5 Negroes Attack Segregation Laws in Federal Court



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Bremond Byrd

5/13/13


Works Cited

I. Primary Sources

Azbell, Joe. "5 Negroes Attack Segregation Laws in Federal Court." Montgomery Advertiser 02 Feb. 1956: n. pag. Print. Claudette Colvin: Twice Toward Justice. By Phillip M. Hoose. New York: Square Fish, 2011. 88. This article is a quick summation of the beginning of the Browder v. Gayle case. It is a reliable source to see the media's view of the case at the time. This source is primary in nature because it is a newspaper publication and because of the date of its publication--1956.

Browder v. Gayle. Supreme Court. 5 June 1956. Dr. Quintard Taylor, Jr. University of Washington Department of History, n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2012. . This document is a primary source because it states the direct opinions of the sitting judges of the case that ended bus segregation. I also chose this source because of its legitimacy as a government publication.

"Claudette Colvin: Twice Toward Justice." Interview by Phillip Hoose. Youtube. Curiosity City Books, 28 Oct. 2009. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. . This was a short interview done by Phillip Hoose in which Claudette expressed her thoughts and feelings on the historic day of her arrest. Because Ms. Colvin is directly stating her ideas and opinions in a formal interview setting, I consider this source to be primary.

Day, F.B., and D.W. Mixon. United States. Police Department. City of Montgomery. Montgomery: Police Department: City of Montgomery, 1955. Resurrecting Claudette. Delaware Social Studies Education Project, 2011. Web. 16 Sept. 2012. . This is the police report of Rosa Parks. This document helps analyze the differences in the arrests of both Rosa and Claudette. This police report primary because it was filed by an employee of the state.



Exhibit C. 1956. Photograph. Tim Lennox. Tim Lennox, 12 May 2012. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. . This sketch is from the trial of Rosa Parks. This photo is primary because it was evidence used by Parks' lawyer to defend her in her 1956 trial.

Headley, Paul, and T.J. Ward. United States of America. Police Department. City of Montgomery. Montgomery: Police Department: City of Montgomery, 1955. Resurrecting Claudette. Delaware Social Studies Education Project, 2011. Web. 13 Sept. 2012. . This police report provided information on how the legal system and the police officers treated blacks during the civil right era. Because this document is a police report from the actual arrest, it is primary.

Iwasaki, Carl. N.d. Photograph. Time- Life Pictures. Time Lists. Time Magazine, 10 Dec. 2010. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. . This source is considered primary because it is a photograph taken during the time period that Brown v. Board of Education was occurring.

Jacobson, Julie. N.d. Photograph. Internet Post. Allan J. Floyd, 9 Feb. 2009. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. . This photo is of an older Claudette. Because it is a photo that is not purely aesthetic in value, this source is primary.

Jewish Women's Archive. "Rosa Parks Photo." (Viewed on February 18, 2013) . This is a primary source because it is the original mug shot of Rosa Park’s arrest.

Johnson, Tom. "Bus Boycott Conference Fails to Find Solution." n.d.: n. pag. Alabama Department of Archives and History. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Alabama Department of Archives and History. Web. 30 Sept. 2012. . Though this newspaper does not provide a specific date or newspaper title, it is reliable because it is from the Alabama Department of Archives database. This article was very informative of the negotiation that occurred during the boycott between city officials and the black community. The article is primary because it was published while the boycott was still occurring.

“Leaflet of Women’s Political Council (1955)”.Council, Women’s Political. Women in America. Woodbridge, CT:Primary Source Media, 1999. American Journey. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 15 Sep.2012.http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/uhic/PrimarySourcesDetailsPage/PrimarySourcesDetailsWindow?failOvertype=&query=&prdld=UHIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&mode=view&displayGroupName=primarysources&limiter=&currPage=&disableHighlighting=false&source=&sortBy=&displayGroups=&action=e&catld=&activityType=&scanld=&documentld=GALE%7CEJ2161000291&userGroupName=scschoolsnu&jsid=9ba44d80c570090c04a309403fcbd89a>. This pamphlet is the catalyst for the boycott. It was sent out right before the boycott to ask all the Montgomery blacks not to ride the buses. This pamphlet is a primary source because it was published by the organizers of the boycott themselves.

