This primary source footage of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat’s trip to Israel, an unprecedented move for the leader of an Arab nation, gave great insight to us about the foundations of a peace process between Egypt and Israel that culminated in the Camp David Accords and the peace treaty between the two nations. We found this video useful during the research of our topic because it provided insight into the beginning of Egyptian-Israeli diplomacy and a relationship for peace. We excerpted parts of this video on the “Beginning Reconciliation” page of our website to emphasize the significance of Sadat’s groundbreaking trip to Israel and his speech to the Knesset.
This online clip is from a History Channel biographic documentary on Anwar Sadat. The excerpt we used and put on our Sadat page explains the risks Sadat took in reaching out to Israel and visiting Jerusalem. It also served as a foreshadowing of Sadat’s assassination, which we explained on the “Short-Term Impact” page.
The Anwar Sadat Chair for Peace and Development, ed. “Anwar Sadat.” Anwar Sadat Chair for Peace and Development. Ed. The Anwar Sadat Chair for Peace and Development. University of Maryland, n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .
The Anwar Sadat Chair for Peace and Development’s website was a comprehensive resource that we discovered during our research for this project that not only supplied information on Sadat’s history and involvement in the Camp David Accords, but led us to additional resources, such as audio clips of important Sadat speeches and transcripts of his speech to the Knesset. We used this resource extensively when we were working on our pages on Sadat, as it established a solid historical context on him.
“The Arab-Israeli War of 1948.” Office of the Historian. United States Department of State, n.d. Web. 21 Jan. 2013. .
This website provided a comprehensive overview of Israel’s independence in 1948 and the resulting Arab reaction, the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. This article helped us to understand why Arab nations were dissatisfied with the UN Partition of Palestine and angered by the Israeli Declaration of Independence, and the underlying causes of the Arab-Israeli conflict. We used excerpts from this website in our “Sworn Enemies” page of the website to illustrate the causes and results of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
“Arab-Israeli War of 1967.” Office of the Historian. United States Department of State, n.d. Web. 21 Jan. 2013. .
This website contained a detailed account of the Six-Day War, covering the causes of the war, the main events that occurred during war, and historical significance of the war. Moreover, we developed an enhanced understanding of the Camp David Accords as a result of researching with this article. We used excerpts from this website in our “Sworn Enemies” page of the website to illustrate the causes, significance, and results of the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, or the Six-Day War.
“Arab-Israeli War 1973.” Office of the Historian. United States Department of State, n.d. Web. 21 Jan. 2013. .
The Office of Historian provided a detailed analysis of the Yom Kippur War and effectively illustrated the surprise attack on Israel Moreover, we found this article useful because of the website’s emphasis on the Yom Kippur War’s instrumental role in changing the foreign policy outlook of the United States, Israel, and Egypt, ultimately leading to the Camp David Accords and diplomatic recognition of Israel by Egypt. We used excerpts from this website in our “Sworn Enemies” page of the website to illustrate the causes, significance, and results of the Arab-Israeli War of 1973, or as it is more commonly known, the Yom Kippur War.
Associated Press. “Carter Gives 3-Point Mideast Peace Plan.” The Spokesman-Review [Spokane] 17 Mar. 1977, sec. Google News. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .
The Spokesman-Review’s coverage of Carter’s historical call for a Palestinian homeland helped us establish the context of the Camp David Accords and elucidate Carter’s motivations and initial positions during the negotiations. Furthermore, the article helped us understand how Carter’s personal history influenced his views on the Middle Eastern peace process. Due to this, we excerpted portions of this article and placed it in our website to illustrate the influence of Carter’s history on his view of the Middle East and the Arab-Israeli conflict.
“Pope Paul, Sadat Hold Warm Talks at Vatican.” Eugene Register-Guard [Eugene] 8 Apr. 1976, sec. A: 5. Google News. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .
This article in the Eugene Register-Guard reports one of Sadat’s peace initiatives - meeting with the Pople in the Vatican to outline his plans for Middle Eastern peace. We were greatly aided by this source as it provided a contemporary perspective of Sadat’s actions to implement and achieve peace, and we integrated excerpts from this article into our website due to its contemporary perspective.
Beschloss, Michael, and Hugh Sidey. “James Carter.” The White House. N.p., 2009. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. .
This brief biography of Jimmy Carter on the White House website was also helpful in creating the map of Carter’s rise to the presidency on the Carter page of the website. We quoted a passage about his birth in Georgia and his governorship in the state.
Bregman, Ahron. E-mail interview. 4 May 2013.
