7th Grade Milestones Study Guide Geography



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Name: ___________________________

Date: __________ Period: ___________



7th Grade Milestones Study Guide

Geography
Africa


Atlas Mountains

Kalahari Desert

Lake Victoria

Lake Tanganyika

Nile River

Niger River

Congo River

Sahel

Sahara Desert

South Sudan

Sudan

South Africa

Nigeria

Kenya

Egypt

Democratic Republic of the Congo


  1. Locate (label) these countries: Dem Rep of Congo, Egypt, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Sudan, and South Sudan

  2. Locate (label) these physical features: Sahara Desert, Sahel, Congo River, Niger River, Nile River, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Atlas Mts., Kalahari Desert


Huang He River

Himalayan Mountains

China

South Korea

Taklimakan Desert

Gobi Desert

Korean Peninsula

South China Sea

Vietnam

Yellow Sea

Sea of Japan

Indian Ocean

Bay of Bengal

Yangtze River

Mekong River

Indus River

Ganges River

North Korea

Japan

Indonesia

India
Southern and Eastern Asia

  1. Locate (label) these countries: China, India, Indonesia, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam

  2. Locate (label) these physical features: Ganges River, Huang He River, Indus River, Mekong River, Yangtze River, Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean, Sea of Japan, South China Sea, Yellow Sea, Gobi Desert, Taklimakan Desert, Himalayan Mountains, Korean Peninsula

Southwest Asia


Turkey

Iran

Red Sea

Persian Gulf

Suez Canal

Gaza Strip

Israel

Euphrates River

Tigris River

Jordan River

Afghanistan

Iraq

Arabian Sea

Strait of Hormuz

Saudi Arabia



  1. Locate (label) these countries: Israel, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Afghanistan

  2. Locate (label) these physical features: Jordan River, Tigris River, Euphrates River, Gaza Strip, Suez Canal, Persian Gulf, Red Sea, Arabian Sea, Strait of Hormuz



Prime Meridian
World Map

Asia

Europe

Africa

Australia

Antarctica

South America

North America

Eastern Hemisphere

Western Hemisphere

Southern Hemisphere


Northern Hemisphere


Equator
http://flowingdata.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/screen-shot-2011-05-08-at-6.28.37-pm1.png

Environmental Issues Review

Environmental Issue

Location

Cause

Effect

Water pollution

Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

Oil spills, trash, industries, agriculture

Impacts trade, irrigation, and drinking water

Unequal distribution of water

Euphrates River

Dams

Limits the water supply downstream

Water pollution/unsafe drinking water

WP-Nile, Niger, Congo Rivers
UDW- sub-Saharan Africa

WP-oil spills, industries
UDW-parasites, pesticides

WP- impacts trade, irrigation, and drinking water

UDW- sickness, death



Poor soil

All over Africa

Years of overgrazing and foraging

Leads to deforestation, restricts farming

Deforestation

Tropical Rain Forest

Poor soil, logging, slash-and-burn agriculture

Leads to desertification, poor farming=starvation

Desertification

Sahel region

Over-farming, over-grazing, drought

Death, starvation

Water pollution

Ganges and Yangtze Rivers

Trash, industries, farming, cremated bodies, over population

Sickness, impacts farming, lack of clean water

Air pollution

Major cities in India and China

Car exhaust, industries, over-population, biomass fuels (indoor)

Sickness, lung disease, climate change

Flooding

Major rivers of India and China

Monsoon rains, dams

Destroys crops and homes, death

Ethnic Groups of the Middle East and Africa




Ethnic Group

Location

Religion

Language

Arabs

North Africa and the Middle East

Islam and many Christians

Arabic

Persians

Iran

Islam

(most belong to Shia)



Farsi

Kurds

Many different countries in SW Asia, most can be found in mountainous areas where Syria, Turkey, Iran and Iraq come together

Sunni Muslim

Kurdish

Ashanti

Ghana

Traditional, elements of animism. Some Christianity and Islam

Twi

Bantu

*Language Group*

Central and southern parts of Africa

Animist. Some Christianity and Islam

Bantu

Swahili

Eastern coast of Africa

Most Muslim, some traditional elements

Swahili: Mix of Bantu and Arabic

Ethnic Group

Group of people who share cultural ideas and beliefs. Common language, religion, history, food, traditions, etc.



