors aboard.

1893 Many Russian pilgrims for ceremony of the Holy Fire Shrine in Jerusalem died in a snowstorm north of Jerusalem.

1894 Oct 20 (OS), Alexander III (b.1845), Russian tsar (b.1881-94), died in Livadia, Crimea.

1895 Feb 8, Tchaikovsky's "Swan Lake," premiered in Petersburg.

1895 Apr 23, Russia, France, and Germany forced Japan to return the Liaodong peninsula to China.

1896 May 26, Nicholas II, the last Czar of Russia, was crowned.



  • Oct 7, Nicholas and Alexandra of Russia made a state visit to France and with Pres.

  • Nov 26, Russia disclosed a plan to seize Constantinople if Britain intervenes in Crete.

1897 The Protocols of the Elders of Zion were 1st printed.

1897 The Singer sewing machine company built a huge factory in Russia.

1898 Harbin, China, was built by Russian workers who extended the trans-Siberian railway across Heilongjiang province.

1898 March 1 The Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) held its first Party Congress.

1900 Russia invaded and occupied the Sixty-Four Villages East of the Heilongjiang River.


  • Feb 6 Russification of Finland: Nicholas issued a

  • Nov 9, Russia completed its occupation of Manchuria.

1901 The Socialist-Revolutionary Party was founded.

  • June 30 Russification of Finland: The Military Service Act incorporated the Finnish and Russian armies.

  • Nov 25, Japanese Prince Ito arrived in Russia to seek concessions in Korea.



1902 Russification of Finland: Nikolai Ivanovich Bobrikov, the Governor-General of Finland, was given the power to allow olivia and opponents of Russification from the Finnish government.

1902 Feb 1, U.S. Secretary of State John Hay protested Russian privileges in China as a violation of the "open door policy."

1902 Mar 20, France and Russia acknowledged Anglo-Japanese alliance

1902 Anton Chekhov published his collected works.

1902 Lenin’s What Is To Be Done? was published

1903 Mar 12, The Czar of Russia issued a decree providing for nominal freedom of religion throughout his territory.



  • March 20 Russification of Finland: The office of the Governor-General was given dictatorial powers.

  • April 6 Kishinev pogrom: A three-day pogrom began which would leave forty-seven Jews dead.

  • Nov 17 At second congress of RSDLP, the party split into two factions: the Bolsheviks, and Mensheviks.

  • Rasputin, came to St. Petersburg as an ascetic holy man and claimed to be inspired by visions of the Virgin Mary.

  • Kishinev pogrom in Odessa, set Vladimir Jabotinsky afire with the Jewish cause and placed him on a Zionist path.

1904 Jan 6, A Japanese railway in Korea refused to transport Russian troops.

  • Feb 4, Russia offered Korea to Japan and defended its right to occupy Manchuria.

  • Feb 6, Japan's foreign minister severed all ties with Russia, citing delaying tactics in negotiations over Manchuria.

  • Feb 8, Russo-Japanese War began. In a surprise attack at Port Arthur.

  • Feb 10, Russia and Japan declared war on each other.

  • Mar 7, The Japanese bombed the Russian town of Vladivostok.

  • Mar 15, Three hundred Russians were killed as the Japanese shelled Port Arthur in Korea.

  • Mar 24, Vice Adm. Tojo sank seven Russian ships as the Japanese strengthened their blockade of Port Arthur.

  • Jul 21, After 13 years, the 4,607-mile Trans-Siberian railway was completed. [see Jul 31]

  • Aug 6, The Japanese army in Korea surrounded a Russian army retreating to Manchuria.

  • Aug 24, battle at Liaoyang, China, some 200,000 Japanese faced 150,000 Russians.

  • Sep 19, Gen. Nogi assaulted Port Arthur: 16,000 Japanese casualties.

  • Oct 1, Vladimir Horowitz, Russian-born American virtuoso pianist, was born in Kiev, Ukraine.

  • Oct 16, Russian Baltic fleet departed to lift the Japanese blockade at Port Arthur, Manchuria.

  • Oct 22, Russian Baltic fleet mistakenly fired on British fishing ships near Dogger Bank killing 2 fishermen.

  • Nov 28, Capture by the Japanese of 203 Meter Hill overlooking Port Arthur

  • Dec 5, Japanese destroyed Russian fleet at Port Arthur in Korea.

  • Dec 16, Japanese warships quit Port Arthur in order to cut off the Russian Baltic fleet’s advance.

1905 Jan 2, After a six-month siege, Russians surrendered Port Arthur to the Japanese.

  • Jan 3 Russian Revolution of 1905: A strike began at the Putilov Works in St. Petersburg.

  • Jan 9 Bloody Sunday (1905): Imperial Guard fired on the crowd, killing around 200 and wounding 800.

  • Jan 27, Russian General Kuropatkin took the offensive in Manchuria.

  • Feb 17, Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich was assassinated by a terrorist bomb at the Kremlin.

