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2011 (22)

Anderson, Michael, Mary Catherine Dondapati and Gregory Harris. Effectively Using the Qrfm to Model Truck Trips in Medium-Sized Urban Communities, (2011), 17p.

Abstract - This report analyzes the effectiveness of applying the Quick Response Freight Manual (QRFM) to model freight transportation. Typically freight transportation is modeled indirectly or as an after-thought. Increasing freight volumes, coupled with cost-saving strategies such as just-in-time delivery systems, require that transportation policymakers analyze infrastructure needs and make investment decisions that explicitly include freight volumes as a component. This paper contains a case study using a travel model for a medium-sized urban area and the QRFM trip-generation and distribution methodology to provide a framework for freight planning that can be used to improve resource-allocation decisions. http://utca.eng.ua.edu/files/2011/08/06306-Final-Report.pdf
Baindur, Deepak and Jose Manuel Viegas. An Agent Based Model Concept for Assessing Modal Share in Inter-Regional Freight Transport Markets. Journal of Transport Geography 19, no. 6 (2011): pp 1093-1105.

Abstract - This paper introduces an agent based modeling approach to model inter-urban freight transport between two or more trading regions. The use of the model is to ascertain the modal share of competing transport modes (road and intermodal) while taking complex transport service supply-demand dynamics into account. It is structured by modules describing company generation, supplier choice, modal competition and International road freight transport market dynamics. The behavior of individual actors is simulated using normative agent behavior and market knowledge. Using the micro-simulation approach, shippers and carriers (primarily road haulers and a maritime based intermodal operator) interact through simulated contracts resulting in the generation of tours. The service performance of the tours is fed back into the model for decision making during contract deliberations. Preliminary application of model to Mediterranean case study show that market share gains of around 25-30% are obtained with policy interventions of financial subsidies to intermodal services and more frequent shipping services in the intermodal transport respectively. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0966692311000536
Bassok, Alon, Edward D. McCormack, Maren L. Outwater and Chilan Ta. Use of Truck Gps Data for Freight Forecasting, (2011) 13p.

Abstract - Given trucks’ importance in moving freight, relatively little is known about their travel patterns particularly in urban areas. Global positioning systems (GPS) used by trucking companies are a source of truck probe data that is just starting to be utilized for a variety of applications including modeling. The Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC), Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT), and the University of Washington (UW) have partnered on a research effort to collect and analyze GPS truck data from commercial, in-vehicle, fleet management systems used in the central Puget Sound region. Among other uses, this GPS information, which is in essence a by-product of trucking industry operations, is evaluated for its feasibility to supply quantitative information that will support truck and freight models. Specifically, this paper investigates the ability to use truck GPS data to develop trip generation data. A case study of the grocery store industry is offered to highlight the efficacy of the tool.

Transportation Research Board 90th Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC,USA StartDate:20110123 EndDate:20110127 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board - Transportation Research Board 90th Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC,USA StartDate:20110123 EndDate:20110127 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board, Cation,


Brocker, Johannes, Artem Korzhenevych and Marie-Catherine Riekhof. Predicting Freight Flows in a Globalising World. Research in Transportation Economics 31, no. 1 (2011): pp 37-44.

Abstract - This paper suggests a methodology to predict commodity specific transportation flows that brings together data in value and quantity terms in a consistent way. The approach is based on the modern gravity formulation. There are 3 driving forces of the transport flows dynamics: economic growth, the ongoing globalization (reduction of trade barriers), and the changing commodity composition of trade, whereby the evolution of value-to-weight ratios is explicitly taken into account. The methodology is applied to forecast the interregional trade flows in Europe. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B8JHM-51PR0FY-1/2/89ed3c5dd5414baf282c5e9415080d5e
Davidson, P. A New Approach to Transport Modelling: The Stochastic Segmented Slice Simulation (4s) Model and Its Recent Applications, (2011) 23p.

Abstract - Recently there has been renewed interest in alternative modelling approaches, driven by recognised deficiencies in the traditional four step model. One stream of development has come through improved modelling of individual and household travel scheduling and joint decision making, under the umbrella of tour-based and activity-based modelling. Another stream of development has been improved approaches to discrete choice modelling, and the incorporation of more complex random utility model (RUM) formulations, such as mixed logit. In this paper we present a new multi-modal transport model structure which incorporates many of the elements of these recent developments, but within a formulation that overcomes many of the obstacles associated with moving away from traditional models. In particular, we show that the new 4S model is very computationally efficient, and is extremely flexible and extensible, while having similar data requirements to traditional models. The model uses Monte-Carlo simulation with a unified trip generation, destination, mode, route and time-of-day choice. It allows for detailed behavioural modelling including; cycling end of trip facilities, multi-modal freight, road pricing and public transport congestion. We describe the structure of the model and discuss the theory behind it. We then give examples of the application of the model to recent projects in South East Queensland and demonstrate the new types of analysis that can be done with the model. We also demonstrate the efficiency of the model by describing its practical application to the whole of Queensland at the lot-level, and the whole of Australia at the collector-road level.