Lock, Herb. Cartoon. Teaching Tolerance. Southern Poverty Law Center, n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2012. . This cartoon is primary because it gives a rather comical perspective of the boycott at the actual time of its occurrence. It seems to be drawn through the eyes of someone who was not prejudiced toward blacks.

“Montgomery City Code”. United States of America.Charlottesville: Michie City, 1952. Montgomery City Code. Alabama Department of Archives. Web. 30 Sept. 2012. . The Montgomery City Code was very helpful in explaining what the laws were of the time-- not in a paraphrased statement, but the laws in their entirety. This source was also primary because of its publication date: 1952.

N.d. Photograph. Alabama. Alabama Media Group, 10 Feb. 2009. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. . This is a photograph of Claudette visiting the school she was once kicked out of. This source is primary because it depicts a significant event in Claudette's life.

N.d. Photograph. America's Black Holocaust Museum. America's Black Holocaust Museum. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. . This photo aslo is a primary source depicting the effects of Jim Crow in the South.

N.d. Photograph. Anglonautes. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. . This primary source was retrieved from a website that teaches English to non-english speakers through American news and history.

N.d. Photograph. Freedom Riders. PBS. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. . The photograph is a primary source because it depicts the effects of Jim Crow in the South.

N.d. Photograph. Montgomery Bus Boycott. Glogster, 2012. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. . This picture is a primary source because it depicts a mode of transportation used during the Boycott.

N.d. Photograph. Montgomery Bus Boycott. Southern Polytechnic State University. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. . This primary source photograph depicts the positive support that the African American community had for the Brown v. Board case.

N.d. Photograph. Rivers of Change. Cosmo-D Productions. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. . This is a photo of Aurelia Browder, the woman for which Browder v. Gayle is named. This source is primary becaus it is a photo of one of the subjects of this project.

N.d. Photograph. Rosa Parks Facts. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. . This is a photograph of Martin Luther King, his wife, and some of his supporter congregating, possibly dicussing the Browder v. Gayle court case. Because this is a photograph and it depicts one of the subjects of this site, it is a primary source.

N.d. Photograph. School Work Helper. St. Rosemary Educational Institution. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. . This photograph is one of blacks boarding a bus cerca Civil Rights Era. This is a primary source because it depicts people circa the time of the boycott occurred.

N.d. Photograph. Thinksquad. Thinksquad, 2 Dec. 2010. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. . This source is primary because it is a photo of young Claudette circa 1952. The time this photo was taken qualifies it as primary.

"Negro Girl Found Guilty of Segregation Violation" Alabama Journal [Montgomery] 19 Mar. 1955: n. pag. Print. Claudette Colvin: Twice Toward Justice. By Phillip M. Hoose. New York: Square Fish, 2011. 50. This article was written in a non-biased, objective style. It is a primary source because it is a good source of facts of the time without a prejudiced slant.

"Negroes' Most Urgent Needs." Letter to City of Montgomery Officials. N.d. Montgomery: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Alabama Department of Archives and History. Web. 30 Sept. 2012. . This document is a summation of the most prominent needs of the Negro Community around the time of the boycott. This document is a primary source because it is an actual view through the eyes of the blacks who participated in the boycott or lived in the city at the time.

"Phillip M. Hoose & Claudette Colvin: 2010 National Book Festival." Speech. National Book Festival. National Mall, Washington, D.C. Youtube. Library of Congress, 13 Oct. 2010. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. . Claudette described this interview as her take on emotional aspects of her arrest. This interview was slightly longer than other interviews Colvin had done. Because all information gathered from this interview is from Claudette herself, I consider the interview to be a primary source.

