7. 01 Are You Awake?



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7.01 Are You Awake?

In the 1730s and 1740s, the "Great Awakening" happened mainly in __________ _______________ traditional colonial religious groups.

These ideas from influenced the American _________________________.

_____________ the American Revolution, many people felt their churches and religious leaders needed more _____________ and inspirational _____________________.



Courses (What Happened DURING the Second Great Awakening):

Through the first half of the ________________, religious activity _________________ again. The movement was more _________________ and had greater long-term effects on American society.

Many Americans in the 1800s became _________________Christians. Evangelicals believed humans could conquer ____________ and remake themselves through conversion to Christianity (or being ”born again” - a complete change of life). Participating in __________ _________________ inspired many conversions

Leaders of the 2nd Great Awakening religious revival

Charles ______________: Encouraged followers to help other people _____________ their own sins as well; held camp meetings.

Phoebe ______________: Emphasized reflecting on one's own faith over ___________________ sins to others, but also believed _______________ would improve as more people studied their ________________; held prayer meetings.

__________________ participated in the ________________ Great Awakening more than men.



Consequences (What OUTCOMES Resulted Because of the Second Great Awakening):

1. Social _____________________: A social reform movement is a group of people working toward making a ______________ through law to ___________________ the community.

Popular causes that arose in the 1800s were:

Antislavery – _____________ (ending) of slavery

Temperance - outlaw the drinking of alcohol_________________________; valued discipline and productivity

Women's ________________ Movements – women’s right to vote

2. Growth of Other ___________________ Groups

Population growth and outreach activities ____________________membership in churches.

Some communities openly ________________________ the revivals and evangelical preachers, stating _____________________ was guilty of sin and must confront it.

7.02 Inside Slavery

As of 1840, there were nearly 2.5 million enslaved people in the United States, and would grow to 4 million by 1860, mostly through __________________ __________________ (growth of a population due to a greater number of births than deaths).

Slave ______________________were first person _____________________of life under slavery.

Family Life

About half the infants born to enslaved parents did not __________________ their first year of life. Adults and children alike suffered constant _______________________________. Families were torn apart or frequently under threat of ________________________ because of the slave trade. Enslaved people had no rights under U.S. law, and so __________________ were not recognized as _____________.



Spirituality

Africans came to the United States with a variety of religious beliefs; many were ___________________ (believed in more than one God). The Second Great ____________________ affected the enslaved population as well as the free as it allowed many slaves to _______________ to Christianity because owners felt the converting would make slaves more ____________________.Enslaved people welcomed the lessons and ____________________of Christianity, which gave _____________ for a life better than the one they had. ________________ also helped enslaved families teach children the values important to them, how to survive on their own, and provided ____________________ when not working.



Labor The largest ____________________ of enslaved African Americans worked on large ______________________ growing the _____________ ______________ of tobacco, _______________, indigo, rice, or sugarcane. The ______________________ of people worked on farms with less than 20 slaves. They tended _________________________ and food crops. Some slaves had training in ____________ such as ironworking, tailoring, or blacksmithing, while others worked specifically as household servants, preparing and serving food, and cleaning.

Homes Most slaves had ____________________ for their own families, and houses were usually very ___________to each other.

7.03 Join the Resistance!

The Cotton Gin

Eli _______________________ invention of the cotton gin __________________ the nature of U.S. ____________in the early 1800s. The cotton _______caused slave owners to depend even ___________ on slavery. The value of slaves _____________________, making owning slaves a large investment. The cotton gin ______________________ the number of slaves, and slave ownership became more __________________ than ever before. Slave owners feared financial loss and __________________, like Nat Turner’s Rebellion.



Laws and the Cotton Gin

Southern states passed laws to control the __________________of slavery. For example, South Carolina passed a law making it _______________ to ____________________ (to release from slavery slaves without permission from the state). Teaching slaves to read or ___________ was a punishable _____________ in most southern states.

Not all people in ____________________________ states agreed with _________________ slavery or helping slaves.

Active Resistance – the Anti-slavery movement

*Pensacola, Florida : Jonathan ________________ (1799-1878) was a famous _____________________ Railroad “conductor.”

“Conductor” was the code name for any person who ___________________ escaped slaves.

Walker was a ___________ captain who attempted to _______________escaped slaves to the Bahamas and freedom.

*Boston, Massachusetts: William _______________ Garrison (1805-1879) published the first edition of his Boston newspaper in 1831. Garrison wanted an ______________________ end to slavery. The Liberator spread his _____________________. It featured essays by other slavery fighters, like Frederick Douglass.

Print text and _____________________ were the main ways abolitionists spread their ________________.

*Baltimore, MD: Frederick Douglass (1817-1895) was born enslaved. Years later, he disguised himself as a sailor and escaped to freedom. Douglass was a powerful _______________ and was as a spokesperson for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society. He published three ________________________________ helping spread the message against slavery. He helped slaves escape through the New York “lines” to _____________________. A “line” was the code name for an escape ______________ on the Underground Railroad.

*Harriet Tubman (about 1820-1913) escaped enslavement in 1849. She returned 19 times to the _______________ to help lead about 300 slaves to freedom, many from her own family. Tubman is probably the most famous _____________________ on the Underground Railroad.

