5.2 How is English Related to Other Languages?
What is you and your siblings most common ancestor?
Your first cousins? Your second cousins?
Distinguish between the Kurgan and Anatolian hypothesis of Indo-European language diffusion
In terms of:
Geographical origin and cultural group livelihood strategy
Indo-European originated in Anatolia around 7,000 BCE
IE cultural group created the agricultural revolution and spread into Europe
Modern day Turkey
Indo-Europeans arrived in Europe around 3,000 BCE
Border between Russia and Kazakhstan
Came in on horse-drawn war chariots and attacked the agriculturalists living in Europe
Draw a family tree for English that includes group, branch, and family
How do the Anatolian and Kurgan hypotheses differ in terms of origin and livelihood strategy?
Which hypothesis for the diffusion of Indo-European do you find more compelling? Why?
West Germanic Group – further divided by elevation (subgroups)
High Germanic – origin in southern mountains
Basis for modern standard German
Low Germanic – English, Dutch, Afrikaans, etc
North Germanic Group – Scandinavian languages descended from Old Norse
Spoken in Scandinavia before 1000 CE
Variant of a language that a country’s intellectual or politically elite seek to promote as the norm
Standard English in the US
The King’s English AKA Received Pronunciation in England
Commonly used by politicians, public media figures, etc
Indic (Eastern) Group
India – 29 languages spoken by over 1 mill each
Hindi (variety of Hindustani)
The British chose it for government business in late 1800s
22 scheduled languages – government is obligated to encourage their use
Many spoken varieties of Hindi, but only one written tradition – Devanagari
Reflects their Muslim identity
Iranian (Western) Group – written in Arabic
Persian in Iran
Pashto in E Afghanistan and W Pakistan
How do Modern Standard English and Texas regional English differ
How are Urdu and Persian related?
Should the US make English the official language? Why or why not?
Should more than one language be made official?
East Slavic and Baltic Groups
Russian – spoken by more than 80% of Russian people
Increased in global importance with the rise of the USSR post-WWII
Forced all citizens to learn Russian to promote unity
Pressure to speak local languages contributed to the fall of the USSR
Still used for common communication between post-soviet states
Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
West and South Slavic Groups
Most spoken: Polish, Czech, and Slovak
Czech and Slovak are mutually intelligible
During the communist era as Czechoslovakia the government tried to balance Czech and Slovakian language
Twice as many speakers of Czech
In 1993 Slovakia split from the Czech Republic
Due in part to perceived domination of Czech culture in Czechoslovakia
One language, called Serbo-Croatian before the breakup of Yugoslavia
Assert their identity
Very minor linguistic differences
Montenegrin and Serbia use the Cyrillic alphabet
What do Russian and Swahili have in common?
Considering their linguistic sameness, should the most similar Slavic languages be consolidated?
Evolved from Latin, spoken by the Romans 2,000 years ago
Vulgar Latin – Latin spoken by common people in the provinces
Spanish and French are official languages of the UN
Less spoken romance languages
Catalán in Andorra and Catalonia, Spain
Sardinian – mix of Italian, Spanish, and Arabic
Sardinia = small Mediterranean island
Three tribes invaded the English Isles
Angles, Jutes, Saxons
Now called Anglo-Saxons for the two largest
English evolved from the language of these tribes
The Vikings also added some words when they attacked
Then the Normans, from France successfully conquered England in 1066
The mix of English and French formed what would become modern English
Common words from German: sky, horse, woman, man, etc
Courtly words from French: celestial, equestrian, feminine, masculine
English colonies all spoke English
Including a small colony in Jamestown, VA!
Ultimately English would become the language of North America when the US defeated France for control
Which group was displaced west when the Germanic invaders came to England?