2015 Study Guide – Russia/China Mini-Unit Concepts



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2015 Study Guide – Russia/China Mini-Unit

Concepts

  • Legitimacy

    • Citizens follow the laws because they believe in the government’s right to rule

  • Authoritarian Regimes

    • Lack well-established rule of law, Concentrate power in executive- effective decision makers and can create stability

    • Command economy

      • Quotas, plans of production and distribution

    • Unitary governments

      • Highly centralized policy process

    • Participate is different than democratic because state organized participation

    • Elections: citizens may be allowed to participate in order to provide legitimacy to the ruling regime.

  • Civil society examples

    • Require voluntary associations

    • Religious groups, labor unions, women’s groups

  • Patron-client relationships – responsibilities and obligations are based on a hierarchy between elites and citizens.

  • Economic liberalization

    • Eliminate price controls

    • Reducing tariffs, encouraging foreign direct investment

    • Privatizing para-statals

  • Electoral Systems

    • Proportional representation produces the largest number of competitive political parties.

Russia

  1. History/ Political Culture/ Social Cleavages

    1. Asymmetrical Federalism

      1. Appointment of Governors- checks and balances

    2. Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx predicted that capitalism would no longer be a viable economic system after the revolution of the proletariat

      1. Democratic centralism most influential in shaping the political system during the earliest days of the Soviet Union.

    3. Regime Change

      1. 1991 break up of Soviet Union is an example of 20th century fragmentation

    4. Political culture

      1. Russians are more likely to believe in equality of result rather than equality of opportunity

    5. 1993 Constitution: established a hybrid presidential- parliamentary system.

    6. Social Cleavages

      1. Ethnic

        1. Caucuses- ethnic differences

          1. Chechnya- Most are Muslim, - not Russian, there are divisions within Chechens that are complicated; what is Chechnya like geographically and economically?

  2. Political Institutions

    1. Executive

      1. President

        1. Appoints prime minister? Vote and schedule a national referendum?

        2. Serves two successive six year terms (change in 2008 from four year terms to six year terms)

      2. Putin

        1. YEAR? Federalism changes- abolited sub-national units of government below the level of republic.

    2. Legislative

      1. Bicameral

      2. 1993 constitution gave the Duma the power to veto the president’s appointment of the Prime Minister

    3. Judicial

      1. Constitutional Court has the power of judicial review

  3. Linkage Institutions

    1. Political Parties: often base their organization on the appeal of a particular leader

      1. United Russia

      2. Liberal –Democratic

        1. Ultra nationalism

      3. Fair Russia

      4. Communist Party

        1. Post communist economic policies

      5. Yabloko

        1. Post communist economic policies

    2. Interest Groups

      1. State sponsored organizations

        1. NASHI, Russia’s youth group is subsidized and organized by the government

      2. Relationship between interest groups and the central government in Russia- interest groups and the government interact under therules of state corporatism

      3. Foreign NGOs 2013

    3. Media

      1. Extensive media freedom under Yeltsin and significant decrease in media freedom under Putin.

    4. Political Participation/ Protests

    5. Elite Recruitment

      1. nomenklatura

  4. Policy Focus

    1. Economy

      1. Post 1991- end of centrally planned economy

        1. “shock therapy” sudden free market economic reform accompanied by rapid democratic political reform

        2. Consequences:

          1. Increased unemployment

          2. Decentralized production decisions

          3. Increase in number of individually owned enterprises

      2. BRIC 2009 meeting, Russia lags the furthest behind because of declining oil prices.

China

  1. History/ Political Culture/ Social Cleavages

    1. Unitary System

    2. Communist Party

      1. Democratic centralism is the organizing principle

    3. Cleavages

      1. China’s government has given some latitude to ethnic minorities in such matters as population control and language

  2. Institutions

    1. Politiburo

    2. Executive

      1. President typically comes from their position as general secretary (Hu Jintao, Jiang Zemin, current?)

    3. Legislative

      1. Unicameral:

    4. Judiciary

      1. No independent judicial review

      2. Economic reform has led to judicial reform

  3. Linkage Institutions

    1. Elections

      1. Local competitive elections in Chinese villages, initiated by the state to control local corruption and incompetent leaders.

    2. Political participation

      1. Protests are more often tolerated from farmers because not political, mostly a local and specific issue.

    3. Media

      1. Role of government

        1. Internet is controlled monitored and censored by the government

        2. Still state-owned press

      2. Increase in number and types of media outlets? Increase in diversity of topics permitted for public discussion?

      3. Increase in investigative reporting

  4. Policy Focus

    1. Recent Democratic reforms

      1. Competitive village elections

      2. Mandatory retirement ages for national leaders

      3. A loosening of restrictions on internal movement within China

      4. Creation of special economic zones

    2. One child policy increases the median age

    3. Environment

      1. The Government has largely ignored environmental problems in the past and has focused on economic growth- causing major problems.

