|7.01 Are You Awake?
In the 1730s and 1740s, the "Great Awakening" happened mainly in __________ _______________ traditional colonial religious groups.
These ideas from influenced the American _________________________.
_____________ the American Revolution, many people felt their churches and religious leaders needed more _____________ and inspirational _____________________.
Courses (What Happened DURING the Second Great Awakening):
Through the first half of the ________________, religious activity _________________ again. The movement was more _________________ and had greater long-term effects on American society.
Many Americans in the 1800s became _________________Christians. Evangelicals believed humans could conquer ____________ and remake themselves through conversion to Christianity (or being ”born again” - a complete change of life). Participating in __________ _________________ inspired many conversions
Leaders of the 2nd Great Awakening religious revival
Charles ______________: Encouraged followers to help other people _____________ their own sins as well; held camp meetings.
Phoebe ______________: Emphasized reflecting on one's own faith over ___________________ sins to others, but also believed _______________ would improve as more people studied their ________________; held prayer meetings.
__________________ participated in the ________________ Great Awakening more than men.
Consequences (What OUTCOMES Resulted Because of the Second Great Awakening):
1. Social _____________________: A social reform movement is a group of people working toward making a ______________ through law to ___________________ the community.
Popular causes that arose in the 1800s were:
Antislavery – _____________ (ending) of slavery
Temperance - outlaw the drinking of alcohol_________________________; valued discipline and productivity
Women's ________________ Movements – women’s right to vote
2. Growth of Other ___________________ Groups
Population growth and outreach activities ____________________membership in churches.
Some communities openly ________________________ the revivals and evangelical preachers, stating _____________________ was guilty of sin and must confront it.
7.02 Inside Slavery
As of 1840, there were nearly 2.5 million enslaved people in the United States, and would grow to 4 million by 1860, mostly through __________________ __________________ (growth of a population due to a greater number of births than deaths).
Slave ______________________were first person _____________________of life under slavery.
About half the infants born to enslaved parents did not __________________ their first year of life. Adults and children alike suffered constant _______________________________. Families were torn apart or frequently under threat of ________________________ because of the slave trade. Enslaved people had no rights under U.S. law, and so __________________ were not recognized as _____________.
Africans came to the United States with a variety of religious beliefs; many were ___________________ (believed in more than one God). The Second Great ____________________ affected the enslaved population as well as the free as it allowed many slaves to _______________ to Christianity because owners felt the converting would make slaves more ____________________.Enslaved people welcomed the lessons and ____________________of Christianity, which gave _____________ for a life better than the one they had. ________________ also helped enslaved families teach children the values important to them, how to survive on their own, and provided ____________________ when not working.
Labor The largest ____________________ of enslaved African Americans worked on large ______________________ growing the _____________ ______________ of tobacco, _______________, indigo, rice, or sugarcane. The ______________________ of people worked on farms with less than 20 slaves. They tended _________________________ and food crops. Some slaves had training in ____________ such as ironworking, tailoring, or blacksmithing, while others worked specifically as household servants, preparing and serving food, and cleaning.
Homes Most slaves had ____________________ for their own families, and houses were usually very ___________to each other.
7.03 Join the Resistance!
The Cotton Gin
Eli _______________________ invention of the cotton gin __________________ the nature of U.S. ____________in the early 1800s. The cotton _______caused slave owners to depend even ___________ on slavery. The value of slaves _____________________, making owning slaves a large investment. The cotton gin ______________________ the number of slaves, and slave ownership became more __________________ than ever before. Slave owners feared financial loss and __________________, like Nat Turner’s Rebellion.
Laws and the Cotton Gin
Southern states passed laws to control the __________________of slavery. For example, South Carolina passed a law making it _______________ to ____________________ (to release from slavery slaves without permission from the state). Teaching slaves to read or ___________ was a punishable _____________ in most southern states.
Not all people in ____________________________ states agreed with _________________ slavery or helping slaves.
Active Resistance – the Anti-slavery movement
*Pensacola, Florida : Jonathan ________________ (1799-1878) was a famous _____________________ Railroad “conductor.”
“Conductor” was the code name for any person who ___________________ escaped slaves.
Walker was a ___________ captain who attempted to _______________escaped slaves to the Bahamas and freedom.
*Boston, Massachusetts: William _______________ Garrison (1805-1879) published the first edition of his Boston newspaper in 1831. Garrison wanted an ______________________ end to slavery. The Liberator spread his _____________________. It featured essays by other slavery fighters, like Frederick Douglass.
Print text and _____________________ were the main ways abolitionists spread their ________________.
*Baltimore, MD: Frederick Douglass (1817-1895) was born enslaved. Years later, he disguised himself as a sailor and escaped to freedom. Douglass was a powerful _______________ and was as a spokesperson for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society. He published three ________________________________ helping spread the message against slavery. He helped slaves escape through the New York “lines” to _____________________. A “line” was the code name for an escape ______________ on the Underground Railroad.
*Harriet Tubman (about 1820-1913) escaped enslavement in 1849. She returned 19 times to the _______________ to help lead about 300 slaves to freedom, many from her own family. Tubman is probably the most famous _____________________ on the Underground Railroad.