Australasian Transport Research Forum (ATRF), 34th, 2011, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia StartDate:00000 EndDate:00000 - Australasian Transport Research Forum (ATRF), 34th, 2011, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia StartDate:00000 EndDate:00000, Cation, http://www.atrf.info/papers/index.aspx



de Jong, Gerard, Arnaud Burgess, Lori Tavasszy, Robbert Versteegh, Michiel de Bok and Nora Schmorak. Distribution and Modal Split Models for Freight Transport in the Netherlands, (2011) 18p.

Abstract - Models play a crucial role in the complex realm of policy and decision making in The Netherlands. In an effort to improve the information provided to policy makers and to maximise the added value of the existing instruments and available knowledge and data, the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment decided to work towards a new freight transport model. The first step in the building process is a basic model called BASGOED. This model is meant as fundamental cornerstone for an incremental building process leading to a modular, transparent and flexible set of instruments for policy making in the area of freight transport. For this purpose, BASGOED has been designed as a basic model, satisfying the basic needs of policy making, based on proven knowledge and data that will also be available in the future. BASGOED will therefore make use of those modules and data from the existing SMILE+ model, that are suitable for the new set-up. This is the case for the Economy Module which provides transport flows in tonnes by commodity type generated and attracted in each zone. New models have been estimated and implemented for distributing these flows to origin-destination pairs and for determining the modal split (road, rail and inland waterways). These two new models will be presented in the paper. Both the distribution and the modal split model are based on the national Dutch freight transport database of 2004 ("Basisbestand Goederenvervoer"). Furthermore, transport distances and transport times from existing uni-modal road, rail and inland waterway transport network models were used as input (also taking account of road access to and egress from train stations and inland ports). The commodity classification used is NSTR1 (10 commodity groups) and the zoning system distinguishes 40 zones in The Netherlands and 29 zones abroad. These models are aggregate models (e.g. the modal split model is an aggregate logit model). A recent revealed preference data base at the disaggregate level, such as a shippers survey or a commodity flow survey is not available in The Netherlands. Various functional forms have been tested for the model specification in both models. This included the specification of transport cost and transport time, but also the influence of border resistance, zone-internal transport, containerisation and the residual influences of specific origin and destination zones or origin-destination combinations. The link between the distribution model and the modal split model is a logsum variable that is calculated over the modes in the modal split model using the coefficients estimated for this model, and then converted to the transport resistance variable in the distribution model. The estimated models were implemented in a computer code in a scientific programming language. Elasticities for changes in time and cost by mode have been calculated using both the estimation data and the implemented model (that also includes transport flows for which only one mode is available). In the model, changes in transport time and cost will not only affect the mode shares, but also the distribution. The paper will discuss the structure of the overall model and of the submodels for distribution and modal split in particular. It will also contain a description of the model inputs and outputs and of the estimation results for different specifications. After this, the elasticities will be reported in the paper, and discussed on the basis of a comparison with the literature (using recent international overview studies of freight transport elasticities some of the authors were involved in).

European Transport Conference 2011Association for European TransportTransportation Research BoardGlasgow,Scotland StartDate:20111010 EndDate:20111012 Sponsors:Association for European Transport, Transportation Research Board - European Transport Conference 2011Association for European TransportTransportation Research BoardGlasgow,Scotland StartDate:20111010 EndDate:20111012 Sponsors:Association for European Transport, Transportation Research Board, Cation, http://abstracts.aetransport.org/paper/index/id/3779/confid/17



Feo-Valero, Maria, Leandro Garcia-Menendez and Rodrigo Garrido-Hidalgo. Valuing Freight Transport Time Using Transport Demand Modelling: A Bibliographical Review. Transport Reviews 31, no. 5 (2011): pp 625-651.

Abstract - The value of time for freight transport is of major importance in infrastructure-related cost–benefit analysis and yet its study has been largely neglected when compared with its passenger counterpart. In fact, one of the attributes that could decide the profitability of a project is how much can be saved if freight vehicles use new infrastructure. Despite being the primary benefit of most investments in transport infrastructure, researchers have not yet reached agreement over either the size or the nature of the values of time that should be used when evaluating projects. This article provides a review of the estimation of freight value of time through transport demand modelling and extant empirical evidence on this topic. Similarly, the bibliographic review of studies undertaken has allowed us to pinpoint the most critical issues when modelling freight transport demand and the position of various research teams regarding these aspects. Such issues include identifying the decision-maker, heterogeneity in the transport flows and transport attributes considered by decision-makers. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01441647.2011.564330
Guo, Jessica, Walt Raith, Qi Gong and Jason Bittner. Freight Model Improvement Project for Ecwrpc, (2011), 24p.

