1. In the following excerpt, the Muslim scholar and traveler Ibn Battuta describes his journey to Taghadda, a city of West Africa’s Songhai Empire: I then set out in the direction of Taghadda by land with a large caravan of merchants . . . I had a riding camel and a she-camel to carry my provisions.
We pushed on rapidly with our journey until we reached Taghadda . . . The inhabitants of Taghadda have no occupation except trade. They travel [by caravan] to Egypt every year, and import quantities of all the fine fabrics to be had there and of other Egyptian [products]. . . . The copper mine is in the outskirts of Taghadda . . . [the copper bars are] their medium of exchange; with the thin bars they buy meat and firewood, and with the thick, slaves male and female, millet, butter, and wheat.
Excerpted from H. A. R. Gibb, translator, Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa, 1325–1354 London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1929
What conclusion about trade in the Songhai Empire is supported by the excerpt?
A. Trade caravans allowed the Songhai Empire to exchange their valuable metals for commodities and luxury items.
B. Trade caravans prevented the Songhai traders from selling their goods to overseas customers.
C. Songhai traders welcomed travelers to their cities in hopes of selling them fabrics and food items.
D. Songhai traders traveled to Egypt to seek ores and other valuable minerals for building materials.
2. The following excerpt is from the Edict of Fontainebleau (1685 CE), which was decreed by King Louis XIV of France:
We forbid our subjects of the R.P.R. [Protestantism] to meet any more for the exercise of the said religion in any place or private house . . . We likewise forbid all noblemen . . . to hold such religious exercises in their houses or fiefs, under penalty . . . of imprisonment and confiscation. We enjoin all ministers of the said R.P.R., who do not choose to become converts and to embrace the Catholic, apostolic, and Roman religion, to leave our kingdom and the territories . . . within a fortnight.
Internet History Sourcebooks Project. www.fordham.edu/halsall
What political conditions in France led to the Edict of Fontainebleau?
A. The parliament’s desire to exclude religious minorities from lawmaking activities
B. the king’s absolute authority to make laws and dictate the state religion
C. the increase in quarreling among political factions of the landowning aristocracy
D. the Catholic Church’s reputation for challenging political power in the Holy Roman Empire
3. In the following excerpt, a Portuguese messenger addresses a local Hindu king of southern India in 1509. The messenger asks for help in taking the Indian trading port of Calicut from Ottoman and Arab control:
The King of Portugal commands me to render honour and willing service to all the Gentile Kings of this land . . . they are to be well treated by me, neither am I to take their ships nor their merchandise; but I am to destroy the Moors, with whom I wage incessant war, as I know he also does . . . I am prepared and ready to help him with the fleets and armies of the King . . . as often as he shall desire me to do so; and I likewise, for my part, expect that he will help us with his army, towns, harbours, and munitions, and with everything that I may require from his kingdom; and the ships which navigate to his ports may pass safely throughout all the Indian sea . . . Frei Luis
Which conclusion about the effects of increased trade is supported by the above excerpt?
A. Overseas trade routes were too crowded and dangerous to produce profitable returns.
B. Overseas trade routes encouraged cooperation between powerful empires against small kingdoms and city-states.
C. Competition over Indian Ocean trade encouraged global empires to form military alliances with local rulers.
D. Competition over Indian Ocean trade led to regional wars between European navies and Indian city-states.
4. In spite of the industrial and commercial prosperity that France momentarily enjoys, the mass of the people, the twenty-five million peasants, suffer from a great depression. The good harvests of the past few years have forced the prices of corn much lower even than in England, and the position of the peasants under such circumstances, in debt, sucked dry by usury and crushed by taxes, must be anything but splendid. The history of the past three years has, however, provided sufficient proof that this class of the population is absolutely incapable of any revolutionary initiative. . . . Given this general prosperity, wherein the productive forces of bourgeois [middle class] society are developing as luxuriantly as it is possible for them to do within bourgeois relationships, a real revolution is out of the question. Such a revolution is possible only in periods when both of these factors—the modern forces of production and the bourgeois forms of production—come into opposition with each other. Karl Marx, 1850
Which statement best reflects Karl Marx′s argument, according to this excerpt?
A. The lower classes are prepared and motivated to revolt.
B. A nation can be poor and suffer economic depression.
C. Until the middle class is affected, reform is not likely.
D. High taxes lead to protests and civil unrest, then revolutions.
5. The following excerpt is an Englishman’s firsthand account of the weeks leading up to England’s Glorious Revolution (1688); in the Revolution, the Protestant ruler William of Orange overthrew King James II, a Catholic. . . . [King James II] called over 5,000 Irish, and 4,000 Scots, and continued to remove Protestants and put in [Catholics] at Portsmouth and other places of trust, and retained the Jesuits about him, increasing the universal discontent. It brought people to so desperate a pass, that they seemed passionately to long for and desire the landing of [William of Orange], whom they looked on to be their deliverer from [Catholic] tyranny . . . John Evelyn, diary entry, October 7, 1688 Internet History Sourcebooks Project, www.fordham.edu/halsall
Using the above excerpt, what conclusion can be made about the Glorious Revolution?
A. The revolution was furthered by English Protestants due to their distrust of Catholic leaders.
B. The revolution was furthered by the English people due to the widespread stories of William of Orange’s heroism.
C The revolution was slowed by the English people due to their distrust of foreigners.
D. The revolution was slowed by the English Protestants due to their widespread admiration for King James’s religious tolerance.
