|20th Century History Final Exam Review: In Progress Version 1 - 05/09/13
The population of the earth roughly tripled in the 20th century.
The major French goal in Africa during the period from about 1870 to 1914 was to control territories stretching from the west coast to the east coast, while the major British goal was to control territories stretching from Egypt to South Africa.
World War I began when Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
Great Britain relied on native Indian officials to govern India.
The U.S. never gained control of colonies in China in the 1800s and early 1900s Instead, it pursued an Open Door policy in China.
Much of the 1920s was characterized by recovery and prosperity in Europe and the U.S.
Following Marx and Engels' publication of the Communist Manifesto in 1848, there were several unsuccessful communist revolutions in Europe. The first successful communist revolution occurred in Russia in November 1917.
Germany and Great Britain passed social welfare measures in the late nineteenth century to head off the growing popularity of Marxist parties in their respective countries.
Unlike most other members of the Chinese Communist Party, Mao Zedong believed that the Chinese Communist revolution must be based upon impoverished rural peasants.
Two of every five persons killed during World War II were Soviet citizens.
As a consequence of World War II, European hegemony over the rest of the world came to an end.
Most countries in the world today are, to varying degrees, democratic.
One of the major issues of the Korean peninsula at the beginning of the twenty-first century was North Korea's nuclear weapons ambitions.
The Egyptian advocate of Pan-Arabism and the architect of the United Arab Republic was General Gamal Abdul Nasser.
The only nation in the Middle East that has firmly established democratic institutions is Israel.
According to University of Hawaii Professor R. J. Rummell, roughly 38 million soldiers died in wars and 169 million civilians died in government sponsored persecutions, mass murders, and genocides during the twentieth century.
Beliefs of 19th century liberals include: 1) political democracy, 2) governments should protect civil liberties, 3) governments should have limited powers, 4) there should be property qualifications for voting, 5) liberal capitalism (government should not get involved in the regulation of business)
Reasons for the rapid expansion of imperialism in the late 1800s include 1) the development of a prophylactic for malaria, 2) advances in transportation technology (steamship, railroad), 3) a desire for raw materials, natural resources, and protected markets.
The countries with the two largest overseas empires by 1900 were Great Britain and France.
The ideology that brought about the most change throughout the world in the nineteenth century was nationalism.
In 1900, there were about 50 countries in the world. In 2000, there were about 18.
The only African states free of European rule by 1914 were Ethiopia and Liberia.
The European leaders who created a private association for the purpose of extracting resources for his personal gain was King Leopold II.
In Age of Extremes, Eric Hobsbawm argues that we should delineate a “short twentieth century” lasting from 1914 - 1991 that began with the outbreak of World War I and ended with the disintegration of the Soviet Union.
For the British, India was the “jewel of the British Crown,” and controlling the Suez Canal was crucial to maintaining access to it.
According to most historians, Austria-Hungary and Germany deserve most of the blame for starting World War I.
The country with the largest land empire in the early twentieth century was Russia.
The country famously described as the “sick man of Europe” in the early 1900s was the Ottoman Empire.
Factors contributing to the outbreak of World War I include: 1) the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne; 2) alliances that emboldened European powers to wage war; 3) competition for imperial possessions; 4) an arms race in the late 1800s and early 1900s spurred by nationalism and the belief that war was a necessary evil; and 5) Britain's fear of Germany's growing naval and commercial power.
Otto von Bismarck: 1) was the architect behind German unification; 2) coined the term geopolitik referring to a global foreign policy strategy based on realpolitik (pragmatic considerations rather than ideological considerations); 3) was able to forge public and secret alliances and arrangements that helped maintain peace in Europe; and 4) was forced by Kaiser Wilhelm to resign in 1890.
Some of Britain's imperial possessions: 1) India (the jewel of the British crown), 2) Hong Kong, 3) Egypt, and 4) Gibraltar. Controlling Egypt and Gibraltar allowed the British to control two important straits necessary to maintain quicker access to India (the Strait of Gibraltar between Egypt and Spain, and the Suez Canal between Egypt and Arabia).
Major Allied powers during World War I: Serbia, Russia, Belgium, France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, the U.S.
Major Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Germany, the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria
The factor leading the U.S. into World War I was Germany's resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare in 1917.
During World War I, about 10 million people were killed, and 20 million people were wounded.
