4th International Conference on the Dialogical Self (icds-4) University of Minho, Braga, Portugal

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13h45 – 15h15

Paper 14

Personal and social issues

Chair: John Barresi (Dalhousie University, Canada)

Personal identity, social identity, and the dialogical self: An interpretation of Black Like Me

John Barresi (Dalhousie University, Canada)

John Griffin’s classic on racism, Black Like Me, provides an interesting text in which to investigate the development of a dialogical self. Griffin becomes a black man for only a short period of time, but during that time he develops a black social identity, and sense of personal identity, that contrasts radically with his former white identity. At one point he becomes so immersed in his new identity that he is no longer able to write to his white wife because of “the chains” of his “blackness.” He develops a schizoid sense of self. He is white and he is black. When he looks into a mirror on several occasions he engages in a dialogue with himself, as both a black and a white person. At first these two identities are so different that there is no “sympathy” between them. But through his experience, he eventually overcomes the dichotomy of two opposing selves, and acquires a personal identity, neither white nor black, but just human. In this talk, I will trace the development of these dialogical selves and the emergence of this new human identity.

Association of relational, individual and collective self-aspects with social anxiety among Turkish university students

Selda Koydemir (Middle East Technical University, Turkey)

Literature has shown that ‘self’ has multiple components, and that each has unique aspects on social behaviors. A recent conceptualization of self identified three different self-aspects: individual, relational, and collective. People from different cultures show different manifestations of these aspects. Although Turkey has long been a collectivist culture, recently a great shift has been observed among people toward defining themselves as more individualist. The aim of the present study was to examine individual, relational, and collective self-aspects of Turkish university students, along with the relationship between social anxiety and aspects of self. Participants were 150 students selected from Middle East Technical University. They completed RIC-Scale which measures relational, individual, and collective self-aspects; and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale which measures level of social anxiety. Results revealed that females reported having significantly more individual self-aspect than males. They also scored higher on relational aspect than males, but not significantly. A significant negative relationship between individual self-aspect and both total level of social anxiety, and fear and avoidance dimensions of social anxiety was found. The findings are discussed based on cultural factors in Turkey.

Agreeing (is) disagreeing: A dialogical approach of public participation

Susana Batel & Paula Castro (ISCTE, Portugal)

In this work we examine a case of public participation, aiming to analyse how the concept of dialogical self, owner of multiple and hybrid identities, allows a better understanding of how contradiction may be managed. Public participation has acquired a normative formal status in nowadays societies, but the slow process of turning this norm into practice has created a contradiction between norms and facts. The case analysed here concerns the transformation of a XVII century Convent, located in a Lisbon historic neighbourhood, into a closed luxury condominium. The project was accepted by the technicians of the local authorities without consulting the dwellers and an intense public debate started when a group of dwellers organised protests and debates against this transformation. In this study, we analyse the interviews made to the technicians that show us that they look at this controversy from two different identities: citizen and technician. When they step in the citizen’s shoes they agree with public participation; but when assuming their identities as technicians they disagree with this particular public movement, dismissing the dwellers goals and affirming their technical knowledge. Finally, we discuss how the management of these multiple identities influences the relation between the technicians and public participation.

Situating the dialogical self in local contentious practices and in relation to enduring struggles

Gilberto Pérez & Alejandra Salguero (National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico)

We advocate the relevance of analyzing the dialogical self as embedded in contentious local practices and of linking these practices with enduring struggles. The first move allows a better understanding of the actual positions that are put into play in identity processes over more or less long periods of time as well as the nature of their relations. The second one helps to make sense of the specific cultural resources that are used or produced in such processes, resources that must be taken into account in order to figure out the way persons live at the boundaries between themselves and those identified as others. This kind of analysis is illustrated with data from in-depth interviews of middle-class parents involved in a parent education program. We show that parenthood must be seen in the context of several contentious practices involved in “doing family” and that these practices have constitutive relationships with the enduring struggle between family life and work life that characterizes modern societies. The positions invoked in the effort of being a different kind of father and the way in which the tensions between family and work are faced are closely linked and can only be understood in their mutual relations.

15h30 – 17h00

Symposium 9
Dialogues with the dialogical self

Ruthellen Josselson (The Fielding Graduate University, USA)

In this symposium, speakers who work with life stories will present work in progress. They will engage in dialogues with their efforts to map the dialogical self as it is expressed in life narratives. The group will consider the identification and representation of the multivocal self as it emerges in life stories, with particular attention to both the content of these interacting selves and the processes that govern their interrelationship. Issues of identity and of how and when certain aspects of self are privileged and dominant in the narratives will be the focus of analysis.