Religious Group

Group of people who share same belief system.



Religions of the World





Hinduism

Buddhism

Shintoism

Confucianism

Islam

Christianity

Judaism

Monotheistic or

Polytheistic



Mono/Poly

Neither

Poly

Philosophy

Mono

Mono

Mono

Leader/Founder

Aryans

Buddha

None

Confucius

Muhammad

Jesus

Abraham

Main Beliefs

Karma, reincarnation, caste system

Karma, reincarnation, 4 noble truths, 8fold path

Love and respect of nature, kami

Behaving with good character and virtue

5 Pillars of Faith

10 Commandments

Jesus is the Son of God



10 Commandments



Holy Book

Vedas

Sutras

None

Analects

Koran

Bible

Torah

Place of Worship

Temple, mandir

Temple

Shrine

none

Mosque

Church

Synagogue

Origins? Where did it all start?

India

India

Japan

China

Saudi Arabia

Israel

Middle East

Location: Where can you find the believers now?

India

SE Asia

Japan

China

Middle East and North Africa

World

Israel

Similarities Differences

Citizens have little to no power

Citizens have little to no power

President


Prime Minister


Executive is PART of the Legislature


Executive is SEPARATE from the Legislature


Citizens elect leaders


Power is shared between central and local governments

Local govt. has all the power

One central govt. has all the power
http://schools.paulding.k12.ga.us/ischooldistrict/media/files/4079/government%20graphic%20org%20pic.jpg


Consumers make the economic decisions

The knowledge and skills that make it possible for workers to earn a living producing goods and services.

The factories, machines, and technology that people use to make products to sell

Someone who takes the risk to start a business

Tax on imported goods

Limit on imported goods

Blocking trade with another country

Physical features that prevent trade

Economic decisions are made by both the government and consumers

Economic decisions are based on customs, traditions, and needs

The government makes the economic decisions

What are the three questions we ask to determine the type of economy?

1. What to produce?

2. How to produce?

3. For whom to produce?






Natural Resources


Government Review

Country

Type of Government

Form of Leadership

Role of Citizen

Israel

Parliamentary Democracy

Elected parliament (Knesset) with Prime Minister from majority party

All citizens over the age of 18 can vote. Many personal freedoms

Saudi Arabia

Monarchy

Head of government is king from ruling family. King and advisors make the laws. Many laws based on teachings of Quran (Shariah law).

Little to none citizen participation.

Iran

Theocratic Republic

Popularly elected president and legislature. Also has powerful religious rulers, base laws on Quran

Iranian citizens over the age of 16 can vote

South Africa

Republic

President chose by legislature

All citizens 18 or older can vote. Numerous personal freedoms

Kenya

Republic

President

All citizens 18 or older can vote. Freedoms in constitution, but govt. dominated by Pres. Have been improvements.

Sudan

“Republic”

President (Dictator)

All citizens 17 or older can vote. Citizens have few freedoms. Most govt. positions appointed.

China

Communist

Natl. People’s Congress (from Chinese Communist Party) with leaders chosen by Congress. Premier is HOG.

All citizens over the age of 18 can vote. Must be member of CCP. Very few personal freedoms

Japan

Constitutional Monarchy, parliamentary democracy


Elected parliament (Diet) and prime minister chosen by Diet. Emperor ceremonial leader. (Unitary)

All citizens 20 or older can vote, many personal freedoms

India

Federal Democratic Republic

Elected parliament with Prime Minister from majority party

All citizens over the age 18 can vote, many personal freedoms

North Korea

Communist

Supreme Leader

No personal freedoms

ECONOMIES REVIEW

COUNTRY

TYPE OF ECONOMY

NATURAL RESOURCES

MAINLY PRODUCING

INVESTING IN CAPITAL

(human and investment)

ENCOURAGING ENTREPRENEURSHIP

Israel

Mixed closer to market

Few natural resources so has focused on technology

Faming and military technology

Wide access to education

yes

Saudi Arabia

Mixed, govt. makes most decisions about oil but do allow entrepreneurship

oil

oil

Yes, but lower literacy rates for females

Yes, except in oil

Turkey

Mixed with heavy govt. control




textiles

yes

yes

Iran

Mixed, but govt. makes most decisions

oil

oil

no

no

South Africa

Mixed closer to market

Platinum, gold, and diamonds

Mining-platinum, gold, uranium and diamonds.

