2013 – 2014 Advanced Placement European History Summer Reading Assignment Mr. O’Neill Libertyville High School

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2013 – 2014 Advanced Placement European History

Summer Reading Assignment

Mr. O’Neill

Libertyville High School
Welcome to the beginning of your AP European History adventure! This summer reading assignment is designed to provide you with an introduction to the first historical era we will cover during the school year. The purpose is to prepare you for the material we’re covering at the start of the year so we can hit the ground running. We have a LOT to cover and can’t waste any time! The parameters of the assignment are outlined below. Between now and the beginning of class in late August, you are required to obtain a copy of A World Lit Only By Fire, by William Manchester, read the book, and complete the related assignment. The assignment is available on O’Neill’s website, the Social Studies Department Website, and in the Department office- room 122. DO NOT PUT OFF THIS ASSIGNMENT UNTIL THE LAST MINUTE. This assignment is due to be handed in on Thursday, August 22nd, 2013 (that’s the first FULL day of school, after the Wednesday Late Start).

Basic Requirements:

  • Purchase A World Lit Only By Fire. The book is available at most local bookstores, or you can purchase it through an online retailer like Amazon, Barns & Noble, or even EBay or TextbookLand, for that matter; a used copy is just as good as a new one. It can also be obtained on free loan from local libraries including the Libertyville High School library and the Cook Memorial Library.

  • Read A World Lit Only By Fire. I suggest reading the chapter questions prior to reading the chapter so you know what you should focus on.

  • Complete the assignment responses. They may be either hand or type written. If hand written, they must be completed using blue or black ink not on these question sheets! The space allotted between items in not sufficient for the expected length of the response. Most questions can be answered in 3-4 sentences, though some give a recommended length. PREFERED METHOD: Type your responses directly into the Word document attachment (found on my webpage) and print it out.

  • Note: all page numbers are given from the 1993 paperback edition from Cambridge University Press. The page numbers of your edition might differ slightly. NOT EVERY QUESTION HAS PAGE NUMBERS; this is on purpose.

  • You are encouraged, in fact advised, to create a list of vocabulary words with which you are unfamiliar and find “contextual” (not dictionary) definitions of those words. For instance, if you are not familiar with the word “pejorative” on page 3, you should assume the responsibility for finding a contextual definition for that term. The same goes for “cudgels” on page 137, “Rutters” on page 238, as well as a number of other terms contained within the text.

Good luck, and enjoy the book! If you have questions about the assignment before the school year is over, please stop by my room, 224, or email me at kevin.oneill@d128.org. I’ll check my email over the summer as well, but don’t expect prompt replies!

Directions: Respond to the following items as you read A World Lit Only by Fire.

Throughout the school year we are going to try and help you learn to read, think, and write like a historian. Reading like a historian requires a comprehensive view of the content contained in a source. During the school year we will use an acronym, ASPRITE, to help acquire a comprehensive view of an era.

A…Artistic, (including musical and literary) expression, movements and the characteristics of that expression (often referred to as a “school”, as in the Baroque school of art / musical expression).

S…Social structures, institutions, practices, customs, cultural attributes of a geographic area and historical era.

P…Political institutions that exist / that are the predominate institutions of an era; political ideologies, i.e. the relationship between man (citizens) and the state(the government) of an era

R…Religious beliefs, characteristics, practices, institutions that exist / are the predominate institutions of an area and an era.

I…Intellectual creativity, expression; often, but not limited to, the philosophy / political philosophy of an era. For example, “The Scientific Revolution” and/or “The Enlightenment”.

T…Technological, mechanical innovations that changed society and peoples’ lives; could be major, like the printing press, or seemingly minor like motion pictures

E…Economic activity, ways of making a living for a population of a nation, state, geographic region;

i.e. agricultural, industrial, commercial.

Part I - The Medieval Mind (pp. 3-28) (page numbers are for 1993 paperback edition)

  1. Using the acronym ASPRITE to guide you, describe the Medieval Mind as defined by the author in this section.

  2. Having read the first eight pages, speculate as to why this age was so violent.

  3. Give one example of why the pagan gods were still so appealing to those living during this age.

  4. Briefly explain the origin of sainthood. What does this tell you about the medieval church?

  5. Prior to the development of hereditary monarchy, who had to approve of each king prior to his coronation? What did this power represent?

  6. Explain why there was, for many, neither a real concept of time, nor of the passage of time?

  7. What two historical eras are previewed over the course of the last several pages of this section?

  8. Why were Europeans alive at the time unable to see these eras on their horizon?

Part II - The Shattering (Social Problems and Corruption in the Church, pp. 31-86)

  1. Again, using the acronym PERSIA to guide you, describe this era, called “ The Shattering” by the author.

  2. What is simony and why was it a problem?

  3. Give one example of how religious leaders used torture or execution from pp. 37-40.

  4. How could “men of God” behave in such a manner as described on pages 37-40.

  5. What were "indulgences" and how did they work?

  6. What was the position on the issue of clerical celibacy by the “medieval popes’”?

  7. How could “men of God” who swore an oath to live as a celibate, behave in such a manner?

  8. How tall were men? At what age did most women die? What do these facts tell you about the medieval world?

  9. Give one example of how table manners have changed since the Middle Ages.

  10. At what age could a girl legally marry? At what age could a boy legally marry? Why such an early age? Why, in our society here in the early 21st century, are the ages which you are generally expected to marry so different from the Medieval Age?