Dialogues with memory over time

Ruthellen Josselson (The Fielding Graduate University, USA)

Autobiographical memories represent self-states at earlier points in time. Dialogues with these self experiences encoded in memories construct the self (or selves) of the present. In this paper, a memory of a relationship, told by a participant in ten year intervals over 30 years, is discussed. While the details of the memory have stayed essentially the same, the meaning of the experience has changed (quite dramatically) along with the life stage and developmental concerns of the participant. The analysis explores the ways in which memory serves dialogue among aspects of the self and how self-positions with regard to memory change over time.

The dialogue between saviour and victim in the life story of a Holocaust survivor

Amia Lieblich (Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel)

The paper presents a life story of an 87 year old holocaust survivor, where the voices of being a strong woman, saving others, as opposed to a vulnerable victim, interact in complex ways. While telling about exceptional agency, coping and stamina, she also relates, although more rarely, feelings of helplessness and pain. The emergence of her strong self is related to the war, while following her survival she gladly returned to traditional feminine role. The analysis of the story attempts to demonstrate how these two basic voices are related to a number of factors, among them the level of stress and emergency in the situations, and whether the narrator was among women or in a mixed gender company. Finally, the purpose of leaving this particular life story as her legacy to the next generations is explored.

Creative work, love, and dialogical selves in the life stories of college professors

Dan P. McAdams (Northwestern University, USA)

Life story interviews with professors in the humanities and sciences suggest a common life-story script with strong dialogical overtones:  The protagonist of the story encounters a grand question or problem in childhood or adolescence that guides his or her intellectual pursuits thereafter.  The question gives birth to an idealized image of something or someone in the world that the protagonist longs to be, experience, make, or partake of in some manner.  Over time, the protagonist commits the self to the realization of the image.  As the image matures and develops in the mind and life of the protagonist, it recruits more and more positive affect and becomes elaborated into a personal aesthetic.  The aesthetic is an implicit conceptualization of what qualities give a thing or experience its beauty or well-formedness.  The constellation of early question, idealized image, and personal aesthetic sets up a corresponding dialogical pattern in the narrative, pitting contrasting proclivities or trends in the protagonist's creative work against each other. The dialogical pattern may also come to organize aspects of the protagonist's personal life as well, integrating aspects of work and love through opposition.

Women in the garden: Dialogical selves, art, and lives

Suzanne Ouellette (City University of New York, USA)

Two women artists offer narratives about gardens and their gardening that serve as the basis for the application of notions about the dialogical self.   The author uses the concepts, methods, and evidence generated by practitioners of the dialogical self approach to do three things:  (1) understand the meaning of a particular community garden in the lives of two women -- one in mid, and the other in old age; (2) reveal how a person’s doing and appreciation of art can both extend and limit the stories one can tell about self in the world and with others; and (3) address some general theoretical, moral, and ethical challenges and dilemmas encountered in her students’ and her own engagement with the study of lives for which the dialogical approach promises some resolution.

15h30 – 17h00

Paper 15
Theoretical challenges on the dialogical self

Chair: Maria Lyra (Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil)

Beyond dialogicality: Materiality, discourse, power and the hybrid self

Rachel Joffe Falmagne (Clark University, USA)

While generally endorsing the spirit of poststructuralist critiques of the Cartesian notion of a unified, bounded, stable self, I argue that the radical shift toward a nonsubstantial, fluid notion of subjectivity in postmodern theorizing is unwarranted: The self can be complex, unstable, contradictory and shifting while remaining substantial, and the ontological notion of a ‘person’ is conceptually necessary as the anchor for processes of social constitution and as the substrate of agency. Further, while recognizing the contributions of dialogical approaches to theorizing a substantial, complex self, I submit that a societal-level frame of analysis that comprises the internal politics of culture, the structuring of the social order, and the interplay of the material and discursive constituents of the social order both at a macro-social and at a local level, is needed for theorizing the social constitution of the self. A theoretical model is discussed in which the ‘self’ is constituted through the dialectic among these macro-social, local, and personal constituents, a self that is assumed to be socially situated, hybrid, complex, tension-filled and contradictory, yet substantial, agentic and ontologically continuous.