Comparisons

Russia & China

  • Both restrict the development of civil society, Russia supports the growth of capitalism,

  • Nature of social and potliical cleavages in China nd Russia are different because in china the communist party is still one important and stable channel of upward mobility, while in Russia it is not

UK & Russia

  • Uk has FPTP, Russia uses PR – for what positions?

  • Civil society in Russia is relatively undeveloped – examples?

  • Lower house of the legislature is the more powerful chamber in the policy making process

  • Russia presidential elections every 4 years, UK within 5 years

  • Prime Ministers- UK PM can be removed as a result of votes of no confidence in the lower house of the legislature.

China & Mexico

  • Suppressed student protests

  • Oil producers

  • Weak legislative assemblies relative to the exec

  • Have a president

Russia & Mexico

  • Weak judicial systems lacking independence

  • Proportional representation in the lower house of the legislature

RUSSIA & China FRQs

2014 #6


Conceptual Analysis:

6. Legislatures are important institutions in both authoritarian and democratic regimes.

(a) Identify a function of a legislature that is common to both democratic and authoritarian regimes.

(b) Explain how a function of a legislature can strengthen democracy.

(c) Describe two ways a legislature can be controlled in an authoritarian regime.

(d) Explain why authoritarian regimes maintain legislatures.

Part (a): 1 point One point is earned for correctly identifying a function of a legislature that is common to both democratic and authoritarian regimes.

Acceptable identifications include:

• Representation

• Passing laws or budgets

Part (b): 1 point One point is earned for a correct explanation of how a function of a legislature can strengthen democracy.

Acceptable explanations may include:

• Responds to public demand for legislative action • Allows for clear and open debate about policy

• Facilitates compromise between factions

• Legislates to extend political rights or civil liberties

• Restricts power of executive

Part (c): 2 points One point is earned for EACH correct description of ways a legislature can be controlled in an authoritarian regime.

Acceptable descriptions may include:

• Manipulates election rules for parties and voters

• Controls election results

• Creates a dominant or single party system

• Appoints representatives

• Limits legislative meeting time

• Limits or restrain debate of opposing views

• Limits or prohibit changes to executive proposals

• Co-opts or represses dissenting legislators

• Prohibits legislative

Part (d): 1 point One point is earned for a correct explanation of why authoritarian regimes maintain legislatures. Acceptable explanations may include:

• To maintain political legitimacy

• To establish the pretense of popular support

• To respond to international pressure

• To provide a forum for superficial debate

• To recognize cleavages in an effort to reduce tension

• To support government propaganda

• To build party support or compliance

2013 #6, economic liberalization

6. Political economy involves the study of the relationship between states and markets. (a) Define economic liberalization. (b) Describe the actions governments take in pursuing a policy of economic liberalization regarding TWO of the following: x Subsidies x Tariffs x Ownership of companies and firms x Foreign direct investment (c) Identify one international organization that promotes economic liberalization. (d) Explain one reason for pursuing economic liberalization. (e) Explain one reason for resisting economic liberalization.

One point is earned for a correct definition of economic liberalization. An acceptable definition is: • Economic liberalization involves the reduction of state intervention in the economy. • Move to free market policies, if explained in part (b). Note: The definition must indicate that liberalization is a process. Part (b): 2 points One point EACH is earned (for a total of 2 points) for a correct description of actions that governments take in pursuing a policy of economic liberalization. An acceptable description of subsidies is: Governments reduce or eliminate subsidies. An acceptable description of tariffs is: Governments reduce or eliminate tariffs. An acceptable description of ownership of companies and firms is: Governments privatize state-owned companies. An acceptable description of foreign direct investment is: Governments open up the economy to foreign direct investments. Part (c): 1 point One point is earned for correctly identifying an international organization that promotes economic liberalization. An acceptable identification may include: • The World Bank • The European Union (EU) • World Trade Organization (WTO) • The International Monetary Fund • United Nations AP® COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS 2013 SCORING GUIDELINES © 2013 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. Question 6 (continued) Part (d): 1 point One point is earned for each correct explanation of a reason for pursuing economic liberalization. Acceptable explanations may include: • Foreign direct investment in order to bring money into the country. • Domestic firms that are more competitive, more efficient, or more innovative. • A diversified economy. • Benefits to consumers, including lower price or more options. • Reduced budget deficits. • Compliance with structural adjustment policies. • Desire to join an international organization, like the EU. Part (e): 1 point One point is earned for each correct explanation of a reason for resisting economic liberalization. Acceptable explanations may include: • Reduced government control, influence, or sovereignty. • Widening income inequality. • Domestic firms unable to compete. • Environmental damage. • Deteriorating working conditions. • Reduced elite control over resources. • Increased unemployment. • Fear of instability or vulnerability, linked to a specific policy.

