|5.12 People, Places, and Events of the Republic
identify the following people, places, and events and their interrelationship
Essay #1 includes the following:
The first triumvirate, the second triumvirate, Cicero, Catiline and his conspiracy, Cleopatra and Mark Antony
Essay #2 includes the following:
Patricians, plebeians, tribunes, aedile, praetor, quaestor, the cursus honorum and the Gracchi
Essay #3 includes the following:
Cato, Scipio Africanus, Regulus and the Punic Wars
Essay #4 includes the following:
Pyrrhus of Epirus and what a Pyrrhic victory means in English
Cicero was born in 106bc, hailing from a local equestrian family in Arpinum. Cicero on the other hand, was the idyllic republican politician. The first triumvirate was composed of Julius Caesar, Pompeius Magnus and Marcus Licinus Crassus. The first triumvirate was also known as the great roman civil war and it was between the dates 53-45 b.c. In 49 bc the senate, backing Pompey, ordered Caesar to disband his army and give up his province of Gaul. Instead of giving up Caesar crossed the Rubicon River setting at the civil war. Mark Antony was a roman politician and a general. Antony formed an official political alliance with Octavian and Lepidus, known to historian today as the second triumvirate. The second triumvirate was formed on 26 November 43 bc.
The plebeians were the lower class. Nicknamed "plebs", the plebeians included everyone in ancient Rome (except for the nobility, the patricians) from well-to-do tradesmen all the way down to the very poor. The patricians were opposite they were the upper class, the nobility and wealthy land owners. Tribunes vetoed triumphs and ovations or used their veto as threat. Aedile was an office of the Roman Republic. The aediles were responsible for maintenance of public buildings and regulation of public festivals. They also had powers to enforce public order. A praetor was one of the greater Roman magistrates with imperium or legal power. They led armies, presided in law courts, and administered the law. Judging matters between citizens was the job of one specific magistrate, the praetor urbanus. The Gracchi brothers, Tiberius and Gaius, were Roman plebeian nobles who both served as tribunes in the late 2nd century BC. They attempted to pass land reform legislation that would redistribute the major patrician landholdings among the plebeians, in addition to other reform measures. The Cursus Honorum was another set of buildings. The order of advancement through elected offices (magistracies) in Republican Rome was known as the cursus honorum. The sequence of offices in the cursus honorum meant that an office couldn't be skipped, in theory
Cato was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. Scipio Africanus Major (so named because of his military victories in Africa which won the Second Punic War, also known as Scipio the Elder) was born Publius Cornelius Scipio in 236 BCE. The Punic wars were a series of wars. There were seven Punic wars but the first three were the most important. Rulgus is a double bright star in the constellation leo.