Plenn, Abel. "Report on Montgomery a Year After." New York Times 29 Dec. 1957: n. pag. Print. American Decades Primary Sources, 1950-1959. Vol. 6. N.p.: n.p., 2004. 361-64. This source is a "northern" view on the state of Montgomery after the boycott ended. It is an outside perspective on the boycott. Because this source was published in the 1950s near the time of the boycott, it is considered to be primary.

“Plessy v. Ferguson”. U.S. Supreme Court. Civil Rights in America. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media, 1999. American Journey. Gale U.S. History In Context.Web.16 Sep. 2012. Http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/uhic/PrimarySourcesDetailsPage/PrimarySourcesDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&prodld=UHIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&mode=view&displayGroupName=PrimarySources&limiter=&currpage=&disableHighlighting=true&source=&sortBy=&displayGroups=&action=e&catld=activitytype=&scanld=&documentld=GALE%7CEJ2163000143&userGroupNAme=scschoolsnw&jsid=004ad652bca0ab9eea7c6ffacad6d72c>. This document is very reliable because it is a government publication. In this document, the U.S. government summarizes the main points of this historical trial.

“Remarks Honoring Rosa Parks at the Congressional Gold Medal Award Ceremony, June 15, 1999”. United States of America. Executive Office of the President. N.p.: n.p., n.d. History Reference Center. Web. 2 Apr. 2013. . This source is primary because it is a presidential speech. It is another example of a widely held misconception of Ms. Parks.

"5,000 At Meeting Outline Boycott; Bullet Clips Bus." Montgomery Advertiser 1955: n. pag. America's Library. Library of Congress. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. . This article is describing the boycott and its beginnings. It is also showing the unity of the black community.

II. Secondary Sources

"Claudette Colvin Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. . This website has mostly already well known facts of about Claudette. This site has specific quotes that are hard to find elsewhere.

"Claudette Colvin." CORE. Congress of Racial Equality, n.d. Web. 04 Nov. 2012. . This source acknowledged both the role of Claudette Colvin as well as the role of Rosa Parks in the Montgomery Bus Boycott. This site appeared very reliable and it corroborated facts found in multiple other sources.

Englebert, Phillis. American Civil Rights Almanac. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale Group, 1999. Print. This almanac was not focused on the Civil Rights Movement, but rather the civil rights of many groups-ethnic and non-ethnic. This book gave good insight on the nonviolent foundation the Montgomery Bus Boycott was based on.

Hoose, Phillip M. Claudette Colvin: Twice toward Justice. New York: Square Fish, 2011. Print. This book decribes in detail Claudette's struggles through interviews, photographs, and other primary sources the author gathered.

"The Montgomery Bus Boycott,1955-56." Flash Focus. Vol. 6. Danbury: Grolier, 2005. 92. History Reference Center. Web. 21 Oct. 2012. . This information was somewhat helpful in giving a more modern view of the boycott. This book is still depicts Rosa Parks as the sole reason the boycott started when it did.

N.d. Photograph. McHenry County Turning Point. Turning Point, 11 Feb. 2011. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. . This is an example of a common misconception that Rosa Parks started the boycott that "changed the world".

N.d. Photograph. North Star News. North Star News, 15 Nov. 2012. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. . This picture is secondary because it provides no information about the subject(s) of the website. This picture is for aesthetic purposes only.



Rosa Parks- Legacy. Bio. Biography Channel, n.d. Web. 13 May 2013. . This video gave some insight as to why Rosa was chosen as the face of a large event in the Civil Rights Movement much like Jackie Robinson.

Rosa Parks- Mini Bio. Bio. Biography Channel, n.d. Web. 13 May 2013. . This miniature biography gave general background information about Rosa Parks.

Sancya, Paul. N.d. Photograph. Tackpinz. 4 Feb. 2013. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. . This photograph is another example of the glorification of Rosa Parks, while Claudette Colvin continues to receive little recognition.



Williams, Donnie, and Wayne Greenshaw. The Thunder of Angels: The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the People Who Broke the Back of Jim Crow. Chicago: Lawrence Hill, 2006. Print. This book covers every aspect of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Claudette Colvin is reflected in an unbiased way in this source.


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