2013 #7 athoritarian regimes

Country Context: We suggest that you spend approximately 40 minutes (20 minutes each) on questions 7 and 8. 7. Refer to the following map and indicators of democracy from the Economist Intelligence Unit. Source: http://graphics.eiu.com/PDF/Democracy_Index_2010_web.pdf (a) Define the concept of a hybrid regime. (b) Using the map above, identify the type of regime in Russia AND identify the type of regime in China. (c) Describe the characteristics of TWO of the following elements of Russia’s political system. Explain how these characteristics contribute to the regime designation of Russia. x Electoral competition x Civil society x Media (d) Describe the characteristics of TWO of the following elements of China’s political system. Explain how these characteristics contribute to the regime designation of China. x Electoral competition x Civil society x Media

One point is earned for the correct definition of a hybrid regime. An acceptable definition is: A hybrid regime has elements of both democracy and authoritarianism. Note: Definitions that identify hybrid regimes as illiberal or transitional regimes are not sufficient. Definitions that refer only to deficiencies in democratic institutions and processes are not sufficient. Definitions need to reflect both authoritarian and democratic elements. Part (b): 1 point One point is earned for correctly identifying Russia as a hybrid regime AND China as an authoritarian regime. Part (c): 3 points One point is earned for descriptions of characteristics of TWO of the elements of Russia’s political system. One point is earned for each correct explanation (for a total of 2 points) of how TWO of the following characteristics contribute to the regime designation in Russia. Note: Description and explanation must be linked. Note: The examples below are not exhaustive; they are meant to illustrate the need for responses to reflect both authoritarianism and democratic elements. AP® COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS 2013 SCORING GUIDELINES © 2013 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. Question 7 (continued) Element Acceptable descriptions include … Acceptable explanations include … Electoral Multiparty elections  BUT some parties are excluded from electoral process Competition Some parties excluded  BUT elections include parties other than United Russia Civil NGOs, mass protests allowed  BUT they are restricted, leaders sometimes arrested Society Restrictions on NGOs, protests  BUT some NGOs and mass protests are allowed Media Small market media mostly free  BUT large market media government-owned, controlled Large market media government-  owned, controlled BUT small market media mostly free Part (d): 3 points One point is earned for descriptions of characteristics of TWO of the elements of China’s political system. One point is earned for each correct explanation (for a total of 2 points) of how TWO of the following characteristics contribute to the regime designation in China. Note: Description and explanation must be linked. Note: Response must highlight authoritarian elements, albeit limited democratic elements are possible. Note: The examples below are not exhaustive; they are meant to illustrate the need for responses to connect the description of elements of the political system in China to a central authority. Element Acceptable descriptions include… Acceptable explanations include… Electoral Real electoral competition is not allowed … BY the state and/or the Communist Party Competition Civil Society There is widespread persecution of activists … BY the government Media Media are widely censored BY the leadership/party elites

2012 #2 Russia socialization



  1. Define political socialization. Describe two methods Russian authorities currently use to socialize citizens.

  2. One point is earned for a correct definition of political socialization. An acceptable definition includes: • The process by which people form their ideas about politics and acquire their ideas about government • The process by which political values are formed and transmitted from one generation to the next One point is earned for each of two descriptions of methods currently used by Russian authorities to socialize citizens. Acceptable descriptions include: • State-controlled media sets agenda and primes citizens on important issues, as well as controlling the debate and establishing norms. • The government controls textbook content and educational curriculum to shape people’s ideas about government. • Progovernment youth organizations such as Nashi and progovernment rallies have been organized to support the regime. • Proregime Internet campaigns are used to depict Putin as a strong and capable leader. • The Russian Orthodox Church bolsters the legitimacy of the regime.

2012 #3 China economic liberalization

3. Explain how two current environmental problems in China resulted from its economic liberalization. Describe one policy the Chinese government has developed in response to one of these environmental problems.

One point is earned for each of two explanations of how current environmental problems in China resulted from its economic liberalization. Current environmental problems may include: • air pollution • habitat loss • land contamination • urban sprawl • water pollution Acceptable explanations for how the problems listed above resulted from economic liberalization may include: • expansion of industry • lack of government regulation • increased use of automobiles • increased consumption • poor infrastructure Notes: Explanations must demonstrate linkage to economic liberalization. Explanation may be the same for two distinct environmental problems. One point is earned for a correct description of a policy the Chinese government developed in response to the environmental problem identified above. Acceptable descriptions of a policy include: • temporarily shutting down factories • physically moving factories • implementation of green technologies and subsidies to companies using them • reduced use of automobiles or controls on automobile emissions • better legal framework for policy regulation • greater planning in or increased infrastructure development

2011 #, china social cleavge



  1. Describe a major social cleavage in China. Discuss two policies the Chinese state has adopted since 1990 in response to that cleavage.