The Underground Railroad: In Newport, Ohio, about 100 people escaping slavery ____________ through Levi Coffin’s “station” each year for twenty years. A “station” was the code name for a ______________ place to hide and rest on the Underground Railroad. Stations were often private ______________ or churches. Escapees were safe here from the patrollers and bloodhounds that searched for _______________ slaves.
7.04 Her Rights
In the 1800s, women could not _____________ and most girls did not go to school past eighth grade.
U.S. society expected women to remain in the household or work in poor-paying ________________ jobs.
Women could have meetings, publish essays, and speak in front of other women; however, they could _______rise to leadership positions within reform organizations or speak to groups containing __________.
In the 1840s and 1850s leaders of the women’s rights movement paved the way for rights women have today. The 1848 Seneca Falls ____________________ and writing of the Declaration of ______________ were two critical events.
By the 1830s, many women were active in _______________ movements. The _______________ Great Awakening __________________women to focus on solving _________________ problems
Many Americans believed women to be better than men at guarding _________________ .
Women believed it was their civic duty to improve society--they were active early in the antislavery and temperance movements.
The antislavery movement _____________________ the push to win the right to vote for women.
Participation in ______________ reform movements helped ___________________ the women's movement, because women's ___________________ in them made people question the limitations placed on women in society.
The __________________ Falls Convention in 1848 – Elizabeth Cady _____________________ authorized the Declaration of ____________________________.
In 1869, Susan B. ________________and Elizabeth Cady ___________________ formed the National Woman _______________________________ Association (NWSA) to focus on a constitutional amendment for women’s suffrage.
Lucy ___________ and husband Henry Blackwell formed the American Woman Suffrage ______________________ (AWSA) to focus on passing laws at the _____________level.
1869, in ___________________, Louisa ______________was the first woman to __________ in the nation.
Wyoming was then a ______________, not a state. The movement found it easier to convince the territories to include women in voting partly because their ______________ were so much smaller.
In 1890, the NWSA and AWSA combined to form one national organization. Women across the nation would not all be able to vote until _____________, with the passage of the _____th Amendment
Society accepted women’s reform actions as long as women did not take men’s normal ________.
Transcendentalism: ________ ______________ movement in _______________ focused on individual thought and feeling to answer questions.
“____________________ fiction” was one type of novel. These stories featured _____________main characters who discovered they were ________________ than they thought possible. Steam-powered presses increased the production of __________________ materials.
Feelings and Emotion:
Transcendentalists believed that the answers to life’s mysteries are found within us or in ______________.
They explored their own feelings and ____________- to answer difficult questions. Some topics they wrote about were ________, the mind, and _______________ problems. They believed study and self-reflection could give better results than _______________.
Many Transcendentalists called themselves “Christian.” Yet many believed God and nature were the _________________. People in New England _________________ them for this and their other ideas. Their ideas were _______praised, but the beauty of their nature imagery in the writers’ ________________ received great attention.
Transcendentalists believed they had “transcended,” or gone beyond, most people in understanding the world. In their minds, conforming to, or following, what everyone else did was like losing their ___________________.
Margaret Fuller: A supporter of women’s rights. She published her ____________ Woman in the Nineteenth Century in 1845. By _____________, she refused to conform to what society expected of women.
Henry David Thoreau: He chose not to ______________ to American city life. He lived in the woods for two years, built a cabin, grew his own food, and studied _______________. He felt that if a law went against morality, then citizens should protest it ___________________. He based his opinions on whether he thought each cause was just.
Utopian Communities: Transcendentalists attempted to create small communities where they shared resources and chores. We call an attempt to create a ____________ community a “_____________” (an ideal and perfect place for living).
Legacy: The Transcendentalists’ focus on _______________thought and action helped support reform movements. They later influenced civil rights leaders like Mahatma ____________ and the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. who studied _______________ writing. Civil _______________ featured in their efforts and helped King to understand his own struggle.
Transcendentalism Quick Facts:
Ralph Waldo _________________ was the central person in Transcendentalism.
American access to reading materials ____________in the early 1800s.
Domestic fiction featured _______________ as the main characters.
Transcendentalism poetry contains many references to _______________.
Henry David __________________ wrote an essay about ______________disobedience that inspired later reformers.
A ______________ community was an attempt to create a _________________ place to live.
7.06 Bring on the Reform!
In the 1800s, the _____________ and women’s _____________ movements gained the most attention.
*Charles Loring __________ founded the Children’s Aid Society in New York City. He wanted to help the city’s ___________ children.
*Horace ____________ was a key person in bringing __________________ to all young Americans.
* Thomas _________________and Samuel _________________both helped to bring education to _________________ children and ________________ children.
* Dorothea ______________, Americans began to learn that, with treatment, _______________ illness could improve. Her work included the founding of 32 mental ________________ and creating libraries in many hospitals and ___________________.
* Neal ____________ was a mayor in Portland, Maine. He played a crucial role in the passage of the first statewide ___________________ law. Prohibition was different from temperance because it means passing laws to ___________________alcohol use.