Abstract - In early 2009, Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT), HNTB and East Central Wisconsin Regional Planning Council (ECWRPC) completed the first phase of the Northeast Region Travel Demand Model. While the model includes a truck trip generation based on the quick response freight manual, the model lacks enough truck classification counts and other data to accurately calibrate the model to existing conditions, as well as for future freight demand conditions. Therefore, sufficient data needs to be collected in order to accurately calibrate a model for use in calibrating freight use. This project will calibrate the model through data collection and field verification efforts. This study will provide data to evaluate and improve a model for the truck/freight mode split component of the travel model. Current freight information that could be used to verify and calibrate the model is minimal; therefore, this project will collect the needed data to do so using aerial photography, GIS data, mapping projects, and other data obtained by East Central Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission (ECWRPC). The project will complete a land use inventory specific to the freight industry, with documentation and mapping. The research team will also provide staff training and technical assistance. http://www.wistrans.org/cfire/documents/FR_0308.pdf
Hamdouch, Younes. Multi-Period Supply Chain Network Equilibrium with Capacity Constraints and Purchasing Strategies. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies 19, no. 5 (2011): pp 803-820.

Abstract - In this paper, the authors propose a capacitated supply chain network equilibrium model in which three tiers of decision makers (manufacturers, retailers and consumers at demand markets) seek to determine their optimal plans over a multi-period planning horizon. Unlike other studies in the extent literature, the authors use a new concept of purchasing strategy to model the strategic behavior of retailers and consumers at demand markets in a capacitated supply chain network. A purchasing strategy denotes an ordered set of manufacturers (or retailers) from which each retailer (or each consumer at a demand market) prefers to purchase a product. They show that the equilibrium conditions governing the multi-period capacitated supply chain network equilibrium problem can be formulated as a variational inequality in terms of strategies and strategic flows. To find a solution to this variational inequality, the authors propose an iterative algorithm that generates strategies for retailers and consumers as required by solving a dynamic program. They prove that the solution set is nonempty and provide a numerical example to illustrate the validity of our model. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0968090X11000313
Harris, Gregory and Michael D. Anderson. Using Aggregated Federal Data to Model Freight in a Medium-Size Community, (2011),Transportation Research Board, pp 45-46.

Abstract - The efficient movement of freight within and through a region is vital to its growth and economic development. Transportation planning involves the development of travel demand models to support a region’s infrastructure investment decisions, but modeling professionals face limitations in obtaining accurate freight data. This problem originates from issues with gathering and utilizing data that are at the appropriate granularity. Freight data at the local level are considered proprietary and companies are reluctant to share. One approach in overcoming this limitation is to use a nonproprietary, national freight flow database. However, the high level of aggregation of the national freight flow data presents challenges for determining freight movements at the substate level. The publicly available data have to be supplemented by local information to provide reliable transportation demand forecasts suitable for planning purposes. Investigating future freight flows requires a deep understanding of the economic and industrial base of a region. For Alabama, this includes major manufacturing industries, agriculture, logging, and mining. Retailing, wholesaling, and warehousing activity also creates freight traffic. The base year for the economic database is 2002, the year corresponding to the Freight Analysis Framework 2 (FAF2) and also when the U.S. Census Bureau surveyed industries for its series of state economic censuses.

Commodity Flow Survey WorkshopTransportation Research BoardResearch and Innovative Technology AdministrationWashington,DC,USA StartDate:20101116 EndDate:20101116 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board, Research and Innovative Technology Administration - Commodity Flow Survey WorkshopTransportation Research BoardResearch and Innovative Technology AdministrationWashington,DC,USA StartDate:20101116 EndDate:20101116 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Cation, http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/circulars/ec158.pdf



Holguin-Veras, Jose, Miguel Jaller, Lisa Destro, Xuegang Ban, Catherine Lawson and Herbert S. Levinson. Freight Generation, Freight Trip Generation, and Perils of Using Constant Trip Rates. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, no. 2224 (2011): pp 68-81.

Abstract - Several findings call into question current practices. The chief conclusion is that the accuracy of freight generation (FG) and freight trip generation (FTG) models depends on the consistency between the model’s structure and actual FG-FTG patterns, the degree of internal heterogeneity of the economic and land use aggregation used to estimate the model, and the appropriateness of the spatial aggregation procedure used to obtain the desired FG-FTG estimates. Relative to model structure, the paper establishes strong reasons to treat FG and FTG as separate concepts, because the latter is the output of logistic decisions, whereas the former is determined by the economics of production and consumption. The connection between business size variables—for example, employment—and FG is relatively strong because they are economic input factors, whereas the one with FTG is weaker because inventory and transportation costs come into play. Thus it is generally not correct to assume proportionality between FTG and business size or to assume that using constant FTG rates could be problematic. For instance, only 18% of the industry sectors in New York City exhibit constant FTG rates per employee. For economic and land use aggregation, the finer the level of detail the better, as independent variables have a better chance to explain FG-FTG. In the case of spatial aggregation, the correct aggregation procedure depends on the underlying disaggregate model. For a FG-FTG model to work well, both economic and land use and spatial aggregations must be appropriate. Notes - (Jeff) http://dx.doi.org/10.3141/2224-09
Hunt, John Douglas, Tara J. Weidner, Rebecca Knudson, Alex Oban Bettinardi and Erin Wardell. Applying the Swim2 Integrated Model in Freight Planning in Oregon, (2011) 10p.

