2nd Industrial Revoltuion in the late 1800’s/early 1900’s



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2nd Industrial Revoltuion in the late 1800’s/early 1900’s

Objective:




Industrial Advantages of the U.S.

2nd Industrial Revolution

Monopolies

Economic Ideologies

Growth of Cities

Settlement Houses

Women Suffrage

Discrimination & Civil Rights

Fighting for Civil Rights

The New Workplace

Labor Unions

Labor Union Rallies & Strikes

Populist Party (The People’s Party)

Progressive Reforms

Corruption

Muckrakers

Theodore Roosevelt – Progressive President

President “Tubby” Taft (R)



Growing _____________________ (immigrants & children)

An abundance of natural ___________________(iron, oil, electricity)

__________________ – business that is free from govt. involvement

Laissez-faire capitalism – _______________________ of the economy

____________________ – people who organize their own business

Labor was mostly immigrants (paid cheap) or poor children

Because of this, the U.S. became the industrial leader in the world during the 1890’s

_______________________________________ (just like the game)



  • consolidating corporations to control the market for a product attempting to destroy the competition controlling the majority of the production & distribution of a product

robber barons – polarization of wealth; __________________________ _______________________________

  • Andrew Carnegie – _______________

  • John D. Rockefeller – ____________

Sherman Antitrust Act – ____________________. But it was difficult to enforce

*_______________ – private business own & operate most industries; _________________ determines cost of goods as well as workers’ pay

Government favored business in most disputes with its labor force

__________________________ – societies evolve over time by adapting to their environment; govt. regulation threatened the natural economic order (survival of the fittest)

_________________________________


  • Port of entry = ____________________, NY & Angel Island, CA

  • Most were Roman Catholic

  • Led to racial & ethnic problems (ex. Wops, Pollocks)

Movement from rural to ______________ (more people living in the city)

Jobs available in the cities

Led to overcrowding & lack of city services – sanitation problems

________________________ in poor areas staffed by professionals and volunteers who offered education, recreation, and social activities

___________________ – founded the most famous settlement house, called ____________________ in Chicago.

Hull House focused on the needs of families and immigrants. Teaching ________________________________.

__________________!

Industrialization leads to ________________________!

________________________ – Seneca Falls Convention (Dec. of Sent.); created women’s movement

________________________ – fought for the right to vote

____________________________


  • U.S. fed. law restricting Chinese for 10 years & any Chinese American could not obtain U.S. citizenship; reaction to open immigration

_________________________

  • Plessy (1/8th black) was thrown off railway car & arrested for violating Separate Car Act of Louisiana

  • U.S. Supreme Court case upholding racial segregation; “_________________________”; practiced until 1954

_________________________________

  • _________________________ (original MLK); author

  • believed in cooperation w/ whites instead of confrontation

  • his work greatly helped lay the foundation for the 1960’s Civil Rights Movement

______________________________

  • publisher & author of equality writings; encouraged Harlem Renaissance; director of ___________________

  • “blacks should challenge and question whites, seek higher education, & assimilate into American culture”; they should know when to act “white” and/or “black”

___________________________

  • founder of Universal Negro Improvement Association (uniting all of Africa)

  • ________________________________________________

____________________ replaced skilled workers

________________________ – large amounts of products being made

_________________ taking jobs

_________________grew



  • They increase workers’ power (power in numbers)

  • Used as a bargaining tool against employer to get what workers want (collective bargaining)

  • _____________________ – fed. law passed that monitors activities & powers of labor unions

_______________________

- Open to everyone – men, women, skilled & unskilled workers; one big union

_______________________ –they Individualized Unions (ex. Mineworkers, Steelworkers); open to only skilled workers

The Bisbee Deportation – in ___________; the Industrial Workers of the World demanded change in the _______________, the Bisbee mining corp. refused; violence erupted – 2 men were killed, others beaten - the IWW members were deported to NM; the Bisbee company was never found guilty for their injustice

The _____________________ – 1000s of union members in ___________ went on strike; 2 strikers were killed by police; workers protested; turned violent – 8 officers killed; officers killed several people; another example of __________________________

Homestead Strike - __________________ (1892); between Amalgamated Assoc. of Iron & S________________ (AA) – the whole town & C____________ Steel Co. AA wanted to prevent management from forcing workers to agree not to become a member of a union… got violent. Union VICTORY!!!

Pullman Strike - ___________________ conflict between unions & RRs (1894); violence erupted in Illinois with Pullman Palace Car Company & American Railway Union. President Cleveland ordered fed. troops to Chicago to end strike (he was not reelected); RRs won!

Supported _______________________________________________, & govt. ownership of RR & the telegraph/telephone system

Most populists were ____________________________ (the common people) that were losing jobs and $$$ to immigrants & big business

______________________ – a democrat & populist presidential candidate in 1896. He lost. This election marked the end of the populist movement.

all laws were designed to give the people greater control over their state legislatures & state officials

Amendments:



  • 16th – ___________________

  • 17th – _____________________________________

  • 18th – ________________

  • 19th – __________________________

Election reforms:

  • ______________ – if enough voters sign a petition, the people can remove the official

  • _____________ – voters’ ability to propose new laws by petition

  • __________________ – voters approve or disapprove laws already being practiced

____________________________________________________

  • reached out to immigrants by finding jobs attaining citizenship, housing, etc.  in return, expected their vote

  • used illegal tactics to maintain control (bought votes)

  • demanded bribes & pay offs for jobs

_______________________________________________

Progressivism – reformers who wanted to address city life & corruption in order to achieve order & stability

____________________________________ named, “muckrakers” – bc they raked up the muck of society & exposed corruption & illegal business practices

Ida Tarbell – wrote about unfair business practices of the Standard Oil Co.; book: __________________________________

Jacob Riis – wrote about slum life & business corruption; book: _________________________________________________

Upton Sinclair – wrote about unsanitary working conditions; book: _________________________________

Frank Norris – discussed how railroads were a monopoly

Lincoln Steffens – exposed corruption in city govt.

“__________________” – broke up trusts (a group of companies under a single board of director that make a lot of $$$, there’s no competition)

_________________ – doubled the number of national and state parks

passed Sherman Anti-Trust Act; supported 16th (income tax) & 17th (direct election of Senators) amendment; created Federal Children’s Bureau

______________________________________________________ (over conservation of environment issues)… progressives formed Progressive party

Election of 1912: Roosevelt (P) vs. Wilson (D)… _________________!



Summary:


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