  1. See the quote on page 73: “Probably the basic cause in the moral loosening in western Europe”, a modern historian argues, “was the growth of wealth”. What evidence does the author present in support of this notion?

  1. Looking back over these first two sections, in a paragraph of 7 – 10 sentences, describe some differences that exist between the medieval age and the era Manchester calls “The Shattering” (as detailed on pages 31 – 86).

Part II - The Shattering (The Arts and Learning, pp. 86-131)

  1. What was Copernicus's theory of the universe and how did the pope react to it? Why did he react this way?

You will read about the exploits of the German Monk Martin Luther in the next section, and you may find it useful to have read that next section before answering questions # 2, 3, & 4.

  1. On page 90 there is a discussion of the works of Copernicus. If Martin Luther was, as you shall see, so committed to “truthful representation of Church Doctrine” and an accurate interpretation of the Holy Scripture, why did he use his influence to suppress the “truths” of Copernicus?

  1. How does Luther’s “genius” (see pages 136 - 137) quality get him in trouble with the Church leadership?

  2. Why does Luther not fall victim to the same fate as did Giordano Bruno?

  3. Who improved upon the Chinese invention of moveable type? What effect would this have on Europe?

  4. In a response of several sentences discuss the validity of this statement: Literacy and printing increased faithfulness in and to the Church.

  5. What were the three main disciplines taught at medieval universities? What does this tell you about European society at the time?

  6. Who was the leading humanist of the age known as the Renaissance? Why? What were his contributions?

  7. In a response of several sentences discuss the validity of this statement: Humanists were more concerned about the here and now instead of the afterlife.

  8. What about Galileo and Giovanni Pico della Mirandola displeased the Church?

  9. What was the title of Erasmus's first book and whom did he attack in it? What reasons does he cite for this attack?

Part II - The Shattering (The Protestant Reformation, pp. 131-219)

  1. Martin Luther's Ninety-Five Theses were, in part, a response to the selling of indulgences by whom? What was Luther’s issue with indulgences?

  1. According to Luther's father, since children were born wicked, it was virtuous for parents to do what to their children? This view and treatment of children has changed significantly since Luther’s time. Why do you think this is so?

  1. Page 143: "In defying the organized church, Luther had done something else. He had broken the dam of ______________________________... Because _______________ and _______________ were so entwined in central Europe, Luther's challenge to ecclesiastical prestige encouraged a proletariat to demand _______________________________________________________________."

  2. What did Luther do with the Papal Bull of Excommunication? Identify several other figures throughout history who acted in similar fashion for similar reasons as did Luther at the Diet at Worms.

  1. Define the concept of the “Medieval Mindset” and indicate in 2-3 sentences for each, how each of the following individuals contributed to the transformation of the Medieval Mindset: Sir Thomas More, Erasmus, Luther, and Galileo

Part III - One Man Alone (pp. 221-296)

  1. Find a definition for the term “hegemony”. Does Portugal achieve this during the 15th and 16th centuries? Provide evidence to support your answer.

  1. At the very end of the middle paragraph on page 287, the author provided a definition of what it means to be a hero, to be heroic, of heroism. Having read the section of the book that focuses on the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, state whether you believe Magellan was or was not a hero. You must support this contention with specific evidence and examples.

  1. Of two of the significant individuals upon which this book is focused, in your opinion, who had the greatest impact on history: Luther or Magellan? Provide evidence to support your conclusion.

Quote analysis element of the assignment:

The acronym APPARTS is another way that we can begin to read, think, and write like a historian. Analyze each of the following quotes using the APPARTS method (see below) in 3-4 sentences EACH and how they relate to the time period to which the quotes are relevant. YOU MAY NOT KNOW EVERY LETTER OF APPARTS FOR EVERY QUOTE, BUT MAKE THE APPEMPT- GUESS!!!

A…Author: (title, position, gender, occupation, socio-economic class, religion, political affiliation of the author)

P…Place, time, historical era the quote was made:

P…Prior knowledge: what changes in society are taking place at the time the quote is made, what challenges, difficulties is the individual or institution facing at the time the quote is made?

A…Audience: to whom was the quote directed?

R…Reason: What motivated the author to make such a statement

T…The main idea: What is the main and specific idea / concept expressed in the quote

S…Significance: What impact did the quote and related events have on society, the people, on institutions?

  1. The Church is not susceptible of being reformed in her doctrines. The Church is the work of an Incarnate God. Like all God’s works, it is perfect. It is, therefore incapable of reform.” (Page 21)

  2. Popes and prelates speak against pride and ambition and they are plunged into it up to their ears…(The Pope)…is no longer a Christian. He is an infidel, a heretic, and as such has ceased to be pope.” (Page 43)

  3. I have the feeling that the days of Cicero…are much closer to me than the sixty years just passed.”

(Page 105; Cicero was a classic Roman politician and orator)

  1. Man is the measure of all things.” (Page 113)

  2. And yet it does move.” (Page 117)

  3. The monk has excommunicated the pope.” (Page 159)

  4. No attack on Christianity is more dangerous than the infinite size and depth of the universe.” (Page 229)

Overall analysis: Answer the following in complete paragraph of 7 – 10 sentences.

50. Why do you think William Manchester choose the title “A World Lit Only by Fire” for his book? What do you think it means?

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