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Nuzzolo, Agostino, Pierluigi Coppola and Antonio Comi. Freight Transport Modeling: Review and Future Challenges. International Journal of Transport Economics 40, no. 2 (2013): pp 151-181.

Abstract - This article, from a special issue on freight transport, summarizes the models that have been used in the past two decades to forecast freight transport demand, particularly as they are used to represent changes in infrastructure, services, and regulation. The authors propose a classification based on different scales of analysis, from long-distance to short-distance freight transport, as well as based on different modeling approaches, such as aggregate versus disaggregate. The authors describe how aggregated models, which focus on specific commodities and use time series data to estimate current demand, use a four-stage model. The next section addresses specific issues related to short-distance scale, focusing on the distribution of the final products from wholesalers and restocking centers to scattered retailers (i.e., “the last mile” logistics). In the final section, the authors offer comments on the policy relevance of these models.
Outwater, M., C. Smith, K. Wies, S. Yoder, B. Sana and J. Chen. Tour Based and Supply Chain Modeling for Freight: Integrated Model Demonstration in Chicago. Transportation Letters: the International Journal of Transportation Research 5, no. 2 (2013): pp 55-66.

Abstract - Despite recent advances in freight and commercial vehicle modeling, the current state of the practice methods are not adequate to address the increasingly complex issues related to freight demand. This project includes research that has combined tour based truck models and logistics supply chain models for urban commercial vehicle movements and that has demonstrated a functional model framework that addresses the limitations of current freight demand forecasting models. The research was performed by Resource Systems Group Inc., in partnership with the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning and the University of Illinois at Chicago. The project introduced a model framework and focused on the estimation of each of the model components, described the approach to linking the models together in the model application, and presented initial results from applying the model in the Chicago region. The models were estimated for demonstration purposes from several sources, since there were no datasets that could support all aspects of the new framework. To make the demonstration more practical, two commodities were chosen to model from the data available (food products and manufactured products). The models developed for the project were applied using software developed in R, an open source platform. A data collection program to support the estimation, calibration, and forecasting of the framework for future use was recommended. Further efforts to improve this framework with new data, model improvements, and forecasts would be welcome. http://library.ingentaconnect.com/content/maney/trl/2013/00000005/00000002/art00002

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/maney/trl/2013/00000005/00000002/art00002
Ranaiefar, Fatemeh, Joseph Y. J. Chow, Daniel Rodriguez-Roman, Pedro V. Camargo and Stephen G. Ritchie. Structural Commodity Generation Model That Uses Public Data: Geographic Scalability and Supply Chain Elasticity Analysis. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, no. 2378 (2013): pp 73–83.

Abstract - Freight forecasting models are data intensive and require many explanatory variables to be accurate. One problem, particularly in the United States, is that public data sources are mostly at highly aggregate geographic levels but models with more disaggregate geographic levels are required for regional freight transportation planning. A second problem is that supply chain effects are often ignored or modeled with economic input–output models that lack explanatory power. This study addressed these challenges with a structural equation modeling approach that was not confined to a specific spatial structure, as spatial regression models would have been, and allowed correlations between commodities. A model for structural commodity generation that was based on freight analysis framework was specified, estimated, and shown to provide a better fit to the data than did independent regression models for each commodity. Three features of the model are discussed: indirect effects, supply chain elasticity, and intrazonal supply–demand interactions. A goal programming method was used with imputed data to validate the geographic scalability of the model. http://dx.doi.org/10.3141/2378-08
Smith, Colin, Jason Chen, Bhargava Sana and Maren L. Outwater. Disaggregate Tour-Based Truck Model with Simulation of Shipment Allocation to Trucks, (2013) 17p.

Abstract - Recent advances in freight and commercial vehicle modeling have tended to focus on either tour-based truck models or on logistics supply chain models, but relatively little progress has been made on combining the two paradigms into an integrated model framework that models both shipments and truck movements in a disaggregate manner, such that the amount of travel and the travel patterns of local freight truck movement is responsive to changes such as the amount of production and consumption of commodities in a region. This paper describes a tour-based truck model for urban commercial vehicle movement that is part of such a complete framework, developed by the authors and demonstrated in the Chicago metropolitan region. The tour-based truck model’s demand for truck trips derives from a microsimulation of individual shipments, the businesses that ship and receive the shipments, and the distribution centers through which the shipments are moved. The model links shipments coming through distribution centers with the vehicles that will deliver them. The model is comprised of a sequence of discrete choice models and clustering and sequencing models to build vehicle tours. The discrete choice models were estimated using the Texas commercial vehicle survey and then applied in Chicago. The paper presents the specifications of the models that comprise the tour-based truck model and discusses their reasonableness with respect to observed truck movements from the Texas commercial vehicle survey.