World War II resulted in 60 to 80 million total deaths (including civilians). Based on the figure of 60 million, that's 2.5 percent of the world's population at the time. The Soviet Union suffered the most total deaths: 26 million (9 million war dead, and 17 million civilian dead.
The ideas of both Sigmund Freud and Friedrich Nietzsche, which became popular after World War I, argued that human beings were essentially irrational.
Major contributions of Albert Einstein to science in the early twentieth century include: 1) The force guiding smaller heavenly bodies towards a large heavenly body is a pushing force produced by warped space surrounding the larger heavenly body; 2) A small amount of mass can produce tremendous amounts of energy, paving the way for the development of the nuclear bomb; 3) Time is affected by how fast a body travels through space.
Self-governing dominions of Great Britain by 1914 included (but were not limited to) Canada, Australia, and the Union of South Africa. Dominions were self-governing areas of the British Empire. After 1930, dominions became independent from Britain at different times. Those areas that kept the British royal line and British royal succession became Commonwealth Nations (i.e., Canada, Australia, New Zealand). Others became independent republics (i.e., Ireland).
Social Darwinists argued that certain races, countries, and world regions are predisposed to dominate other races, countries and world regions.
Terms of the Treaty of Versailles included: 1) the provision that Germany’s armed forces be greatly limited; 2) the provision that the Rhineland region of Germany remain demilitarized; 3) The provision that Germany pay a large amount of war reparations; and 4) Germany and its allies had to admit guilt for the war (this is the term of the Treaty of Versailles that Germans hated the most).
The two countries most severely affected by the Great Depression of October 1929 were the U.S. and Germany.
The Zionist Movement was the movement to found a state for Jews in Palestine.. The first Zionist Congress met in 1897 in Switzerland. It was founded by the author and playwright Theodor Herzl. It began during a time of extreme anti-Semitism in European history.
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels concept of Scientific Socialism: 1) focuses on economics as the driving force in history; 2) argues that conflict between diametrically opposed classes in society will lead from one stage of history to the next; 3) argues that capitalism has to fully develop before a successful communist revolution can occur
After World War I, the League of Nations assigned much of the former Ottoman Empire in the Middle East as mandates. These are areas put under a foreign power's control until that area is ready for independence. France was assigned Syria and Lebanon. Britain was assigned Palestine, Transjordan, and Iraq.
Turkey fought and won its war of independence (1919 - 1922) against the Allies and became an independent country in 1922. Turkey's first president was Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk). He was one of the Young Turks who had forced the Ottoman sultan to allow the creation of a constitution and parliament, and to grant people more rights. During World War I, he become famous for successfully leading the defense of Gallipoli. He led Turkey to become a Western-style state that tried to separate church and state.
The first major genocide of the twentieth century occurred was conducted by Ottoman authorities against Armenian Christians during World War I.
The country that didn't join the League of Nations, dooming it to failure was the U.S.
The world's first successful communist revolution occurred in Russia.
Most Latin American nations gained independence from Spain in the early 1800s.
The type of government prevalent in Latin America during the 1800s was military dictatorship.
Cuba gained its independence from Spain as a result of the Spanish-American War.
Benito Mussolini, the founder of the Fascist Movement in Italy, 1) was a socialist prior to World War I, 2) became an ardent nationalist after World War I, and 3) was offered an important position in the Italian government after staging a march on Rome, and 4) gave control of the Vatican to the Roman Catholic Church.
Multi-party democratic states at the end of World War I included Italy, France, and Germany.
The two countries whose independent unification movements were complete by 1871 were Germany and Italy.
Two countries created by the treaties that ended World War I that disintegrated in the 1990s were Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia.
In 1867, Japan began modernizing along Western lines as a result of the Meiji Restoration.
One of V. I. Lenin’s major contribution to Marxist thought was the idea that socialist revolution could only be successful if led by a vanguard of revolutionaries.
By 1939 the only two major democratic states in Europe were France and Great Britain.
The leader of India’s nonviolent independence movement of the early 20th century was Mahatma Gandhi.
In response to the terms of the treaties that ended World War I, Ho Chi Minh led an independence movement in Vietnam.
By the 1920s, the British response to the various groups of Indian nationalists was to give some Indians a somewhat greater role in the governing process.
The royal dynasty which came to power in Iran in 1925 was the Pahlavi dynasty which ruled Iran until 1979.
The 1917 statement that pledged British support for the establishment of a “national home” for Jews in Palestine was the Balfour Declaration.
The Middle Eastern nation where vast oil reserves were discovered in 1938 was Saudi Arabia.