New directions in the theory of the dialogical self: Intersubjectivity and radical interpretability

Colin B. Grant (University of Surrey, UK)

This paper builds on previous theoretical contributions to the interdisciplinary debate on the dialogical self and intersubjectivity (Grant, 2003, in press). These contributions seek to develop an account of uncertainty in communication and offer a critical dialogue with theories of the dialogical self. From a communications-theoretical perspective, the paper departs (1) from a presentation of varying accounts of intersubjectivity including Husserl’s influential theory of intersubjectivity in the Cartesian Meditations, Trevarthen’s psychological work (1979, 2003) on understanding and intersubjectivity and Habermas’ philosophical account of universal pragmatics and intersubjectivity. It proceeds (2) to a more detailed comparison of Trevarthen’s willingness to couple intersubjectivity and contingency and Habermas’ reluctance (1981, 1999) to rethink his theory of communicative action in other than universal terms, arguing (3) that the theory of universal pragmatics is insufficiently flexible to deal with complexities of communication and a dialogically constituted self. Drawing on a modified concept of pragmatic appeal (derived from Bühler, 1936) and integrating Davidson’s (2001) philosophical concept of interpretability as the key principle of communication, this paper concludes (4) that the complexity of the dialogical self requires a correspondingly complex account of intersubjectivity and communication without transcendence.

Systems, dialogism and emergence of self in early ontogeny

Maria Lyra (Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil)

This presentation comprises two interrelated research themes: (1) the emergence and development of the process of communication, and (2) the emergence of the dialogical self in infancy. We focus on the self-organization of the system of mother-infant communication that allows for new developmental levels of organization of this system, particularly the abbreviated type exchanges as the locus of emergence of the dialogical self. Three characteristics are highlighted: (1) the ‘explosion towards novelty’ emerging through the development of the process of communication. (2) The probabilistic nature of the dyadic ‘shared knowledge’; (3) the characteristic of ‘double index’ suggested by the abbreviated exchanges. All three aspects are put together aiming to analyze the process of differentiation of the mother-infant dialogical partners based on two dimensions conceptualized and proposed by Bakhtin: each of us occupy a unique time and space position in the world and the pervasive characteristic of “answerability” of each of us facing the world that surround us. Empirical longitudinal data from five mother-infant dyads give support for discussing theoretical and methodological issues.

Argumentation as a self-regulatory mechanism

Selma Leitão (Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil)

From a dialogical view of cognition, the thinking a person does is always penetrated by opposition. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms that allow people to regulate opposition within their own thinking. The goal of this presentation is to view self-addressed argumentation as a semiotically constituted mechanism of major significance to accomplish this task. The starting point to this view is twofold: first, an assumption that there exist close ties between the features of a psychological function and the properties of the semiotic devices it involves; second, an idea of argumentation as a form of dialogical exchange characterized by specific semiotic properties. When arguing, people deal with (what they construe as being) opposing views of a phenomenon by weighing the strengths and weaknesses of one view relative to another. It will be argued that while being constitutive for argumentation, this back-and-forth movement between valuing/supporting and devaluing/questioning a view in the light of opposing ones, also equip people with the symbolic resources they need to regulate opposition within their own thinking. (Sponsor: CNPq).

15h30 – 17h00

Paper 16
Negotiating self-identity in a social world

Chair: Alberto Rosa (Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain)

Negotiating the self in dialogue

Wolfram Fischer (University of Kassel, Germany)

The paper can be understood as elaborating the philosophical idea of an “intermediate sphere of dialogue” (Zwischenreich des Dialogs – Bernhard Waldenfels, phenomenological philosopher of Germany) which is conceptualized as the social space and practice of creating new order from previous order exceeding the given perspectives as well of ego as of alter. The paper starts with two short empirical examples of negotiating selves in a biographical research interview and in a videotaped interaction. The hermeneutical verbal and nonverbal analyses will show, how the respective selves are co-constructed in mini-steps of the narrative conversation and interaction. Summarizing the concept of negotiating and creating self in the “intermediate sphere of dialogue” is referred to and empirically enriched.