  2. One point is earned for a correct description of a social cleavage in China. Acceptable descriptions include the following: • Ethnic (Xinjiang, Tibet, Uighurs) • Urban/rural • Interior/coastal or East/West • Generational • Class, rich/poor, income • Gender Note: A very short description is enough as long as a division is implied. The following responses do not earn credit: religion generally or by name; a place name; elite/nonelite; party/nonparty; an issue or controversy/ Falun Gong. One point is earned for each correct discussion of a policy the Chinese state has adopted in response to that cleavage. Acceptable discussions of policies may include the following: • Urban/rural o Migrant policies and residency requirements o Incentives for foreign or domestic investment in rural areas o Local/village elections (e.g., 1998 organic village law) o New agriculture/rural land policies o Antipoverty programs, including New Socialist Countryside 2006 policy o Infrastructure development such as roads, dams and communications in rural areas o Improved education (compulsory education, building of more schools) o Limited rural pensions in some areas o Policies on rural protests o Devolution of social policies to be more responsive to local or rural needs o Tax policies o Subsidies Note: One-child policy (or relaxation of one-child policy) is not an answer unless the response specifically cites governmental reactions to the 2008 earthquake. If the response does not correctly identify a cleavage, it cannot earn a policy point. • Ethnic o Crackdown on protest by ethnic minorities and use of military to maintain order o Restricting information into and out of ethnic minority regions o Increased infrastructural/development projects in ethnic areas (including water) o Improved access to education o Subsidies to ethnic/border regions (agricultural, educational) o Incentives for foreign or domestic investment o Increased efforts to recruit more ethnic minorities into the regional and national leadership AP® COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS 2011 SCORING GUIDELINES © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. Question 4 (continued) • Interior/coastal or East/West o Shifting focus of development to the West/Great Western Development program o Infrastructure, development and land reclamation projects in the West (including water) o Improved access to education o Incentives for foreign or domestic investment in West to reduce disparities o Promotion of charity/donations • Class/rich or poor/income gap o Public spending to create jobs o Programs to help retrain unemployed, especially from state-owned enterprises (SOEs) o Increased tolerance of localized protests as long as they do not target the party o Arrests of workers, low-income people and migrants who target the party o Crackdown on lawyers representing workers or low-income people o Promotion of benefits for migrant workers o Community provisions of social services o Tax policies • Generational o Provision of limited pension for rural older people o Provision of community services for older people o Very gradual relaxation of one-child policy in urban areas • Gender o New laws against/raising awareness about domestic violence and sexual harassment o Criminalization of sex-selected abortion o Hosting of 1995 conference on women in Beijing o Toleration of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that target women’s issues o Efforts to reduce sex trafficking

2011 #8 civil liberaties Russia nd mexico

  1. Political scientists often examine political rights and civil liberties to assess regime type. (a) Define civil liberties. Explain the difference between political rights and civil liberties. (b) Describe one example of how political rights have declined in Russia between 1995 and 2010. Describe one example of how civil liberties have declined in Russia between 1995 and 2010. (c) Describe one example of how political rights have increased in Mexico between 1995 and 2010. Describe one example of how civil liberties have increased in Mexico between 1995 and 2010. (d) Using the descriptions you provided in parts (b) and (c), assess the regime type in Mexico in 2010 and the regime type in Russia in 2010.

  2. One point is earned for a definition of civil liberties. An acceptable definition of civil liberties includes the following:  Freedoms for individuals such as speech, assembly, religion, property, life, fair trial  Freedoms or protection from government One point is earned for an explanation of the difference between political rights and civil liberties. An acceptable explanation includes the following:  Political rights differ from civil liberties in that they often refer to political participation, such as voting, lobbying, protesting or running for office.  Political rights differ from civil liberties in that the government may grant or protect political rights. Part (b): 2 points One point is earned for description of one example of decline of political rights in Russia between 1995 and 2010. Acceptable descriptions include the following:  Less competition in elections  Suppression of the opposition’s political activities  Elimination of elections for governors or for mayors of Moscow and St. Petersburg  Creation of federal districts with appointed supergovernors  Changing of electoral rules to prevent smaller parties from competing  Appointment of the Federation Council One point is earned for a description of one example of how civil liberties declined in Russia between 1995 and 2010. Acceptable descriptions include the following:  Harassment of demonstrators and civic groups  2006 law increasing oversight of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)  Intimidation of journalists or not investigating their murders  Manipulation of legal system  Discrimination against Chechens  Nationalization of property Russian name rule: If students give the wrong Russian name but the argument is clear without the name, the response earns a point. AP® COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS 2011 SCORING GUIDELINES © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. Question 8 (continued) Part (c): 2 points One point is earned for a description of one example of how political rights increased in Mexico between 1995 and 2010. An acceptable description may include the following:  More competition; not just PRI.  Less electoral fraud.  Incumbent president no longer selects next candidate.  More equitable or public campaign financing.  Legislature is no longer a rubber stamp.  Electoral commission, founded in 1990, became fully independent.  Parties have more access to the media. One point is earned for a description of one example of how civil liberties increased in Mexico between 1995 and 2010. An acceptable description includes the following:  More tolerance of civic society, including Zapatistas  More press freedom  Fewer “disappearances”  Decriminalization of abortion in Mexico City  More gay rights, including civil unions in Mexico City Part (d): 2 points One point is earned for an assessment of the regime type in Mexico in 2010. An acceptable assessment includes the following:  Mexico has become more democratic.  Mexico is a democracy, a liberal democracy, or a developing democracy. One point is earned for an assessment of the regime type in Russia in 2010. An acceptable assessment includes the following:  Russia has become more authoritarian.  Russia is an illiberal democracy, a hybrid or authoritarian.