The Comintern was an organization of Communist parties committed to world revolution.
The Nationalist Party leader whose international efforts were instrumental to the 1911 revolution that ended the Qing Dynasty was Sun Yat-sen.
The event that led Mao Zedong to become the leader of the Communists in China was the Long March of 1934 - 1935.
In Latin America, as a result of World War I, the United States increased its role in the local economies.
By the end of World War II, South America's major industrial power was, and is now Brazil.
The Mexican politician who redistributed 44 million acres of land and who took over and nationalized the foreign oil interests was Lazaro Cardenas (president from 1934 - 1940).
The dominant party in Mexican politics from the end of the Mexican Revolution to the election of 2000 was the PRI.
One of the differences between the new totalitarian states and traditional authoritarian monarchies is that totalitarianism demanded the active loyalty and commitment of the citizens.
The Nazi party had success in the 1920s, but grew significantly as the result of the Great Depression.
The Enabling Act of March, 1933, suspended the constitution for four years in order to give Hitler the power to solve Germany's many problems.
By the late 1930s, Nazi Germany's chief fascist ally in Europe was Italy.
World War II began in Europe on September 1, 1939, with a Nazi invasion of Poland.
On June 22, 1941, in spite of a non-aggression agreement, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
On Europe's eastern front, the turning point in World War II was at the Battle of Stalingrad.
The United States gained naval superiority in the Pacific at the Battle of Midway.
History's greatest naval invasion occurred at Normandy.
The "Final Solution" was ultimately carried out in death camps such as Auschwitz-Birkenau.
Approximately 100 new countries were created during the period 1945 - 1965, mostly from the great overseas empires.
The Truman Doctrine said that the United States would support free peoples resisting Communist aggression.
By 1948, the fate of which of the following European nations had become a source of bitter contention between the Soviet Union and the West:
The European Recovery Program of 1947 is better known as the Marshall Plan.
The Soviet response to the Marshall plan was to reject it because it was an example of American economic and political imperialism.
The Eastern European communist states organized a formal military alliance called the Warsaw Pact.
After being defeated by the Communists, Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalists fled to Taiwan.
In the Chinese Civil War, the United States gave limited military aid to the Nationalists.
In 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union agreed to temporarily divide the Korean peninsula at the 38th parallel.
The People's Republic of China entered the Korean War in fear that hostile American military forces would be stationed on the Chinese frontier.
The Geneva agreement of 1954 temporarily divided Vietnam into a communist north and a non-communist south.
Stalin’s first Five Year Plan (1928 - 1932) all of the above.
The closest the world came to nuclear war was the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962).
The U.S.’ worst foreign policy failure of the Cold War was The Vietnam War.
Détente refers to the lessening of tensions after the Cuban Missile Crisis between the United States and the Soviet Union.
In 1979, some observers mistakenly believed that the Soviet Union hoped to ultimately extend its power into the Persian Gulf oil fields by invading Afghanistan.
The terrorist group responsible for the tragedy of September 11, 2001, was al-Qaeda.
Traditionally, the nations of Latin America relied economically on the export of raw materials.
During the 1960s, almost all economically advanced South American countries experienced domestic strife and military despotism.
of the causes of the economic failures in Latin America during the 1970s and early 1980s was the failure of a number of governments to pay interest on their debts to foreign banks.
The Organization of American States (OAS), established in 1948, promised
Under the leadership of Juan Peron, Argentina took over the railways, banking, insurance, and the communications industries.
Under General Augusto Pinochet, the Chilean government refused to return the previously seized copper industry to its original U.S. owners.
The Great Leap Forward was a movement to rapidly collectivize agriculture and industrialize China lasting from 1958 to 1961 that cost many millions of lives due to starvation.
Mao’s Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution of 1966 to 1976 had as its major goal to reinvigorate revolutionary zeal in Cina’s population.
Following Mao Zedong’s deaht in 1976, China’s leader Deng Xiaoping added elements of capitalism to China’s economy.
Women in Communist China were given equal rights with men.
The allied general responsible for the political and social rehabilitation of Japan after World War II was Douglas MacArthur.
Tre characteristic of the "Japanese miracle" include 1) the Japanese life expectancy is among the highest in the world. 2) it is the world's greatest exporting nation. 3) the literacy rate in Japan approaches 100 percent. 4) it established one of the world's most advanced economies.
A problem facing Japan in the immediate future is a declining birth rate.
Stops at 110