Abstract - The Oregon Department of Transportation has been developing a statewide long-range plan for freight movement that concerns infrastructure investment and policy options. Concerns about economic uncertainty led to an emphasis on analysis of options under a range of alternative futures. The second generation Oregon StateWide Integrated Model (SWIM2) was used to support this analysis. SWIM2 is a spatial economic model system that includes representation of the transportation, economic and land use systems and their interactions. It is the product of continuing work on transportation model improvement underway in Oregon. In this practical work, it was used to provide information to the planning committee on alternative scenarios for the period up to 2030, considering impacts of different levels of growth in economic activity by economic sector and different ranges of transportation costs on the suitability of infrastructure investment options and on the distribution of economic benefits. The focus of the planning work was expanded substantially from what it would have been without the SWIM2 inputs, allowing consideration of a much wider range of impacts on the transportation system and on both the magnitude and distribution of economic benefits. Concerns about the risk of plans becoming inappropriate under potential economic futures were addressed. The potential impacts of substantial changes in transportation costs were considered. A tool developed for visualizing model outputs with a flexible query system and pre-established graphical formats provided to be very useful in this practical setting.

Transportation Research Board 90th Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC,USA StartDate:20110123 EndDate:20110127 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board - Transportation Research Board 90th Annual MeetingTransportation Research BoardWashington,DC,USA StartDate:20110123 EndDate:20110127 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board, Cation,


Jin, T. G., M. Saito and D. L. Eggett. Commodity Flow Estimation Models Incorporating Land Use Characteristics and Economic Factors, (2011) pp 435-446.

Abstract - This paper describes how reliably forecasting of freight demand has become essential in freight transportation management in order to systematically plan for future transportation facility needs. The paper shows how land use is one of the key factors that affect commodity flow. Other factors include location factors, physical factors, operational factors, dynamic factors such as seasonal variations in demand and changes in customers’ tastes, and pricing factors. Modeling commodity flows with land use is one possible first step; however, it has some limitations because land use data lacks detailed information on economic activities, in particular land use. Therefore, models that use land use characteristics instead of aggregate land use type data were developed in this paper using the commodity flow data available from the 2002 Commodity Flow Survey and other data available to the public via the Internet. These models were used to estimate commodity flow in 2007 and their estimates were compared with commodity flow values found in the 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. Results of this comparison showed that the models could produce good estimates of commodity flows and are of practical use because the model’s input data are available free via the Internet.

17th International Conference on Urban Transport and the EnvironmentWessex Institute of TechnologyWIT Transactions on the Built EnvironmentPisa,Italy StartDate:20110606 EndDate:20110608 Sponsors:Wessex Institute of Technology, WIT Transactions on the Built Environment - 17th International Conference on Urban Transport and the EnvironmentWessex Institute of TechnologyWIT Transactions on the Built EnvironmentPisa,Italy StartDate:20110606 EndDate:20110608 Sponsors:Wessex Institute of Technology, WIT Transactions on the Built Environment, Cation,


Liu, Qing and Denver Tolliver. How to Utilize and Improve Commodity Flow Databases in National Supply Chain Model, (2011),Transportation Research Board, pp 36-37.

Abstract - This study utilizes Freight Analysis Framework–Commodity Flow Survey (FAF–CFS) databases to determine a typology or systematic classification of supply chains and their relationships to commodity flows. Freight flow models like FAF predict freight flows among regions based on commodity forecasts. The commodity forecasts and predicted flows may reflect many different supply chains—some global and some domestic. A better understanding of supply chain factors will help in understanding the forces underlying trade and product flows and mapping commodity forecasts to interregional freight flows.

Commodity Flow Survey WorkshopTransportation Research BoardResearch and Innovative Technology AdministrationWashington,DC,USA StartDate:20101116 EndDate:20101116 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board, Research and Innovative Technology Administration - Commodity Flow Survey WorkshopTransportation Research BoardResearch and Innovative Technology AdministrationWashington,DC,USA StartDate:20101116 EndDate:20101116 Sponsors:Transportation Research Board, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Cation, http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/circulars/ec158.pdf


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