2010, #3 china authoritarian

Many outside observers express concern that Russia’s political system became more authoritarian during the 2000-2008 presidency of Vladimir Putin. Explain three changes made during Putin’s presidency that are evidence that the Russian political system became more authoritarian.

One point is earned for an explanation of each of three changes made during Putin’s presidency that led to Russia’s political system becoming more authoritarian. Answers must include how the change has led to the system becoming more authoritarian. Acceptable changes include any of the following: • presidential appointment of regional governors instead of direct election • creation of seven federal districts with appointment of super governor or presidential envoys • switch to higher parliamentary threshold • change to selecting half of Federation Council by presidential appointment • creation of a dominant party (United Russia) • cult of personality • increased state control of media (TV stations/national newspapers — not Internet or radio) • undiminished power for Putin upon becoming prime minister • arrests and convictions of opposition candidates and economically powerful individuals on limited evidence • restrictions on the formation of parties and party registration • restrictions on nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) (2006 NGO Registration law) • restrictions on rights of assembly for antigovernment protests • enforcement of tax on opposition and other measures The response must explain the link between the change and the system becoming more authoritarian. Examples of the link may include: • concentration of power • limits on opposition • reduction of civil rights • limits on media • limits on parties • limits on electoral competition • diminished civil society • a less independent judiciary

2010 #6 civil society

6. Many scholars think that civil society is important for the development of democracy. (a) Define civil society. (b) Identify and explain one specific condition within a political system that would enable civil society to thrive. (c) Identify and explain another specific condition within a political system that would enable civil society to thrive.

The following are acceptable definitions: • Civil society is the formal and informal organizations that are not part of the state apparatus but operate in public. • Civil society is composed of organizations that are voluntary and autonomous self-governing groups created to advance their own causes. • Civil society is composed of groups that bring together people with common interests in social, charitable, religious, community or political concerns to articulate and advance their own causes. Note: • Definition must include conditions, not just examples of groups. • It must be clear that civil society is separate from government, but it need not be political: includes groups such as private, not-for-profit health providers, schools, advocacy groups, social service agencies, antipoverty groups, development agencies, professional associations, community-based organizations, unions, religious bodies, recreational organizations (e.g., bowling leagues) and cultural institutions. Parts (b) and (c): 4 points One point is earned for each correct identification of a condition that enables civil society to thrive, and 1 point is earned for each explanation of how that condition promotes civil society. Acceptable conditions may include: • pluralist • liberal • multiple points of access • democratic processes • free/fair elections • civil rights/civil liberties • freedoms of speech, assembly, press • rule of law • efficacy • political accountability • political competition • political freedom • political equality • political transparency Note: Students must provide an explanation of how the identified condition helps civil society to thrive. Students cannot reuse the identified condition from part (b) in part (c).

2009 #1 Mao private property


  1. Describe the status of private property in China under Mao. Identify and explain one policy undertaken by the Chinese government within the past 30 years that contradicts that policy.

  2. One point is earned for a correct description of the status of private property in China under Mao. Acceptable descriptions include any of the following: • Private property was not allowed (in most periods). • The constitution of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) prohibited private ownership of property; property was “owned by the people.” • Private property was redistributed to the landless/peasants—land reform. • Private property was confiscated. • Private property was collectivized. • After collectivization of private lands, communes were formed. • The state was the primary owner of property and means of production. • People often had right of use but no ownership. Note: No identification point is earned for vague responses such as “There was none” or “People could not own anything.” One point past 30 years that contradicts Mao’s policy, and is earned for an identification of one policy undertaken by the Chinese government in the 1 point is earned for an explanation of a way in which it does so. Acceptable policies include any of the following: • Decollectivization of land • Disbanding of communes • Private production allowed • Privately owned enterprises • Extended leases for land use • Household responsibility system • Constitutional reform o New rights of ownership o Enforcing the rule of law Acceptable explanations include either of the following: • Demonstrated linkages to Mao-era private property policy • Comparative statement between Mao and current private property policy No identification point is earned for the following unless the policy is linked to private property: • Special Economic Zones (SEZs) • Open Door policy • “Three Represents” policy • Township and Village Enterprises (TVEs) • Privatization • Capitalism • Market economy • Free market AP® CO

2009 #7

7. (a) Describe Russia’s electoral system before the 2007 Duma elections. Explain how the electoral system shaped the pre-2007 Russian party system. (b) Describe a specific change to the Russian electoral system that was designed for the 2007 Duma elections and explain its impact on party competition. (c) Describe Mexico’s current electoral system. (d) Describe one electoral reform made in Mexico in the 1990s and explain how that reform affected Mexico’s party system.



