42(4), 379-386. doi: 10. 1111/j. 1547-5069. 2010. 01371. x



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Ashley Alvarez

Annotated Bibliographies




Kelley, S. J., Whitley, D. M., & Campos, P. E. (2010). Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren: Results of an Intervention to Improve Health Outcomes. Journal Of Nursing Scholarship, 42(4), 379-386. doi:10.1111/j.1547-5069.2010.01371.x This research examines whether home interventions on grandmothers raising grandchildren with typically lower income and lower access to health care can positively improve their health conditions that involve the stress factors related to parenting their grandchildren. The paper uses surveys that were given to participants pre-intervention and then 12 months later after the home-based intervention was completed. The study concluded that some areas of health that affect the grandmothers negatively had a positive improvement after the intervention was completed. The study was helpful, due to the prominent population that was surveyed and participated, low-income African American grandmothers. It would have been a little more helpful to see if there was any correlation to the reason they are raising their grandchildren to their health related conditions. This study is helpful but would be more helpful to see other race groups represented more or how the health problems compare to grandfathers raising grandchildren or a dual grandparent relationship.

Sample: Group of 529 female Caregivers range in ages between 38-83, Most were low income African American

Keywords: Grandmothers raising grandchildren, grandparents raising grandchildren, caregiver burden, child maltreatment, kinship care, foster care
Cross, S. L., Day, A. G., & Byers, L. G. (2010). American Indian Grand Families: A Qualitative Study Conducted with Grandmothers and Grandfathers Who Provide Sole Care for Their Grandchildren. Journal Of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 25(4), 371-383. doi:10.1007/s10823-010-9127-5

This study examines the reasons Native American grandmothers and grandfathers choose to raise their grandchildren. The paper uses a literature review to examine the mainstream’s reasons behind why Native American elders take in their grandchildren, whether it be because of the history of their people, tradition or views on policy such as the Indian Child Welfare Act. The study concluded that many participants in the study choose to care for their grandchildren because of boarding school experience and the harsh history Native Americans have had within the United States. Though this study is again about a particular group, it includes more of the reasons why grandfamilies are formed and also includes both grandmothers and grandfathers even if there were only two of them. This study can help me see the reasons of helping grandchildren rather than the outcome of caring for grandchildren such as an increase in health problems.



Sample: Native American grandparents raising their grandchildren, 29 grandmothers and 2 grandfathers age range: 43-86 years old. Most lived off reservation.

Keywords: American Indian . Grand families . Kinship care . Indian Child Welfare Act

Mac-Nab, M. (2006). Just like raising your own? grandmothers' perceptions of parenting a second time around. Family relations, 55(5),564-575.

This research examines grandmothers feelings and views on parenting their grandchildren and how it may differ or be similar to how they raised their own children. They also took into account health factors that may limit the grandmothers parenting abilities. The study utilized a larger study of the similar purpose and focused entirely on the grandmothers of that study. The research concluded that there are some health issues that can limit parenting ability with grandchildren that they wouldn’t normally have had when parenting their children. As well as how it seems easier the second time around parenting because they know the steps. This study wasn’t as helpful as it could be for what I am trying to figure out in my topic of grandparents raising grandchildren. Though it covers some health related items it isn’t as helpful as some of my other resources seem to be.



Sample: 40 grandmothers

Keywords: Family genealogy, grandparents, grandparents raising grandchildren, intergenerational parenting, kinship caregiver

Gibson, P. A. (2005). Intergenerational Parenting from the Perspective of African American Grandmothers. Family Relations, 54(2), 280-297.

This research examines African American grandmothers and their successes and challenges in raising their grandchildren to have a successful adulthood and a supportive figure in their lives. The study looked at the experience of African American grandmothers in society and their mothering role and why they take that role. With a survey distributed to a small sample of African American grandmothers, the study shows that some parenting strategies were used more than the rest, such as, being understood by their grandchildren because there is that generation gap there, as well as having a role in the children’s education and involving them into other activities. This study helps show me the process in which grandmothers go to make sure their grandchildren are well taken care of even though there is that generation gap of possibly not being able to understand the child or the child not understanding the grandparent. Though it is helpful to see that, I wish that the study included grandfathers just like in the other studies where they seem to not be taken into consideration even within a specific group of people.



Sample: 17 African American grandmothers

Keywords: African American families, intergenerational parenting, kinship caregivers

SMITH-RUIZ, D. (2008). African American Grandmothers Providing Extensive Care to their Grandchildren: Socio-demographic and Health Determinants of Life Satisfaction. Journal Of Sociology & Social Welfare, 35(4), 29-52.

This research examines African American grandmothers’ health and socioeconomic attributes through looking at their reasons to take on parenting their grandchildren as well as their experiences care giving. Through this study questionnaires were conducted for the participants, similar to other studies and the results show that support for them wasn’t as there as it should be, they like to care for their grandchildren but it can be a burden on their lives such as through their health. The life satisfaction was also taken into consideration and when looking at educational status and other factors varied among the women participating within the study. This research is interesting and could be utilized for it’s health information for grandmothers. Though it is of a specific group, I can compare what I have learned within this article to that of another source that relates to African American grandmothers. I do still wish that they also focused on grandfathers as well.



Sample: 99 African American grandmothers

Keywords: grandparents, caregiving, kinship care, grandchildren
Letiecq, B. L., Bailey, S. J., & Porterfield, F. (2008). "We Have No Rights, We Get No Help:" The Legal and Policy Dilemmas Facing Grandparent Caregivers. Journal Of Family Issues, 29(8), 995-1012.

This research examines kinship polices that pertain to grandparents raising grandchildren through formal or informal care options. The method used to gather information for the study were interviews of 26 grandparents history of raising their own grandchildren. The study concluded that those you did not have formal/legal care of their grandchildren faced difficulty getting assistance and help through kinship policies that are in place. This research is helpful to me because it is not centered around just grandmothers. Also it discusses the implications that grandparents have when they don’t have formal care over their grandchildren and must resort to getting help on their own or doing things for themselves which in turn can cause stresses and health implications that may be related which have been stated in other sources I have found.



Sample: 26 grandparents in Montana

Keywords: Grandparent caregivers, grandparent rearing grandchildren, kinship policies


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