Dialogical construction of virtues of citizenship

Alberto Rosa (Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain) & María Fernanda Gonzalez (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Spain)

Dialogical approaches view the self as resulting from encounters with others. Social Otherness makes to arise one's conception as a differentiated agent, as well as providing voices for regulating and arguing what to do and who one is. The Self is so dialogically constituted, as well as it becomes another for one self, whose actuation has to be semiotically regulated. Cultural tools such as symbols, speech genres, rules, etc. provide scripts for action, so the agent becomes an actor, whose performance is regulated and justified by socio-cultural moral norms. Conflicting social situations (such as migration, multicultural environments, etc) create dilemmatic situations for which ready-made scripts do not provide suitable solutions and so one's own otherness becomes more prominent. Out of the polyphony of voices that constitute the self a new voice arises, and so regulates and justifies the outcome. The actor becomes author of the construction of him/herself. Conflicting situations of this kind abound in post-modern multicultural societies, which cannot be solved by resorting to ready-made (ethnic, national, religious) moral norms. Some Ethics of a new form of citizenship has to be developed. New symbols, discourses and norms can only appear, and be made socially useful, when they are paralleled with an effort for a construction of the self which involves the development of new personal virtues of citizenship.

Negotiating with masculinities: Son, Soldier, anti-violence educator,… fallen brother

Deborah Mahlstedt (West Chester University, USA)

While sexual violence prevention efforts for young men on college campuses in the United States have been in existence for 15-20 years, the body of research examining these initiatives is limited. These studies focus largely on measuring attitudinal changes in rape supportive myths, attitudes toward women, hypermasculinity, and attitudes toward interpersonal violence. In most cases, follow-up studies reveal that initial gains revert back to comparison group ratings. What is missing, and missed, by solely conducting this type of research is any understanding of the process young men experience when exposed to information about violence against women and engaged in a lengthy self-reflective process. For the past 15 years, the Fraternity Anti-Violence Project has involved college men in an in-depth one- year small group experience to prepare them to educate other men about violence against women. This paper presentation addresses the experience of one young man as he negotiates diverse positions of masculinity. From a narrative constructivist perspective, we examine the multiplicity of positions and voices—soldier, aware fraternity brother, military son, fallen betrayed brother--that construct and reconstruct this young man’s dialogical self during an unpopular war. The implications of this man’s experience for sexual violence prevention are explored.

The development of military masculinities through symbolic resources

Hannah C. Lambert (Southampton Solent University, UK)

This paper claims that within military culture there is a protected version of masculinity. Military culture can be described as a unique way of life and notably distinct from civilian institutions and organisations. This paper draws on the theory of symbolic resources (Zittoun, Duveen, Gillespie, Ivinson & Psaltis, 2003) as a means of exploring the process-oriented notion of the social representations of military masculinity. The theory of symbolic resources recognises that people are positioned within different symbolic streams in the socio-cultural world, in which they can be displaced or can relocate themselves (Benson, 2001; Duveen, 2001). So an individual entering the military is relocating him or herself from a civilian socio-cultural world to a military one. I will draw selectively on 50 semi-structured individual interviews and six focus groups (each comprising three individuals) with male and female military personnel in Britain. Respondents included Royal Marine, Army and Royal Air Force personnel and were of a variety of ranks. In accordance with the theory of symbolic resources, the unit of analysis for psychological development is the unit rupture-irruption of certainty-transition. This implies a process that leads to a new form of stability. This process is that which military personnel undertake in order for that which is uncertain and unfamiliar when they begin their training to become certain and familiar. This paper focuses in particular on the rupture that takes place during the training phase within an individual’s military career. Through symbolic resources, social representations of military masculinities develop.

Poster Session 2
Chair: Angela Uchoa Branco (University of Brasília, Brazil)

1. Culture, social identities and dialogical self

Ana Flávia Madureira & Angela Uchoa Branco (University of Brasília, Brazil)
From a sociocultural perspective, we aim at analyzing the central role played by social identity processes in the co-constructive processes of dialogical-self development. Social identities linked to categories such as gender, ethnicity, religion and so on, play a very important part in the process of self co-construction, since the ‘social identity’ category represents the dimension of ‘culture’ as it entails the actual participation of individuals in the sociocultural practices pertaining to various groups, which may eventually overlap but also contradict each other’s values and beliefs. In this presentation we will highlight the heuristic value of adopting the analytical triad ‘gender, social class, and ethnicity’ to make sense of the person-culture dialectical relations. To illustrate such analysis, we will present data from narrative interviews carried out to study the co-constructive processes that particularly interweave gender, sexual preferences and the dialogical self in individuals who identified themselves as being other-than heterosexually oriented.