One point is earned for an accurate description of Russia’s electoral system before the 2007 Duma elections. Acceptable descriptions include both of the following: • A split electoral system, with one-half “first past the post” (FPTP) and one-half proportional representation (PR). • A 5 percent threshold for parties to be included in the PR. One point is earned for a correct explanation of how the electoral system shaped the pre-2007 Russian party system. Acceptable explanations include any of the following: • It allowed multiple parties to develop. • It allowed for more demographically diverse parties. • It permitted many independent candidates. • It encouraged personality-based factions more than parties with ideology. Note: FPTP, SMD (single-member district), winner-take-all, and plurality are all acceptable. Part (b): 2 points One point is earned for an accurate description of a specific change to the Russian electoral system that was designed for the 2007 Duma elections. Acceptable descriptions include both of the following: • The system became only PR (FPTP was removed). • The party threshold was increased from 5 percent to 7 percent. One point is earned for a correct explanation of the impact of the change on party competition. Acceptable explanations include any of the following: • It eliminated (made it very difficult for) all reform parties (Yabloko, “floating parties”). • It strengthened United Russia and other parties that tended to support Putin’s agenda. • It decreased the diversity of political viewpoints in the Duma. Part (c): 1 point One point is earned for a correct description of Mexico’s current electoral system. The following is an acceptable description: • A dual system of FPTP and PR in both chambers (Senate also has at-large PR). AP® COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. Question 7 (continued) Part (d): 2 points One point is earned for a correct description of one electoral reform made in Mexico in the 1990s. Acceptable descriptions include any of the following: • Creation of an electoral commission to regulate campaigns and elections (1990). • All parties receive government funding and have access to the media. • Increase in the number of Senate seats (from 68 to 128) (1993). • Presence of foreign electoral observers was legalized (1994). • Creation of a fully independent Federal Electoral Institute (IFE) (1996). • A limit was set on how many seats one party can hold in the Chamber of Deputies (60 percent, or 300 of the 500 seats) (1996). • PR was incorporated in the Senate for 32 of 128 seats (1996). • A limit was set on party spending for campaigns (campaign finance spending limits). • A party threshold for participation in PR was set at 2 percent (Senate and Chamber) (1996). • Priests were legally allowed to cast votes. • Legislation “recommending” that parties establish a gender quota for candidate lists (1996). (To earn this point the argument must show that the student is not referring to the stricter quota law passed in 2002.) One point is earned for an accurate explanation of how that reform affected Mexico’s party system. Acceptable explanations include any of the following: • An increase in the power of nondominant parties. • Removal of the prevailing party (PRI) from dominance. • Created a true multiparty system (PAN, PRD, Green Party gained power). Notes:  The 180 PR seats added to the Chamber of Deputies occurred in 1988, NOT in the 1990s.  The strict quota law mandating a quota for women on the ballot was implemented in 2002.

2008 #2 China limits transparency



  1. Explain what it means to say that a government has transparency. Describe two examples that show how the Chinese government since 1997 limits transparency.

  2. One point is earned for a correct explanation of what it means to say a government has transparency. Acceptable explanations may include: • A government has transparency when it disseminates accurate political and economic information to the public. • A government has transparency when it allows information about government and policy to circulate openly. • A government has transparency when it allows citizens several points of access for obtaining information about governmental actions. One point is earned for each of two descriptions that show how the Chinese government since 1997 limits transparency. Acceptable descriptions of limitations include: • Closed government proceedings (e.g., courts). • Censorship of information relating to public policy or events of public relevance. • Government control of the media, linked to transparency. • Not publishing budgetary information or information on salaries of government officials. • Suppressing any information that could be construed as damaging to the government. • Secrecy in selection of leaders. Notes: • The task here seeks an explanation, not a definition. • Correct answers will focus on what information the government as an agent allows, rather than on what citizens seek to access. • Descriptions of limits should be accompanied by an explanation of HOW they influence. • An example of a specific incident that the Chinese government suppressed is not awarded a point UNLESS there is an explanation of how this suppression limited transparency.



  1. #7- China economic- legal system

7. Various economic changes have affected the legal system in China. (a) Describe two reforms to the legal system in China in the past two decades. (b) Explain two reasons that reforms to the legal system have occurred. (c) Describe two important features of the Chinese legal system that have not changed in the past two decades.