Heavily in human capital, but very high unemployment rate

yes

Nigeria

Mixed closer to command

oil

Oil and petrochemicals

No due to weak govt. civil war, etc.

Very little due to corrupt government in the past. Slowly allowing more.

Japan

Mixed closer to mkt, very free

Very few which is why they have invested so much in technology

technology

yes

Yes!

China

Mixed moving from command towards market




Manufactured goods

Yes, but lower literacy rates in rural areas

Starting to allow more

North Korea

command




Military equipment

no

no

India

mixed

cotton

Textiles, services, technology

Trying to, but weak infrastructure makes it difficult.

Yes, but problems occur because of government corruption and weak infrastructure.

Similarities Differences
Vocabulary Review
Unitary: __________________________________________________________________________________
Confederation: _____________________________________________________________________________
Federal: __________________________________________________________________________________
Autocratic: ________________________________________________________________________________
Oligarchic: ________________________________________________________________________________
Democratic: _______________________________________________________________________________
Presidential democracy: ______________________________________________________________________
Parliamentary democracy: ____________________________________________________________________
Traditional economy: ________________________________________________________________________
Market economy: ___________________________________________________________________________
Command economy: ________________________________________________________________________
Mixed economy: ___________________________________________________________________________
Specialization: _____________________________________________________________________________
Tariff: ____________________________________________________________________________________

Quota: ____________________________________________________________________________________


Embargo: _________________________________________________________________________________
Human capital: _____________________________________________________________________________
Investment capital: __________________________________________________________________________
Gross Domestic Product: _____________________________________________________________________
Entrepreneur: ______________________________________________________________________________

Questions!
1. How has oil affected the development of the Middle East?

Countries who have oil are very wealthy, while those that do not are extremely poor. Countries also need a stable government to see benefits of oil.


2. How do deserts and rivers affect population?

Population is greater near water.


3. How are ethnic groups and religious groups different?

Ethnic groups: Group of people who share cultural ideas and beliefs. Common language, religion, history, food, traditions, etc.

Religious groups: group of people who share same belief system
4. What is the reason for the division between Sunni and Shia Muslims?

Belief in who should lead after the death of Muhammad.


5. How does literacy rate affect the standard of living in a country?

Higher the literacy, higher the standard of living. Lower literacy rate, lower standard of living


6. What is the primary function of OPEC?

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; control the production and price of oil


7. Why does international trade require a system for exchanging currencies?

So that countries can trade with one another


8. How do various factors affect access to education in Kenya and Sudan?

Gender- females are expected to have traditional roles in the home. Attendance is higher in cities vs. rural areas. Girls have more of access in Kenya than Sudan, but still worse than that compared to boys. Because of civil war in Sudan access for all is limited and expensive. Most families would rather spend the money on boys than girl’s education. Daughters often seen as needing to prepare for marriage.


9. How does government stability impact a country’s ability to combat AIDS and famine?

If a country has a stable government its people are more likely to get the supplies and food they need than countries who are at constant conflict.


10. How does the distribution of natural resources like diamonds, oil, gold, and uranium impact the economic development of Africa?

Most countries that have the natural resources are more stable, but sometimes the resources are used to fund conflict and corruption, such as oil in Nigeria.


11. Why do most economies operate as a mixed economy?

Countries’ economies are most successful when they have both government and consumer control.




Name: ___________________________

Date: __________ Period: ___________


7th Grade Milestones Study Guide

History Standards
Southwest Asia


What did this division lead to?

Conflict among ethnic and religious groups



Who divided the Ottoman Empire at the end of WWI?

1918, Allied Powers of Europe




Four Historical Reasons for the Establishment of Israel in ___1948___.




Religious Ties to the Land

(holy land promised to them by God)



Zionism

Belief that Jews deserved a homeland- Zion (holy land promised to them by God)



Anti-Semitism

Racism against Jews



Holocaust

Systematic killing of thousands of Jews during WWII by Nazis




Name two reasons for continuing conflict in the Middle East.

1. Land


2. Religion

Examples:

Palestinians (Muslim) and Jews over Israel




U.S. Presence in the Middle East
1. First Persian Gulf War (AKA Operation Desert Storm)

U.S. invaded because…

Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait because he believed they were part of Iraq, but really was after OIL. U.S. and United Nations worked to kick Iraq out of Kuwait and were successful. UN placed an embargo on Iraq.

