4. 6 science understanding: Outbreak

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Disease has shaped our human history. It could be argued that we are who we are because of and in spite of disease.

Part 1

WORDLIST: Local The and are been century due many most of on or pandemics pestis that the then with
_____ or global?

Throughout history there have ____ records of plagues  ” contagious diseases ____ have spread rapidly through a population ___ resulted in high death rates. There ___ also other terms used to describe ___ spread of disease. Epidemics occur when ____ people in a particular area have ___ disease in a relatively short time ___ pandemics are diseases that occur worldwide.

The Black Death = bubonic plague

___ Plague of Justinian in the sixth _______ was one of the first recorded _________. It is thought to have been ___ result of bubonic plague. Of all __ the plagues throughout history, bubonic plague __ the Black Death has been the ____ widespread and feared. Its name is ___ to the presence of black sores __ the skins of victims. The cause __ the disease is the bacteria Yersinia ______. These bacteria were transmitted by fleas ____ had bitten an infected rat and ____ bitten a human, infecting the human ____ the disease.

Part 2

WORDLIST: Europe First God Lack and bodies cent for hope in is of or people public range resulted the this those three times wastes whipped
_____ recorded in a north-eastern Chinese province __ Hopei, in China in 1334, it __ thought that bubonic plague was responsible ___ the death of about 90 per ____ of its population (about 2 million ______). By 1348, bubonic plague had reached ______. Within five years, an outbreak of ____ disease had resulted in the death __ almost one-third of Europe's population. After ____ time, plague visited England another six _____ before the end of the century.

Nearly all those infected died within _____ days of their first symptoms appearing. ____ of medical knowledge and great fear ________ in the development of a diverse _____ of methods being used to fight ___ condition. Some people tried special diets __ were cut or bled in the ____ that the disease would leave their ______ with their bodily fluids. Others (flagellants) _______ themselves to show their love of ___, hoping to be forgiven their sins ___ spared the disease. Most importantly, bodily ______ and the bodies and clothes of _____ infected with the disease were burned __ deep pits. In some areas, improved ______ sanitation would result from these outbreaks.

Part 3

WORDLIST: Death The could demise either its many one smallpox to
___ last recorded epidemic of the Black _____ was around 1670. A victim of ___ own success, it had killed so ____ so quickly that those remaining had ______ immunity or genetic resistance. While it _____ still infect, its hosts were able __ fight back and destroy it. Its ______ paved the way for another disease, ________, to take over as the number ___ infectious disease.

Part 4

WORDLIST: Crossing H5N1 Legionnaire's also and but crossed few many morbillivirus new only our previously sudden world
________ boundaries

Recent years have seen not ____ the discovery of new infectious agents, ___ also the emergence of some of ___ old infectious enemies. Some of these ___ diseases are crossing the species barrier ___ are now infecting species that they __________ did not affect. Increasing resistance of ____ pathogens to antibiotics or vaccines has ____ raised concerns about the potential for ______ outbreaks of infectious diseases around the _____.

Some of the new diseases ___ pathogens that have been identified or _______ the species barrier over the last ___ decades include Lyme disease, rabies, equine _____________, bovine spongiform encephalophy (mad cow disease), _____________ disease, HIV, Marburg virus, hantavirus, SARS, ____ and Ebola virus.

Part 5

WORDLIST: (H1N1). (H2N2) East H5 Influenza a around decades evolves from generally highly humans in killed more of outbreaks particular proteins strain the to when who

Throughout history, there have been numerous _________ of influenza. The influenza virus constantly _______, and pandemics happen every few decades ____ the flu virus gets new surface ________ that people have little immunity to, _________ because they come from an animal ______.

By the end of 1918, ____ than 25 million people had died ____ a virulent strain of Spanish influenza _______ In 1919, The Health Organization of ___ League of Nations was established with ___ aim of preventing and controlling disease ______ the world.

The Asian influenza ______ pandemic followed in 1957, followed by _ series of others over the next _______. Avian influenza (H5N1) made its debut __ 1997 in a form that was ______ contagious among birds and also infected ______. Since that time, it has devastated ____ Asian poultry industries. By 2006, a __________ strain of H5N1 had been transmitted __ humans and had caused a number __ fatalities. H5N1 was dangerous because its __ surface protein was totally new to ______ ” this is why it has ______ more than half of the people ___ have been infected with it.

Part 6

WORDLIST: Antiviral Doctors How SWINE accessed avian be became because caused contains develop die flu for h1n1 human in influenza made not of quarantined rather strain supplied swine symptoms the this to use were
_____ FLU

In 2009, there was a _____ flu (H1N1) pandemic. This strain of _________ contained a mixture of genes from ___ swine flu, human flu and avian ___ viruses. It was of particular concern _______ it was thought that this new ______ may have surface proteins that the _____ immune system may not recognise.

____ virus

The swine flu (H1N1) virus ________ a mixture of genes from the _____ flu virus, human flu virus and _____ flu virus.

The media was full __ headlines expressing fear and concern. This ______ global panic and a rush to _______ vaccines or treatments for swine flu. _________ drugs (such as Tamiflu) that had ___ been rigorously tested against this new ______ of flu were mass produced and ________ to doctors. In Australia, the families __ those infected with the disease were ___________ advised to stay at home, ______ than go to work or school. _______ were advised to have separate areas ___ those possibly infected (or send them __ other surgeries), keeping them away from ___ general public.

Many claims were ____ about the dangers and possible consequences __ swine flu. There was a rush __ create policies and procedures that could __ followed if some of the predictions ______ reality. The community took an interest __ the disease and began asking questions. ___ was it transmitted? What were the ________? Could infection be prevented? What treatments ____ there and how could they be ________? How many would die? Who would ___? Was this a taste of living __ the past? What technologies could we ___ or develop to defend ourselves against ____ new infectious threat?

Part 7

WORDLIST: HOW brought century deaths had history influenza it other population to

Increased travel between continents _______ new knowledge and discoveries. It also _______ death. At the turn of the _______, around 1500 expeditions by Columbus and _____ explorers brought venereal diseases, smallpox and _________ to areas that had no prior _______ of them. This resulted in the ______ of millions of native people, who ___ no prior exposure to enable them __ develop immunity. In some areas, up __ 95 per cent of the native __________ died. If a severe pandemic was __ occur, what effect do you think __ could have on international travel?

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