One point is earned for each correct description of reforms to the legal system in China in the past two decades. Acceptable descriptions include: • Refinements to civil law and criminal law. • Some autonomy for the courts. • Creation of new types of courts (local, specialized). • Establishment of commercial law, contract law, property rights. • Requirements for judges. • Establishment of law schools and more lawyers. • Allocation of monies for reform of the legal system. • Establishment of legal advisory offices. Part (b): 2 points One point is earned for each correct explanation of reasons for legal reforms. Acceptable explanations include: • The state’s desire to promote and enhance international trade and investments. • International pressure surrounding high-profile events like the Olympics. • Development of market mechanisms (capitalism) in China that require codified laws and procedures. • Domestic pressure for the rule of law from citizen groups in China. • The need to meet requirements in order to join the World Trade Organization (WTO). Note: Simply stating “capitalism” without an explanation that links it to law and legal codification does not earn a point. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 7 (continued) Part (c): 2 points One point is earned for each correct description of important features of the Chinese legal system that have not changed in the past two decades. Acceptable descriptions include: • The party controls the law, the courts, and the legal system. • No judicial review. • High rates of conviction. • High rates of incarceration. • Use of capital punishment. • The burden of proof is on the defendant, not the state. • Courts are inquisitorial, not adversarial. • Guanxi—connections.

2008 #8 Economic liberalization Russia nd Mexico

8. Mexico and Russia have each experienced economic liberalization and political liberalization. (a) Define economic liberalization and define political liberalization. (b) Describe one economic liberalization policy pursued in Mexico since 1985 and one economic liberalization policy pursued in Russia since 1991. (c) Describe one political liberalization policy undertaken in Mexico since 1985 and one political liberalization policy undertaken in Russia since 1991. (d) Compare one consequence of economic liberalization on social class in Mexico with one consequence of economic liberalization on social class in Russia



One point is earned for a correct definition of economic liberalization, and 1 point is earned for a correct definition of political liberalization. An acceptable definition of economic liberalization is: • Less government regulation of the economy and greater participation of private entities (free markets, reducing state control over markets, pricing, employment, property, distribution). • Reducing government intervention in the economy. An acceptable definition of political liberalization is: • Increasing citizen rights and liberties. • Minimizing government supervision of society/individuals. Note: The definition “becoming more capitalistic/democratic” is not enough to earn a point. Part (b): 2 points One point is earned for each correct description of an economic liberalization policy pursued by Mexico and Russia. Acceptable descriptions of economic liberalization policies in Mexico include: • Approval of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). • Closure of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) (former president Salinas). • Privatization of banks. • Cutting of subsidies to farms. • Parastatals (e.g., the state farms, ejidos) sold off by the state. • Creation of special laws for maquiladoras (e.g., tax incentives). • Joining the World Trade Organization (WTO). • Privatization (with mention of specific sectors, e.g., telecom, airlines). • Reduction of the power of the oil workers’ union. • Replacement of import-substitution with structural-adjustment policies. Note: For parts (b) and (c), the answer must describe a policy, not a change or outcome. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 8 (continued) Acceptable descriptions of economic liberalization policies in Russia include: • Shock therapy. • Floating prices. • Privatization of state-owned enterprises and collective farms. • Introduction of the stock market. • Legalization of private property. • Invitations to foreign-direct investment (FDI). • Distribution of vouchers. • Loans-for-shares programs. • Reduction in state spending (e.g., on social services). Note: “Shock therapy” requires an explanation of the phenomenon to earn the point. Part (c): 2 points One point is earned for each correct description of a political liberalization policy pursued by Mexico and Russia. Acceptable descriptions of political liberalization policies in Mexico include: • Voter ID cards. • Priests allowed to vote. • The Federal Electoral Institute was strengthened in 2007. • Addition of the system of proportional representation (PR) to create mixed legislative elections. • End of the rule of impunity (arrest of Raúl Salinas). • Election reforms in the late 1990s to reduce corruption. • The inclusion of women through party quotas. Acceptable descriptions of political liberalization policies in Russia include: • The 1993 Constitution guaranteed civil liberties. • Law granting freedom to the media. • Freedom of movement or expression. • Legal reform/greater judicial independence. • Allowing more political parties. • The establishment of the doctrine of presumption of innocence. • Disbanding the KGB. • The 1993 Constitution gave people the right to choose their representatives. Note: Acceptable answers must refer to policies that increase civil liberties or political rights. “The establishment of elections in Russia after 1991” is not enough to earn a point. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 8 (continued) Part (d): 1 point One point is earned for a correct comparison of one consequence of economic liberalization on social class in Mexico and Russia. Acceptable comparisons include: • In Mexico: farmers suffered economically; increased regional disparities; indigenous people suffered economically. • In Russia: pensioners suffered economically; super-rich oligarchs prospered; financial–industrial groups grew; increase in organized crime; racial and ethnic tensions exacerbated; rise of a small middle class; decrease in the number of farmers. • Growing gap between the rich and the poor in both countries. Note: The answer must correctly compare social class in both countries and must be explicitly