2. Second Persian Gulf War (AKA Invasion of Iraq or Operation Iraqi Freedom)

U.S. invaded because…

U.S. believed that Saddam Hussein and the Iraqi government were devolving WMDs and offering aid to groups like Al-Qaeda and were a threat to US interest in the region. Iraq govt. overthrown but US did not have plan to help reorganize govt and American forces have remained trying to stop the fighting between different religious and ethnic groups.

3. Invasion of Afghanistan

U.S. invaded because…

9/11. U.S. wanted to capture the people responsible for the terrorist attacks and believed that Osama bin-Laden and Al-Qaeda were hiding there.

AFRICA


European partitioning across Africa contributed to conflict, civil war, and artificial political boundaries because when they colonized and partitioned Africa they had little concern for the ethnic and religious groups that lived there.



Two men who helped end it:

  • F.W. de Klerk (reformed laws and released Mandela)

  • Nelson Mandela (fought for equal rights, jailed for 27 years, released and became first black president of South Africa)

Apartheid:

Legal separation of races




Took place in:

South Africa




NATIONALISM TO INDEPENDENCE


Define Nationalism

Pride in one’s country


Colony of:


Nationalist movement led by:




Kenya

Great Britain

Jomo Kenyatta


South Africa

Great Britain

White South Africans


Nigeria

Great Britain

Youth


  • Pan –African Movement

    • Movement to unite people of African descent no matter where they lived in the world.

    • Wanted people of the continent to work together to create a better homeland for all.

    • While didn’t unite Africa, can take credit for sparking independence movements that left nearly all African nations free from colonial rule by the 1980s.




Southern and Eastern Asia
NATIONALISM TO INDEPENDENCE

Define Nationalism

Pride in one’s country



Colony of:


Nationalist movement led by:



Vietnam

France

Ho Chi Minh

India

Great Britain

Mohandas Gandhi


Mohandas “Mahatma” Gandhi


Another name for this tactic is…

Civil disobedience

Non-Violent Protest

Mohandas Gandhi preached…

For the people of India to refuse to follow unfair British laws but to do it without any violence



Gandhi’s belief inspired…

Nationalism / Independence

MLK, Jr. and other world leaders



Why was Gandhi disappointed even though India gained independence?

Pakistan was created from India for Muslims, Gandhi believed all should work together for united India.





U.S. Rebuilding Japan After WWII


Examples of changes the U.S. made include:

  • Keeping Emperor, but establishing a Constitutional Monarchy

  • Bringing in U.S. cultural influences, fair education for women

  • Giving them money to help grow economy.



U.S. helped rebuild Japan after WWII because… after dropping the atomic bombs and destroying cities they wanted to make sure communism did not spread to Japan

Three ways the U.S. helped rebuild…

1. Political

2. Social

3. Economic



Communism in China


Great Leap Forward

Purpose: build an economy that would rival the West by focusing on collective farms and industry

Results: failure, starvation, death, loss of personal freedoms

Mao Zedong was…

Founder of communism in China





Tiananmen Square Protests

Who: students

What: gathered to protest corruption in government and called for a move towards Democracy/freedoms

Results: soldiers ordered to break up demonstration “any means necessary,” thousands arrested and killed. Pro-democracy mvmt. destroyed as well. Example of Loss of freedoms in China.



Cultural Revolution

Purpose: Mao to show control, wanted to create a classless society. Created Red Guard for youth.

Results: intellectuals killed, chaos in China, loss of personal freedoms

Containment of Communism


Korean War
Reason U.S. got involved:

-Domino Theory

-Communist North Korea invaded democratic South Korea.

-Contain communism


Results:

-3 year war.

-Remained divided at 38th parallel (DMZ)

-Communism contained to North Korea.

-South Korea democratic.


Vietnam War
Reason U.S. got involved:

-Domino Theory

-Communist North Vietnam wanted to reunite with South Vietnam

-U.S. supported French efforts to regain colonial control of Vietnam to stop spread of Communism

-Contain communism

Results:


-Lasted many years

-thousands died

-very unpopular war in U.S.

-Vietnam reunited under Communist government








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