  • Feb 21, The Mukden campaign of the Russo-Japanese War, began.

  • Feb 24, Russian Minister of Agriculture, Alexi Yermolov offered the Czar a new constitution.

  • Feb 27, Japanese pushed Russians back in Manchuria, and cross the Sha River.

  • Mar 3, The Russian Czar agreed to create an elected assembly.

  • Mar 5, Russians began to retreat from Mukden in Manchuria.

  • Mar 8, The peasant revolt in Russia was reported to be spreading to Georgia.

  • May 27, The Russian-Japanese naval Battle of Tsushima began.

  • May 28 Russian Revolution of 1905: The first soviet was formed in the midst of a textile strike in Ivanovo-Voznesensk.

  • Jun 8, US Pres. Theodore Roosevelt offered to act as a mediator in the Russo-Japanese War.

  • Jun 10, Japan and Russia agreed to peace talks brokered by President Theodore Roosevelt.

  • June 14 Russian Revolution of 1905: A mutiny occurred aboard the battleship Potemkin.

  • Jun 27, The battleship Potemkin succumbed to a mutiny on the Black Sea.

  • Jun 29, Russian troops intervened as riots erupt in ports all over the country, leaving many ships looted.

  • Jul 8, The mutinous crew of the battleship Potemkin surrendered to Rumanian authorities.

  • Sep 5, The Russian-Japanese War ended by Treaty of Portsmouth. Japan achieved virtually all of its original war aims.

  • Oct 17 Russian Revolution of 1905: Nicholas signed Oct Manifesto, expanding civil liberties and establishing and empowering the first State Duma of the Russian Empire.

  • Oct 20, A Great General Strike in Russia began and lasted 11 days.

  • Oct 20, Russian tsar allowed Polish people to speak Polish.

  • Nov 10, Sailors revolted in Kronstadt, Russia.

  • Nov 22, British, Italian, Russian, French and Austrian-Hungarian fleet attacked the Grecian Isle of Lesbos.

  • Dec 1, Twenty officers and 230 guards were arrested in St. Petersburg, Russia for the revolt at the Winter Palace.

1906 Feb 20, Russian troops seized large portions of Mongolia.

  • Mar 20, Army officers in Russia mutinied at Sevastopol.

  • March Russian legislative election, 1906: First free elections to the Duma gave majorities to liberal and socialist parties.

  • Apr 10, A report from Russia said 7 soldiers were killed during a rebellion at the garrison in Tiflis (Tbilisi, Georgia). On April 17 it was reported that 315 soldiers were killed in a fight between mutineers and loyal troops.

  • April 23 The Fundamental Laws were issued, reaffirming the autocratic supremacy of the tsar.

  • The First Duma was called.

  • May 10, Russia's Duma (Parliament) met for the 1st time.

  • July 21 The First Duma was dissolved.

  • July 23 The Constitutional Democratic party (Kadets) issued the Vyborg Manifesto, calling on the Russian people to evade taxes and the draft. All signatories to the Manifesto lost their right to hold office in the Duma.

  • Nov 9 A decree by Prime Minister Pyotr Stolypin signaled the start of the Stolypin reform, intended to replace the obshchina with a more progressive, capitalist form of agriculture.

1907 Feb 9 secret police units of the MVD Department of State Police were unified under the authority of the new Okhrana.

  • Feb 18, 600,000 tons of grain was sent to Russia to relieve the famine there.

  • Feb 20 Second Duma began. The Kadets dropped seats, benefiting the RSDLP and the Socialist-Revolutionary Party.

  • Mar 1, There were only 15,000 Jews left in Odessa, Russia.

  • Mar 5, The 2nd Russian Duma, which included 7 Lithuanians, began work. The Duma stayed in session until June 15.

  • Mar 22, Russians troops completed the evacuation of Manchuria in the face of advancing Japanese forces.

  • June 3 The Second Duma was dissolved.

  • Nicholas changed the electoral law and gave greater electoral value to the votes of nobility and landowners.

  • Jun 16, The Russian czar dissolved the Duma in St. Petersburg.

  • Jun 26, Russia’s nobility demanded drastic measures to be taken against revolutionaries.

  • Aug 31, England, Russia and France formed their Triple Entente.

  • Nov 1 The Third Duma began.

  • Nov 26, The Russian Duma lent support to Czar in St. Petersburg, who claimed that he had renounced autocracy.

  • Stalin (1879-1953) organized an armed robbery on 2 coaches.

  • Britain and Russia carved Iran into spheres of influence.

1908 Feb 14, Russia and Britain threatened action in Macedonia if peace was not reached soon.

  • Apr 5, Japanese Army reached the Yalu River as the Russians retreated.

  • Jun 8, King Edward VII of England visited Czar Nicholas II of Russia in an effort to improve relations.

  • Sep 9, Russia grabbed part of Poland.