2007 #1 3 functiosn of political parties in authoritarian and liberal

2007 #4 market vs command

2007 #5 politcial participation in authoritarian system

2007 #7- Referencum in UK and Russia

Pre 2015 Study Guide/ objectives



Russia Test Review

US

Russia

General/ History

  • Earliest days of the Soviet Union influenced by democratic centralism

  • Marx

    • Communist Manifesto predicted that capitalism would no longer be viable economic system after the revolution of the proletariat

  • Lenin,

    • “To bring political knowledge to the workers the Social Democrats [Bolsheviks] must go among the classes of the population; they must dispatch units of their army in all directions… For it is not enough to call ourselves the ‘vanguard’, the advanced contingent; we must act in such a way that all the other contingents recognize and are obliged to admit that we are marching in the vanguard.”

  • Russia experienced coup d’etat and revolution in the during the 20th century

  • Nomenklatura: recruitment of Communist Party leaders under the old Soviet Union

Elections

  • Compared with FPP system, PR electoral system

    • Gives third parties a better chance at winning seats in a legislature

  • Presidential election every 6 years

    • Great Britain’s parliament within a 5 year period called by the Prime Minister

  • So far political parties in the Russian Federation tend to base their organization on the appeal of particular leaders

  • Political Parties in Russia

    • Communist

    • Liberal-Democratic Party: ultra-nationalism

Executive

  • Mixed Presidential and Parliamentary system

    • Presidential

      • Direct election of the President

      • Fixed election cycles for the President

      • The President may veto Duma legislation

      • The President may be impeached

    • Parliamentary system

      • Irregular election cycle for the Duma

      • Votes of no confidence

      • Prime Minister is accountable to the Duma

    • Mixed

      • President can nominate Prime Minister

      • President can dissolve the Duma

      • Dual Executive

  • Prime Minister (head of government) can be removed by a successful vote of no confidence

  • President (Head of State)** real power

    • Serves two terms

    • Presidential form of government the executive is electorally independent of the other branches

  • Putin: Evidence of growing authoritarianism

    • Presidential appointment of regional governors instead of direct election

    • Creation of seven federal districts with appointment of super governor or presidential envoys

    • Switch to higher parliamentary threshold

    • Change to selecting half of Federation Council by presidential appointment

    • Creation of a dominant party (United Russia)

    • Cult of personality

    • Increased state control of media (TV/Newspapers)

    • Undiminished power for Putin upon becoming prime minister

    • Arrests and convictions of opposition candidates and economically powerful individuals on limited evidence

    • Restrictions on the formation of parties and party registration

    • Restrictions on nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) (2006 NGO Registration law)

    • Restrictions on rights of assembly for anti-government protests

    • Enforcement of tax on opposition and other measures

Legislative: Federal Council

  • Lower House: Duma

    • Most powerful chamber, similar to GB

    • Can veto the president’s appointment of prime minister

    • Boris Yeltsin and Duma’s relationships so stormy that the government’s effectiveness was seriously hampered

  • Upper House Federal Council

Judicial

  • One of the primary functions of Russia’s Constitutional Court is to exercise judicial review

  • Russia’s judicial system is weak (Similar to Mex)

Economic

  • Consequences of ending the centrally planned economy in Russia after 1991:

    • Increased unemployment

    • Decentralized production decisions

    • Increase in number of individually owned enterprises

  • Key component of economic liberalization in former command economies is

    • Eliminating price controls

  • “Shock Therapy” sudden free-market economic reform accompanied by rapid democratic political reform

Social

  • Russians are more likely to believe in equality of result rather than equality of opportunity

  • Caucasus difficulty based on ethnic differences

  • Challenges to cultural heterogeneity

    • Ethnic minorities have been scattered by invasion and expansion, so that borders are difficult to draw

    • The large variety of cultural groups makes communication with and control by the government more difficult

    • Ethnic minorities in the north and east are very different from minorities in southern Russia and the Caucasus

    • Frequent border changes have meant that particular groups have sometimes been under Russian control and sometimes not.

Comparative

  • Legitimacy indicator is that citizens follow laws because they believe in the government’s right to rule.

  • In a Parliamentary system, interest groups tend to have minimal impact on individual legislators in parliamentary systems because the strength of political parties gives individual legisaltors less power over policy

  • Transitions to democracy (comp with Mex), In Mexico old institutions were reformed, while in Russia new institutions were created

  • Even though Russia is not a Communist state, one feature that it shares with communist China

    • Government restrictions on the development of civil society


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