6. From 1803 to 1815, Britain and France were at war with each other. Wars can bring economic opportunities, and American merchants hoped to sell goods to both sides. Neither Britain nor France wanted American goods to reach its enemy, so both sides imposed blockades and restrictions on neutral trade. Because Britain had the larger navy, British restrictions were the most crippling to U.S. shipping. British ships stopped American vessels, boarded them, seized contraband, and impressed sailors. American objections were ignored, leading to a U.S. declaration of war in 1812.
What conclusion can be drawn about the War of 1812?
A. France ended their alliance with the United States because of the delay in their assistance.
B. To defeat France, Britain was willing to risk war with the United States.
C. British authorities felt threatened by the new U.S. Navy.
D. American citizens were indifferent toward the war.
7. We, Wilhelm, by the grace of God King of Prussia, do herewith declare that we have considered it a duty to our common fatherland to answer the summons of the united German princes and cities and to accept the German imperial title. In consequence, we and our successors on the throne of Prussia will henceforth bear the imperial title in all our relations and in all the business of the German Empire, and we hope to God that the German nation will be granted the ability to fashion a propitious future for the fatherland under the symbol of its ancient glory. Kaiser Wilhelm I, The Imperial Proclamation, January 1871 Internet History Sourcebooks Project, www.fordham.edu/halsall
What ideology is present in the proclamation of Wilhelm I?
8. [The rich] are led by an invisible hand to make nearly the same distribution of the necessaries of life, which would have been made, had the earth been divided into equal portions among all its inhabitants, and thus without intending it, without knowing it, advance the interest of the society, and afford means to the multiplication of the species.
Adam Smith, The Theory of Moral Sentiments, 1759
How does Smith’s idea of the “invisible hand” of capitalism compare to modern-day government interventions such as the U.S.-led Marshall Plan or the social-democratic governments of Western Europe?
A. Modern governments have modified capitalism to support other goals.
B. Modern governments have abandoned capitalism in favor of command economies.
C. Modern governments have adopted capitalism without modification.
D. Modern governments have abandoned capitalism in favor of traditional economies.
9. Capitalism — a social political-economic system characterized by individual or corporate ownership of capital goods, by investments that are determined by private decision, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market
Socialism — a political-economic system of social organization in which the means of producing and distributing goods is owned collectively by the community and is administered and distributed by a centralized government
Which statement differentiates capitalism from socialism?
A. Capitalism requires redistributing resources from the rich to the poor; socialism requires government distribution of resources.
B. Capitalist employment is directed by the government; socialist employment is directed by individual initiative.
C. Capitalist pricing is based on competition; socialist prices are determined by market forces.
D. Capitalism requires individualism and competition; socialism requires governmental planning to distribute resources.
10. The Indian nationalist, Mahatma Gandhi, advocated the swadeshi movement as a protest against British rule in India in the first half of the twentieth century. The movement stressed the manufacture of Indian goods at home, especially homespun cloth, as opposed to buying British manufactured goods.
Why did Indians decide to use this strategy?
A. to make it less profitable for the British to exploit India through colonial trade
B. to prevent the British from establishing a monopoly in the cotton industry
C. to prepare for the British to abandon India as a colony
D. to limit British control of India’s domestic politics
11. Over the past five years, a highly sophisticated team of operatives have stealthily infiltrated more than 70 U.S. corporations and organizations to steal priceless company secrets. They did it without ever setting foot in any victim’s office. . . . This is the new face of corporate espionage. Thieves, whose identities are safely obscured by digital trade-craft rather than a ski mask, are robbing companies of the ideas that are the source of American ingenuity. . . . Though this new corporate espionage is rampant and rising, calculating the damage to U.S. interests remains difficult. . . . In the aggregate, the theft of this property, including everything from sensitive defense technology to innovative industrial designs, insidiously erodes government and corporate competitive advantages among global peers. . . U.S. companies invest considerable time and money in researching and developing new products, only to be undercut by competition, using their stolen property to make cheaper versions. Unfortunately, companies experience such losses every day . . . Yet many cyber-intrusions could be prevented by implementing sound cyber-security practices. U.S. Commerce Secretary John Bryson, The New Face of Corporate Espionage, March 9, 2012.
Using this information, what role does cyber espionage play in global trading?
A. Government monitoring agencies should commit military resources to protecting commercial interests so that the world’s superpowers can continue to thrive.
B. Individuals must assist companies in protecting their ideas so employment will not decrease.
C. Cyber crimes are difficult to prove in any court of law, so government officials have not committed sufficient resources to the matter.
D. Ideas fuel economic growth and competition, so there is an increased need to protect electronically stored information on a worldwide scale.
The question you read next will require you to answer in writing.
1. You may use the blank paper or your test book to plan your response before you write your final answer on the answer sheet.
2. Only what is written on the lines of the answer sheet will be scored.
3. Do not write beyond the end of the lines or in the margins.
12. Read the text to respond to the item below.
The Treaty of Versailles ended World War I and established the League of Nations. The League of Nations had a mission to promote world peace and fight human suffering around the world. In addition to creating the league, provisions stripped away the power Germany had gained during the war. It required that the German people pay an indemnity to the Allied powers of over $37 billion dollars to compensate for damages from the war, and relinquish the territorial gains made in World War I. Furthermore, it also severely restricted the size of the German army and navy, and gave control of the Saarland—an important industrial region in southwestern Germany—to France. When the Nazi party achieved power in Germany, it worked to reverse the effects of the Treaty of Versailles and promised revenge against the Allies for imposing it.
Evaluate the lasting impact of the Treaty of Versailles as a positive or negative turning point in world history. Use one detail from the text above to support your position.