2. AIDS, drugs, emotions and self dynamics: The co-construction of a father I-position

Ana Luiza Branco & Angela Uchoa Branco (University of Brasília, Brazil)
The study of family dynamics offers plentiful examples of the dynamic nature of mutual co-constructive processes of selves, within which social roles and identities are permanently being co-constructed, while significantly contributing to the development of different self positions. From a Dialogical Self perspective, we here propose that life experiences that draw out strong emotions may engender, within family contexts, actions which also generates powerful emotions, altogether leading to important role and relationship re-definitions. Such re-construction processes, on its own terms, then significantly contribute to the emergence of new I-positions, which hierarchically may assume priority over previous ones. Those theoretical elaborations are here illustrated with the analysis of Pedro’s narrative (fictitious name of a HIV-positive 37 years-old man) about his family dynamics, particularly his relationship with Mateus, his 14 years-old son who had been into drugs for two years by the time of the interview. We argue that theoretical articulations between Family System and Dialogical Self approaches may represent a fruitful venue for investigating self development.

3. Social change and human life-span development: Examining the entire life of Hansen’s disease (HD) sufferers in Japan

Hiroshi Numayama (Sendai Shirayuri Women’s College, Japan), Tomoko Fukushima (Iwaki Meisei University, Japan) & Takekatsu Kikuchi (Tohoku University, Japan)
This research seeks to investigate the relationships between social changes and human life-span development by examining the entire life of the HD sanatorium residents in Japan. This report is the results of analyzing autobiographies and interview records, and examining the interactions between the residents themselves and the social context in which they were embedded. In Japan, the national policy which segregated compulsorily the people diagnosed as HD to remote leprosaria began in 1907 and continued even after the cure method had been established after World War II. It was finally abolished in 1996. Most residents were obliged to live a life in which freedom, such as movement, career choices, etc. were restricted over many years. They are 60-80 years old now, and most of them still live there after 1996. Despite these unspeakable difficulties, they weren’t always the people who just bear hardships unilaterally. Their dialogical self and public understanding supported their positive consciousness.

4. Community of selves in persons with traumatic spinal cord injury: Continuities and discontinuities

Eva Lopes (Centro de Reabilitação Profissional de Gaia, Portugal) & Eugénia Fernandes (University of Minho, Portugal)
This poster presents a research about personal constructions on self and significant others from people that suffered a traumatic spinal cord injury, resulting in paraplegia. Assuming that in a constructivist perspective, the self, as a multiplicity of parts, is not a static entity; the aim is to study the reconfiguration in the relationship between parts of self and with significant others, after the injury. Twenty men with spinal cord injury participated voluntary in this study. To analyse personal constructions repertory grid procedures (Kelly, 1955) were used. Different parts of self (e.g. Actual self, Myself before the accident, Myself when realized sequel) and some socially significant persons (e.g. a person that accepts me, a person with a disability) were constructed. Qualitative analyses of relations between different parts of self and with the others are yet in course. Results will be discussed from the point of view of continuities and discontinuities of self such as it is constructed along different time and social positions of self.

5. From a person to a patient: Psychiatric hospitalisation as a context for narrating change

Bogdan de Barbaro, Malgorzata Opoczynska, Bernardetta Janusz, Lucyna Drozdzowicz & Katarzyna Gdowska (Jagellonian University, Poland)
The first psychiatric hospitalisation of a patient with schizophrenia is a turbulent period in which narrative changes take place both in the patients and their families. The present research encompassed 119 families in order to examine the kind of language they used to describe their own situation as well as the situation of their close ones under psychiatric care. The language used by family members during counselling sessions was analysed and the ensuing narrations compared: from the initial and final stages of the hospitalisation. The results have shown that a couple of weeks of hospitalisation bring about some major changes: the language used by family members undergoes monologisation (at the cost of dialogisation) and intellectualisation (at the cost of emotionality), whereas the metaphysical and relational elements of language gradually disappear (as a result of introducing medical terms). Moreover, the feeling of being stigmatised increases, especially for the patient’s parents. The results seem to indicate that in a psychiatric setting, regardless of how modern the therapeutic programmes may be, there occur important changes in family narration.

6. Indigenous Women: A dialogical approach to self construction in specific cultural contexts

Thirza B. R. Reis & Maria Cláudia S. Lopes de Oliveira (University of Brasília, Brazil)
There is currently a vast bibliography about gender issues and identity/self construction referring to urban and complex societies. Non-urban, simpler societies such as indigenous societies are frequently mitigated in feminist studies. In order to try to diminish this gap, this study focuses on developmental issues concerning indigenous women of the Sherent Nation in Brazil. We share the comprehension that femininity and identities are reconstructed in a transition process when complex meaning negotiation usually takes place between the original culture (indigenous) and the “new” (urban) one. Participants are 5 artisan women aged 25-35 years old that live in a small town near to the indigenous villages. Based on a narrative and dialogical approach, this research aims at showing how Sherent women negotiate gender relations, parenting roles, professional perspectives and self images and integrate all that on a coherent sense of self and identity.

