69 B. C. 30 B. C. Cleopatra Egypt



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69 B.C. - 30 B.C.

Cleopatra

Egypt

Born in 69 B.C., Cleopatra VII Philopator, or just Cleopatra, was the last active pharaoh in ancient Egypt. She was not from Egypt but was born in Macedonia, Greece. Under her rule, most Egyptians learned and spoke Greek more than their native Egyptian language. Cleopatra showed herself as an Egyptian goddess and ruled Egypt with her father, Ptolemy XII Auletes, and her brothers, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV. She married her brother Ptolemy XIV, but eventually conflict arose between Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIV, causing Cleopatra to leave Egypt in 48 B.C.



Cleopatra was getting ready to return Egypt when she met Julius Caesar, the leader of Rome. He defeated and killed Ptolemy XIV, restoring Cleopatra to her throne.  She then fell in love with Caesar, and had a son with him named Caesarian in 46 B.C. Caesar invited Cleopatra to Rome but didn't really pay attention to her and their son which could have led to the reason she grew to hate him. He was assassinated in 44 B.C. Cleopatra then returned to Egypt and met another man, Mark Antony, who she would have two children with.

But Mark Antony had his own problems with Caesar’s nephew, Octavian, about who should rule Rome. Mark Antony declared Cleopatra’s son, Caesarian as Caesar’s real son and the rightful leader of Rome. Octavian wanted to rule Rome, though, and said Mark Antony was letting Cleopatra take control of his decisions, making him an unfit ruler. This led to a war with Mark Antony and Cleopatra’s army against Octavian’s army. In 31 B.C. Cleopatra and Mark Antony’s army lost a sea battle against Octavian’s army, causing them to retreat to Egypt. Mark Antony later returned to battle. Mark Antony then heard fake news from someone unknown that Cleopatra was killed and he committed suicide for this reason. Hearing this, Cleopatra planned her death too and committed suicide by letting an asp bite her. She died on August 12, 30 B.C. Mark Antony and she were buried together.


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