The Underground Railroad: In Newport, Ohio, about 100 people escaping slavery ____________ through Levi Coffin’s “station” each year for twenty years. A “station” was the code name for a ______________ place to hide and rest on the Underground Railroad. Stations were often private ______________ or churches. Escapees were safe here from the patrollers and bloodhounds that searched for _______________ slaves.

7.04 Her Rights

In the 1800s, women could not _____________ and most girls did not go to school past eighth grade.

U.S. society expected women to remain in the household or work in poor-paying ________________ jobs.

Women could have meetings, publish essays, and speak in front of other women; however, they could _______rise to leadership positions within reform organizations or speak to groups containing __________.

In the 1840s and 1850s leaders of the women’s rights movement paved the way for rights women have today. The 1848 Seneca Falls ____________________ and writing of the Declaration of ______________ were two critical events.

Inspirations

By the 1830s, many women were active in _______________ movements. The _______________ Great Awakening __________________women to focus on solving _________________ problems

Many Americans believed women to be better than men at guarding _________________ .

Early Steps

Women believed it was their civic duty to improve society--they were active early in the antislavery and temperance movements.

The antislavery movement _____________________ the push to win the right to vote for women.

Participation in ______________ reform movements helped ___________________ the women's movement, because women's ___________________ in them made people question the limitations placed on women in society.

The __________________ Falls Convention in 1848 – Elizabeth Cady _____________________ authorized the Declaration of ____________________________.

In 1869, Susan B. ________________and Elizabeth Cady ___________________ formed the National Woman _______________________________ Association (NWSA) to focus on a constitutional amendment for women’s suffrage.

Lucy ___________ and husband Henry Blackwell formed the American Woman Suffrage ______________________ (AWSA) to focus on passing laws at the _____________level.

1869, in ___________________, Louisa ______________was the first woman to __________ in the nation.

Wyoming was then a ______________, not a state. The movement found it easier to convince the territories to include women in voting partly because their ______________ were so much smaller.

In 1890, the NWSA and AWSA combined to form one national organization. Women across the nation would not all be able to vote until _____________, with the passage of the _____th Amendment

Society accepted women’s reform actions as long as women did not take men’s normal ________.

7.05 Transcendentalism

Transcendentalism: ________ ______________ movement in _______________ focused on individual thought and feeling to answer questions.

“____________________ fiction” was one type of novel. These stories featured _____________main characters who discovered they were ________________ than they thought possible. Steam-powered presses increased the production of __________________ materials.



Feelings and Emotion:

Transcendentalists believed that the answers to life’s mysteries are found within us or in ______________.

They explored their own feelings and ____________- to answer difficult questions. Some topics they wrote about were ________, the mind, and _______________ problems. They believed study and self-reflection could give better results than _______________.

Nature:

Many Transcendentalists called themselves “Christian.” Yet many believed God and nature were the _________________. People in New England _________________ them for this and their other ideas. Their ideas were _______praised, but the beauty of their nature imagery in the writers’ ________________ received great attention.



Nonconformity:

Transcendentalists believed they had “transcended,” or gone beyond, most people in understanding the world. In their minds, conforming to, or following, what everyone else did was like losing their ___________________.



Margaret Fuller: A supporter of women’s rights. She published her ____________ Woman in the Nineteenth Century in 1845. By _____________, she refused to conform to what society expected of women.

Henry David Thoreau: He chose not to ______________ to American city life. He lived in the woods for two years, built a cabin, grew his own food, and studied _______________. He felt that if a law went against morality, then citizens should protest it ___________________. He based his opinions on whether he thought each cause was just.

Utopian Communities: Transcendentalists attempted to create small communities where they shared resources and chores. We call an attempt to create a ____________ community a “_____________” (an ideal and perfect place for living).

Legacy: The Transcendentalists’ focus on _______________thought and action helped support reform movements. They later influenced civil rights leaders like Mahatma ____________ and the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. who studied _______________ writing. Civil _______________ featured in their efforts and helped King to understand his own struggle.

Transcendentalism Quick Facts:

  • Ralph Waldo _________________ was the central person in Transcendentalism.

  • American access to reading materials ____________in the early 1800s.

  • Domestic fiction featured _______________ as the main characters.

  • Transcendentalism poetry contains many references to _______________.

  • Henry David __________________ wrote an essay about ______________disobedience that inspired later reformers.

  • A ______________ community was an attempt to create a _________________ place to live.

7.06 Bring on the Reform!

In the 1800s, the _____________ and women’s _____________ movements gained the most attention.

*Charles Loring __________ founded the Children’s Aid Society in New York City. He wanted to help the city’s ___________ children.

*Horace ____________ was a key person in bringing __________________ to all young Americans.

* Thomas _________________and Samuel _________________both helped to bring education to _________________ children and ________________ children.

* Dorothea ______________, Americans began to learn that, with treatment, _______________ illness could improve. Her work included the founding of 32 mental ________________ and creating libraries in many hospitals and ___________________.



* Neal ____________ was a mayor in Portland, Maine. He played a crucial role in the passage of the first statewide ___________________ law. Prohibition was different from temperance because it means passing laws to ___________________alcohol use.


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