Transportation Research Board 92nd Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC,USA StartDate:20130113 EndDate:20130117 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board - Transportation Research Board 92nd Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC,USA StartDate:20130113 EndDate:20130117 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board, Cation,


Wang, Yaowu, Chuan Ding, Chao Liu and Binglei Xie. An Analysis of Interstate Freight Mode Choice between Truck and Rail: A Case Study of Maryland, United States, (2013),Elsevier Science, pp 1239-1249.

Abstract - Freight mode choice is a critical part in modeling freight demand. Due to limited freight data, considerably less research has been conducted on freight mode choice than that in passenger demand analysis. This paper investigates unobserved factors influencing freight mode choices, including truck and rail. Revealed preference data is collected from Freight Analysis Framework database and aggregated to be used in this study. Binary probit and logit models are developed to compare the modal behavior and to verify the differences of mode choice behavior among the three zones in Maryland. Different factors which are significantly influencing the freight mode choice can be found for the shipments originated from these zones. Identifying these factors may help the freight modelers to establish and calibrate better freight demand models for Maryland, and can help the policy makers to take actions to reduce highway congestion and air pollution which is caused by trucks.

13th COTA International Conference of Transportation Professionals (CICTP 2013)Transportation Research BoardAmerican Society of Civil EngineersInstitute of Transportation EngineersElsevierShenzhen,China StartDate:20130813 EndDate:20130816 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board, American Society of Civil Engineers, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Elsevier - 13th COTA International Conference of Transportation Professionals (CICTP 2013)Transportation Research BoardAmerican Society of Civil EngineersInstitute of Transportation EngineersElsevierShenzhen,China StartDate:20130813 EndDate:20130816 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board, American Society of Civil Engineers, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Elsevier, Cation, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.141



http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042813022672

2014 (11)

Beuthe, M., B. Jourquin and N. Urbain. Measuring Freight Transport Elasticities with a Multimodal Network Model, (2014) 15p.

Abstract - The paper presents a full set of freight demand elasticities for the three modes of rail, road, and waterways navigation with respect to transport cost changes. They are derived from a trans-European transport model developed within the EU’s ECCONET program for analyzing traffics that could possibly use waterways transport on the river Rhine and Danube, and for assessing the impacts of climate change on inland navigation. The transport model is based on the NODUS software applied with a multi-flows assignment technique, which minimizes transport costs. Elasticities are presented as aggregate elasticities over a set of 11 commodities, and separately for each commodity; direct and cross-elasticities are also given as well as elasticities per distance category. An important part of the paper is given to comparisons and discussions with and between previously published results.

Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC StartDate:20140112 EndDate:20140116 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board - Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC StartDate:20140112 EndDate:20140116 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board, Cation,


Cordova, Francisco and Nathan Huynh. Using Economic Indicators to Perform Short-Term Truck Traffic Forecasting: A Time Series and Truck Traffic Analysis Framework, (2014) 16p.

Abstract - As freight traffic continues to grow, there is an increasing need for accurate truck forecasting methods to alleviate financial, social and environmental impacts. Although several freight demand forecasting techniques are currently being used by state departments of transportation (DOTs) and metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), the most commonly used methods require significant amount of detailed truck traffic data, origin-destination information, commodity flow, and/or socio-economic factors to perform forecasts and validation. This study developed a framework consisting of time series and truck traffic analysis techniques using economic indicators to perform short term truck traffic forecasting. Economic data, unlike truck flow or origin-destination data, are more readily available and is a robust indicator for truck traffic, as changes in economic activity have been historically linked with changes in truck traffic. Given a dataset, the framework optimizes the parameters for each method and performs forecasts. Forecast performance is evaluated amongst the different methods based on Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) and Mean Average Percentage Errors (MAPE). The method with the lowest error is selected. The developed framework overcomes the limitation in current practice of having to develop and maintain unique forecasting models for different geographic areas for short term forecasting, as it provides the ability to compare the accuracy of multiple optimized methods simultaneously. Three states with distinct geographic, economic and freight characteristics were selected to validate the framework. Results indicated that the developed framework provided accurate forecasts of truck traffic, with mean average percentage errors MAPE less than 2.9 for all three states.

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Gonzalez-Calderon, Carlos and José Holguín-Veras. Freight Tour Synthesis and the Influence of Sampling Procedures, (2014) 15p.

Abstract - This paper introduces an entropy-maximization model to estimate the flows of delivery tours on the basis of traffic counts, and develops heuristic approaches to identify the location of the traffic counts that should support the estimation process. To this effect, the authors developed a mathematical formulation that combines entropy maximization demand model and traffic assignment constraints to minimize the error between observed and modeled traffic volumes. Three heuristics are defined and implemented. The performing of the formulation and the heuristics are tested in the Sioux Falls network.

Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC StartDate:20140112 EndDate:20140116 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board - Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC StartDate:20140112 EndDate:20140116 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board, Cation,


Gonzalez-Feliu, Jesus, Christian Ambrosini and Alain Bonnafous. An Alternative to O-D Matrix Estimation for Urban Goods Transport Demand Generation, (2014) 15p.

Abstract - This paper presents an alternative method to origin-destination (O-D) matrix for estimating road occupancy of urban goods movement (UGM). The originality of the model arises on three main elements. The first is that the modelling unit is the number of movements, i.e. the number of pickup and delivery operations. The second is that it follows a bottom-up approach, starting from a rich database, to define different behavioural functions. The third is that the road occupancy for deliveries or distances travelled can therefore be calculated for any city possessing a sufficiently well-informed register of businesses. First, the literature in the field is reviewed and the paper positioned. Then, the main methodological elements are presented. Finally, several validation results that show the pertinence of the hypotheses behind the proposed model are presented and discussed.

Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC StartDate:20140112 EndDate:20140116 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board - Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC StartDate:20140112 EndDate:20140116 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board, Cation,


Jaller, Miguel, Ivan Sanchez-Diaz and José Holguín-Veras. Freight Trip Attraction, Freight Trip Production, and the Role of Freight Intermediaries, (2014) 14p.

Abstract - This paper discusses the freight trip attraction (FTA) and freight trip production (FTP) patterns of establishments in different industry sectors. In addition, the paper compares the freight trip generation of pure receiver establishments, i.e., establishments that only receive goods, and intermediaries i.e., establishments that both receive and ship goods. The paper provides a descriptive analysis of the data used and the results using freight trip generation models estimated by the authors. These indicate that there are important differences between production and attraction between establishments across and within industry segments, and between pure receivers and intermediaries.

Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC StartDate:20140112 EndDate:20140116 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board - Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC StartDate:20140112 EndDate:20140116 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board, Cation,


Jaller, Miguel, Ivan Sanchez-Diaz, José Holguín-Veras and Catherine T. Lawson. Area Based Freight Trip Generation Models, (2014) 11p.

Abstract - The paper introduces a set of area based freight trip generation (FTG) models. In addition, the paper assesses the performance of the area and with employment based FTG models estimated by the authors in previous studies. The paper uses two samples of trip generation data from receiver and carrier companies in New York and New Jersey, collected in 2006 and 2012, to conduct external validation of the models. In addition, the paper explores the use of different definitions of area, such as building, commercial, retail and office for FTG modeling.

Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC StartDate:20140112 EndDate:20140116 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board - Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC StartDate:20140112 EndDate:20140116 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board, Cation, http://docs.trb.org/prp/14-4908.pdf



Kuppam, Arun, Jason Lemp, Dan Beagan, Vladimir Livshits, Lavanya Vallabhaneni and Sreevatsa Nippani. Development of a Tour-Based Truck Travel Demand Model Using Truck Gps Data, (2014) 27p.

Abstract - The concept of truck travel demand forecasting, internal to a region, has always been built upon modeling discrete truck trip ends, distributing truck trip ends to various origins and destinations using travel time impedances and some land use characteristics, and allocating truck trip tables into distinct time periods using factors derived from observed counts. An innovative enhancement to this approach is to apply activity-based modeling (ABM) principles to truck tour characteristics and develop a tour-based truck travel demand model. This paper focuses on two aspects – (a) processing of truck GPS data, and (b) developing a tour-based truck model. The processing of truck GPS data is done for the MAG region to construct a truck tour database necessary for estimating tour-based models. The tour-based models include stop generation and purpose models, and time period allocation and duration models to predict the occurrence of truck stops in space and time for each industry sector. This paper also discusses the calibration and validation of these discrete choice models that are linked together to output trip chains or truck tours for different industry sectors.

Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC StartDate:20140112 EndDate:20140116 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board - Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC StartDate:20140112 EndDate:20140116 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board, Cation, http://docs.trb.org/prp/14-4293.pdf



Ma, Yinyi, Roelof Kuik and Henk J. van Zuylen. Hierarchical Bayesian Networks for Freight Truck Origin Destination Estimation, (2014) 19p.