1909 Mar 26, Russian troops invaded Persia.

1910 Jan 21, A British-Russian military intervention took place in Persia.

1910 The State Duma in St. Petersburg was abolished.

1911 Mar 20, Russian Premier Stolypin resigned in St. Petersburg.



  • Sep 14, Stolypin assassination attempt at Kiev opera house.

  • Mendel Beilis was tried on charges of killing a Russian child to extract its blood for baking Passover matzos.

  • Russia exported 13.7 million tons of grain while some 30 million of its peasants suffered from famine.

1912 April 4 Lena goldfields massacre: The Russian army fired on a crowd of striking miners, killing 150.

  • May 5, The Soviet Communist Party newspaper Pravda began publishing.

  • June 9 The Third Duma ended.

  • Nov 15 The Fourth Duma was called. Bolshevik/Menshevik split final.

  • Nov 24, Austria denounced Serbian gains in the Balkans.

1913 Nov 26, Russian kingdom forbade Polish congregation of speakers.

1914 Jan 16, Maxim Gorky was authorized to return to Russia after an eight year exile for political dissidence.



  • Mar 17, Russia increased the number of active duty military from 460,000 to 1,700,000.

  • June 28 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand:

  • July 23 World War I: Austria-Hungary issued the July Ultimatum to Serbia,

  • Jul 25, Russia declared that it would act to protect Serbian sovereignty.

  • July 28 World War I: Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.

  • July 30 World War I: Russia mobilized its army to defend Serbia.

  • Jul 31, German Kaiser Wilhelm II threatened war and ordered Russia to demobilize.

  • Aug 1, Germany declared war on Russia at the onset of World War I.

  • Aug 2, Russian troops invade Eastern Prussia.

  • Aug 6, Austria-Hungary declared war against Russia and Serbia declared war against Germany.

  • Aug 20, German forces occupied Brussels, Belgium, during World War I.

  • Aug 20, Russia won an early victory over Germany at Gumbinnen.

  • Aug 27, 2nd day of battle at Tannenberg: Germany bombed Usdau.

  • Aug 29, 4th day of Tannenberg: Russian Narev-army panics, Gen Martos caught.

  • Aug 31, Germany defeated Russia at the battle at Tannenberg. Some 30,000 Russians died.

  • Sep 1, Russia renamed St. Petersburg to Petrograd.

  • Sep 5 First Battle of the Marne began during World War I

  • Oct 29 Turkish fleet including 2 German cruisers stormed Black Sea and bombarded Odessa, Sevastopol, Theodosia.

  • Nov 2, Russia declared war with Turkey. [see Oct 29]

  • Nov 25, Hindenburg called off Lodz offensive 40 miles from Warsaw.

1915 Jan 31, Germans used poison gas on the Russians at Bolimov.

  • Feb 7, Field marshal Paul von Hindenburg moved on Russians at Masurian Lakes.

  • Feb 21, The 20th Russian Army corps surrendered.

  • May 2 Gorlice-Tarnów Offensive: The German army launched an offensive across the length of the Eastern Front.

  • Jun 22, Austro-German forces occupied Lemberg on the Eastern Front as the Russians retreated.

  • Aug 4 Gorlice-Tarnów Offensive: Germany conquered Warsaw.

  • Aug 23, Czar Nicolaas II took control of the Russian Army.

  • Sep 19 Gorlice-Tarnów Offensive: German forces captured Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania.

  • Oct 19, Russia and Italy declared war on Bulgaria.

  • Ingush and Chechen regiments led "the Brusilov breakthrough" on the Russian-German front.

1916 Jan 11, Russian General Yudenich launched a WWI winter offensive and advances west.

  • Jan 18, The Russians forced the Turkish 3rd Army back to Erzurum.

  • Feb 16, Russian troops conquered Erzurum, Armenia.

  • Feb 26, Russian troops conquered Kermansjah, Persia.

  • Mar 18, On the Eastern Front, the Russians countered the Verdun assault with an attack at Lake Naroch.

  • June 25 Basmachi Revolt: Nicholas issued a decree ordering the conscription of Central Asians.

  • Jun 26, Russian General Aleksei Brusilov renewed his offensive against the Germans.

  • Aug 7, Persia formed an alliance with Britain and Russia.

  • Aug 11, The Russia army took Stanislau, Poland, from the Germans.

  • Nov 5 By the Act of Nov 5th, the German government established the nominally independent Kingdom of Poland.

  • Nov 7, Grand duke Nikolai Nikolayevich warned the czar of an uprising.

  • Dec 16 Rasputin was murdered by a group of nobles in the house of Prince Felix Yussupov.

1917 Jan Strikes and unrest in Petrograd.

  • Feb 22 Feb Revolution: The workers at the Putilov Plant in Petrograd went on strike.

  • Feb 23 Feb Revolution: Demonstrations were held, demanding end of Russian autocracy and end of Russian participation in World War I.

  • Feb 25 Feb Revolution: A battalion of soldiers was sent to Petrograd to end the uprising.

  • Feb 28, Russian Duma set up a Provisional Committee; workers set up Soviets.

  • Gregorian/Julian
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