7. School practices and discourses in the cultural construction of the transition to adolescence: A dialogical approach

Luciana de Oliveira Campolina & Maria Cláudia S. Lopes de Oliveira (University of Brasília, Brazil)
The traditional developmental theories indicate the pubertarian events as the mark point of the transition from childhood to adolescence, characterizing changes as punctual, temporal and biologically conditioned. Alternatively, adolescence can be understood as the situated interpersonal reconstruction of sociocultural meanings resulting in a lasting sense of self. The objective of this research is to comprehend the role of schooling and of the school setting in how infants come to define the self as adolescents. In contemporary urban societies schools are considered multivoiced developmental contexts, where active contradictions, conflict and negotiation of meanings occur amidst interpersonal transactions. Different methodological tools are adopted in the study in order to forge a relational approach of the phenomena of adolescence emergence. The participants are12 to 15 years old students of low income class at a public school of the central area of the capital of Brazil. The focus of the present work is on their identity claims regarding developmental topics presented and negotiated during in-depth individual interviews.

8. Intergenerational relations: Dialogue between youngsters and elderly in intergenerational meetings

Jacqueline F. C. Marangoni & Maria Cláudia S. Lopes de Oliveira (University of Brasília, Brazil)
Aging of the population exists as a social reality all around the world and in Brazil it is not different. Estimations show that Brazil will be the sixth country in the world with the largest elderly population by 2025. At the same time the number of youngsters is still significant. This demographical reality brings young and elder people together in private and public spaces in everyday life, highlighting intergenerational relations as an important topic in social sciences. From the perspective of qualitative epistemology, this study performs a dialogical analyses of intergenerational meetings in which youngsters and seniors are joining. The participants are 14 to 17 years old male and female adolescents of a public school of Brasilia, the capital of Brazil, and their grandparents. According to recent researches, intergenerational encounters require a critical reflection on the aging process, the breaking of stereotypes and myths. They tend to propitiate a context where interaction and dialogue make possible the discovery of a new world where life quality to people from all ages are provided.

9. Claims of identity of an adolescent in a partial-time correctional institution: Positionings of a dialogical self

Tatiana Yokoy de Sousa & Maria Cláudia S. Lopes de Oliveira (University of Brasília, Brazil)
The present study investigates different self positionings in the process of identity construction of a male 17 years old adolescent along the period of permanence in a partial-time correctional institution for adolescents with behavioral problems in Brasilia, Brazil. The study aims at analyzing the process through which the participant constructs a sense of self as an adult, responsible person within the frame of recent and past life experiences in different contexts such as family, school, criminality, peers and the correctional institution itself. The net of relationships, meanings and claims of identity are approached through the microgenetic analysis of a long-term autobiographical interview by means of an essentially dialogical theoretical fabric based on sociocultural and narrativistic approaches on self and identity. The focus of the analysis is set on (a) the different identity claims constructed in order to deal with continuities and discontinuities of the self in life course; (b) the ways he discursively organizes experience in the form of stories narrated.

10. How to measure internal dialogical activity: Proposition of a new scale

Piotr K. Oles & Maria Oles (Catholic University of Lublin, Poland)
A new scale to measure personal disposition for dialogical thinking was developed. Personal engagement in internal dialogues is on the one hand connected to a specific situational context (for example longing for a loved or lost person), on the other hand – as we assume – to an individual trait-like predisposition. Starting from the assumption that personal engagement in internal dialogues is a relatively stable individual disposition, we propose a 20-item scale to measure internal dialogical activity. The method is constructed according to a rational approach. The items were formulated and selected on a base of the theory of the dialogical self by Hermans and on the experiences derived from previous researches (conducted e.g. by Chmielnicka-Kuter and Puchalska-Wasyl). We introduce a current version of the scale, relevant data concerning validity and reliability, as well as some research results focused on internal dialogical activity and: (1) identity in college students, (2) meaning of life, and (2) anxiety, depression, anger and curiosity in university students. In sum, the poster presents a new scale based on an individual differences approach to the dialogical self.
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