3 The Zimmerman Note was sent 6 The Treaty of Versailles is signed



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World War One: STUDY GUIDE KEY

  1. Create a timeline. Add each of the following events in order.

    • ___3__ The Zimmerman Note was sent

    • ___6__ The Treaty of Versailles is signed (Versailles is a French city. This peace treaty to end the war was signed in a palace in Versailles on June 28, 1919. Germany had to pay billions of dollars and give up its colonies.)

    • ___2__ Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia

    • ___1__ Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated (Ferdinand was going to be the next ruler of Austria-Hungary. He was killed by a Serbian, which made Austria-Hungary very angry with Serbia.)

    • ___4__ USA joins the war

    • ___5__ an armistice is called



  1. List countries that were part of the Allies, the Central Powers, and that chose to stay neutral.

Allies:

Original:

  • Russia

  • France

  • Great Britain


Later joined:

  • United States

  • Italy




Stayed Neutral:

  • Norway

  • Sweden

  • Netherlands

  • Switzerland

  • Spain

  • Albania

Central Powers:

  • Germany

  • Austria-Hungary

  • Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

  • Bulgaria



  1. A. What was the Zimmerman Note?

_A telegram sent from Germany to Mexico requesting an alliance against the USA. It promised Mexico that they would get Arizona, New Mexico and Texas back after the war. However, the note was intercepted by the British army and shared with the United States. _

  1. How did the Zimmerman Note change the way many Americans felt about World War One?

  • Americans were outraged.

  • Shortly after the Zimmerman note was sent, Germany sunk more US ships.

  • The United States opinion against Germany reached a peak.

  • Many Americans wanted to join the war at this point.



  1. A. Were women allowed to fight in the war? _No, but they could enlist in the military to do other jobs. _

B. How did women get involved to help out during WWI?

  • Women worked in offices in Washington DC.

  • They joined the Marines (called Marinettes) and did clerical (secretary / office) work.

  • They worked as “Hello Girls” – telephone switchboard operators

  • Women who joined the military wore uniforms and lived by the code of military discipline. Some of them worked overseas in Europe. However, they did not earn the same respect or job benefits that men did.

  • Women also worked overseas as nurses, translators, drove ambulances.

  • Women also entered the work force in the United States to do the jobs men left behind. (However, they were later asked to give those jobs back to the men when they returned from war.)

WWI Study Guide

By the end of our unit on the WWI, you should be able to do the following things:


Vocabulary:

Alliance

Definition

A formal agreement between countries to aid one another in times of need.

Sentence

Germany tried to form an alliance with Mexico to defeat the United States.

Ally:

Definition

To unite formally with a treaty or league; joining for a common purpose.

Sentence

The United States was an ally to France in WWI.

Armistice:

Definition

An end to war, a cease fire.

Sentence

At the end of the war, Germany called for an armistice.

Censor:

Definition

To remove parts of a book, newspaper, film or display thought to be harmful to the public.

Sentence

The Espionage Act of 1917 allowed the government to censor information, or keep it from the public.

Infantry:

Definition

The part of the army that fights on foot, also called the “doughboys.”

Sentence

Men who became part of the infantry fought battles on foot. Other soldiers were in tanks, ships, or airplanes.

Neutral

Definition

Not bound by promises to help or side with other nations.

Sentence

Norway and Sweden remained neutral throughout WWI. They did not want to get involved.

Propaganda:

Definition

Information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a political cause or point of view.

Sentence

Many propaganda posters were created in order to persuade Americans to buy US savings bonds.

Questions

What events lead to the United States joining WWI?



  • A German torpedo sunk the Lusitania, a British boat traveling from New York City to Britain in 1915. 1200 passengers died, 128 of them were American.

  • The United States lent a lot of money to the Allies. They were worried they might not get the money back if the Allies lost the war.

  • Germany started sinking more boats on the way to Britain with goods in 1917.

  • The Zimmerman note was discovered and shared with the United States. Germany had tried to form an alliance with Mexico against the United States.

In what ways was the United States involved in WWI?

  • The US lent money to the Allies.

  • They joined WWI in 1917.

  • There was a draft to collect more soldiers to join the war.

  • Many ships were built to send to war.

  • The United States fought as a separate “American unit,” called the American Expeditionary Force, rather than joining another country’s military.

  • Americans joined France in 1918 and stopped a German advance.

  • The 369th infantry was an all-black American regiment (group of soldiers) who stopped a German advance. 171 of those men received French military awards.

  • Air Battles – Combat from airplanes was called “dogfights.” Airplanes were used for observation, combat, bombs, and machine guns. “Aces” was the term for the best pilots.

What effects did WWI have on life at home and abroad?

  • There were mixed emotions when the United States joined the war. Some people were happy and others were strongly against the war.

  • Selective Service Act (May 1917) – The United States could now start a draft. Men were selected by a lottery system to join the war. 2 million men were sent to Europe to join the war.

  • America was not ready for war. There was a small navy and almost no army. Airplanes and ships needed to be prepared for war.

  • Patriotic support – People took pride in America. Many USA flags were sold. Patriotic songs like “Over There” became popular.

  • Factories stopped making ordinary consumer goods. They produced what was needed for war instead.

  • Wages increased (by 20%) for metal workers, ship builders, and meat packers.

  • 1 million women started working.

  • African Americans and Mexican Americans found more jobs available.

  • Food prices and other costs increased.

  • There was a shortage of food in Europe so the US sent a lot of food overseas. Americans were asked to be careful not to waste food and energy. People planted “Victory Gardens” to grow more food. There were “meatless,” “wheatless,” and “porkless” days.

  • Americans saved fuel by having “heatless” and “lightless” days.

  • To raise money, the US sold bonds (mini loans to the government) to the public. They started large advertisement campaigns (propaganda posters!) to get people to buy bonds, conserve food and energy, and encouraged people to be anti-German.

  • The US government passed laws to control dissent. The Espionage Act of 1917 said the government could keep information from the public and made it illegal to refuse military duty. Some people were sent to jail for refusing to join the military.

  • Finally, on November 11, 1918 there was an armistice called. At 11:00 AM on this 11th day of the 11th month, everyone stopped fighting. Today we celebrate this day as Veterans’ Day!

  • 116,000 US citizens died during the war.

  • When the soldiers returned home, they wanted their jobs back. The people (including many women) who had taken over the jobs were now out of work.

  • During the war, no one was allowed to strike. After the war, many people went on strike for better wages and shorter hours.

  • At the end of the war, America was richer than ever! The mass production of cars, radios, vacuums, and washing machines made many of these things affordable.

  • People were soon ready to move on and forget the war. They wanted to have fun! The roaring 20’s were just around the corner!


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