Abstract - Road traffic has stochastic characteristics. That is also the case for freight traffic. Both the demand and the flow of freight vehicles in a network during a certain time period are non-deterministic. In order to properly represent the truck demand and flow, stochastic methods need to be applied. Hierarchical Bayesian Network is one approach to take care of the stochastic nature of the variables, which may follow certain distributions. Recent years has seen massive advanced monitoring systems, such as Automated-Number-Plate-Recognition (ANPR) cameras and Bluetooth scanners, being installed along the road network, which can identify individual vehicles. These devices can deliver rich traffic information, which is potentially useful to estimate OD matrix of freight trucks. The case study on the A15 motorway in the Netherlands demonstrates that with the assumption of the Normal distributions, the Hierarchical Bayesian Network is able to get the same expected value of the posterior demand as the mean value of the ground truth demand. But the covariance matrices vary along the different combinations of detectors. Path flows from cameras can reduce the randomness significantly, around a 90.21% reduction of the covariance of demand estimation errors and 61.09% reduction of the covariance of flow prediction errors from the worst case of three loops installed to the best case of full coverage of cameras and loops.

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Ranaiefar, Fatemeh, Joseph Y. J. Chow, Michael G. McNally and Stephen G. Ritchie. A Structural Direct Demand Model for Inter-Regional Commodity Flow Forecasting, (2014) 20p.

Abstract - A new framework for inter-regional commodity flow forecasting is presented to improve estimates of freight demand for inter-regional and statewide transportation models. The Structural Equations for Multi-Commodity OD Distribution (SEMCOD) model is based on simultaneous direct demand equations with structural relationships between dependent and independent variables of the model. SEMCOD is a flexible model that integrates the generation and distribution steps in conventional four-step demand models. This integration provides consistent estimates for elasticity analysis of effective factors for freight flows at the OD level and for productions and attractions at the zone level. Also, the model is sensitive to policies that increase or decrease generalized transportation cost, not only for flow distribution but also by measuring the change in marginal production and attraction of each zone. Unlike gravity-type models, this framework provides the opportunity to identify homogenous clusters of ODs and to more accurately estimate parameters for each cluster. The proposed model is estimated using the Freight Analysis Framework (FAF3) and other publicly available data sources for 15 commodity groups. Elasticity of different factors on production, attraction and flow of different commodity groups with respect to industry specific employment, population, industrial GDP, variables related to consumption and production of energy and land use variables, are studied. Considering cross relationships between supply chains of different commodity groups in the model significantly improved the fitness of the model. The fitness measures confirm satisfactory performance of the model.

Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC StartDate:20140112 EndDate:20140116 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board - Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC StartDate:20140112 EndDate:20140116 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board, Cation, http://docs.trb.org/prp/14-0878.pdf



Shabani, Kaveh, Chad Worthen, Maren Outwater and Walt Steinvorth. Development of a Statewide Freight Trip Forecasting Model for Utah, (2014) 15p.

Abstract - Trucking is the primary source of goods movement in Utah. The Utah Department of Transportation (UDOT) commissioned the development of a statewide freight model to assist in statewide long-range planning and to better assess roadway impacts from trucks. A long-haul commodity-based model combined with a short-haul commercial vehicle model was developed and integrated with the Utah Statewide Travel Model (USTM), which forecasts passenger travel for the state. This paper includes a discussion of the source data used in the freight model development and long-haul and short-haul forecasting methods and calibration results. This paper also discusses data needs and how alternate sources of data were used to overcome initial data deficiencies. Moreover, lessons learned to assist other regions seeking to develop freight demand modeling approaches are discussed.

Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC StartDate:20140112 EndDate:20140116 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board - Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC StartDate:20140112 EndDate:20140116 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board, Cation, http://docs.trb.org/prp/14-3859.pdf



Zhou, Wei, Qin Chen and Jie Lin. Empirical Study of Urban Commercial Vehicle Tour Patterns in Texas, (2014) 12p.

Abstract - The movement of goods plays a crucial role in the United States economy. However, the understanding of urban commercial vehicle movements and how it can be effectively modeled is still at a primitive stage compared to passenger transportation, despite some recent studies and modeling efforts. Furthermore, geographical/regional differences make commercial vehicle movements very different across regions. This study aims at providing another empirical investigation of urban commercial vehicle movements in five metropolitan regions - San Antonio, Amarillo, Valley, Lubbock and Austin - in Texas. This study attempts to quantify, with a tour choice model, how factors such as land use type, shipment demand, cargo type, loading/unloading cargo weight and travel speed affect the commercial vehicle daily trip chaining strategies. Model results show that commercial vehicle tour patterns tend to be associated with commodity type, land use type, loading/unloading cargo weight and travel speed. Moreover, the effects of those variables are different in the five Texas urban areas than the other regions documented in the literature.

(Jane)


Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC StartDate:20140112 EndDate:20140116 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board - (Jane)

Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC StartDate:20140112 EndDate:20140116 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board, Cation,
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