Our interview with Ahron Bregman, a British-Israeli scholar and teaching fellow at King’s College, London, was useful in that it provided us with a modern Israeli perspective on the Camp David Accords. Bregman had served both in the Israeli army and as an assistant in the Knesset, and he offered us a knowledgeable perspective on the Knesset’s reaction to the Accords and how Israelis currently viewed the Accords. Bregman acknowledged that Camp David’s peace was a “cold” peace, but also commented on the strength of the peace which had been created. We placed a quote by Bregman under the Short-Term Impact tab and an entire transcript of the interview under the supplements page.
British Pathe. The Six-Day War, 1967. Youtube. Youtube, 22 Aug. 2011. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. .
The British Pathe used primary source newsreels and other primary source video footage in order to effectively portray the causes, events, and results of the Six-Day War. This video enhanced our understanding of the Six-Day War in the general context of all Arab-Israeli wars, and helped us to understand why Israel felt self-complacent and invincible before the Yom Kippur War and how this self-complacency and invincibility hindered an effective diplomatic solution to peace in the Middle East. We used this clip in the “Sworn Enemies” page of our website in order to provide an interactive multimedia experience on one of the many wars that Arab nations and Israel fought between Israel’s independence and the Camp David Accords.
“Camp David Day by Day.” Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2013.
This webpage accounted daily events at the Camp David Accords in great detail. It described personal interactions between the three leaders and the specific issues they wrestled with. It was crucial in creating our timeline in the “Ideas and Events” section of our website. We quoted many passages from the webpage, as it included many firsthand accounts of witnesses who were present at the Accords. It was a very detailed yet concise overview of what happened in thirteen days at Camp David in 1978.
Elzy, Martin I., ed. “The Camp David Accords After Twenty-Five Years: ‘Thirteen Days After Twenty-Five Years.’” The Camp David Accords After Twenty-Five Years: “Thirteen Days After Twenty-Five Years.” Ed. Jimmy Carter Library & Museum. Jimmy Carter Library & Museum, 2003. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. .
Originally written for the twentieth anniversary temporary exhibit on the Camp David Accords and created by the Carter Museum staff in 1998, this narrative on the Camp David Accords provided invaluable information and analysis into the day-by-day breakdown of the Camp David Accords. Additionally, the narrative’s extensive discussion on historical context enabled us to better understand the historical context and significance of the Camp David Accords. Due to the excellence of this resource, we quoted many excerpt from this narrative throughout our website.
Fallows, James. "The Passionless Presidency." The Atlantic May 1979: n. pag. Print.
This article by James Fallows examined America through the wider lens of Jimmy Carter's presidency. It argued that his presidency was lackluster, and explained the role of his personality and beliefs in his political decision making. The article noted that the way which Carter handled Camp David, one of Carter's few victories, was based on "the impression he would create," rather than his predecessor Johnson's tactic of exploiting "intimate knowledge of the other party, which told him how to flatter, threaten, and cajole." Such knowledge was instrumental in discerning why Carter's predecessors may have not pursued a peace treaty, as well as useful in our characterization of Carter.
Farrell, William E. “Sadat Assassinated At Army Parade as Men Amid Ranks Fire Into Stands; Vice President Affirms ‘All Treaties.’” New York Times [New York] 7 Oct. 1981, Late City ed., sec. A: 1. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .
The New York Times’ breaking front page report on Sadat’s assassination gave us a contemporary perspective of this event and the implications of Sadat’s death into the Middle Eastern peace process tentatively established by the Camp David Accords. The article provides an in-depth discussion of the role of the Camp David Accords in the event, and the uncertain future of Middle Eastern peace as a result of the assassination. We used this resource in order to familiarize ourselves with Sadat’s assassination and to research more into the after effects of the Camp David Accords.
Feron, James. “Menachem Begin, Guerrilla Leader Who Became Peacemaker.” New York Times [New York] 10 Mar. 1992: n. pag. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. .
Menachem Begin’s obituary in the New York Times illustrated a detailed portrait of a man who transformed from a guerrilla militant fighting against Palestinian and Arab militants in the British Mandate of Palestine to an accomplished statesman who successfully negotiated peace with Sadat during the Camp David Accords in 1978. Feron’s analysis of both the high points and low points of Begin’s career as a politician gave us significant understanding of how Begin’s past shaped his position and strategy during the Camp David Accords. We quoted from this article a few times in our website because of its excellent and accurate historical portrayal of Begin.
Gelvin, James. The Modern Middle East: A History. N.p.: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.
The book provided a historically comprehensive view of the development of international relationships in the Middle East, including the beginning of mutual hostility between Israel and other Arab nations. It was useful in setting up our “Historical Context” pages and the background for the history between the three nations.
Gwertzman, Bernard. “Egypt and Israel Sign Formal Treaty, Ending a State of War After 30 Years; Sadat and Begin Praise Carter’s Role.” New York Times [New York] 27 Mar. 1979, Late City ed.: A1+. Print.
The New York Times articles provided a comprehensive overview of the Arab-Israeli conflict up to the Camp David Accords, with detailed explanations of previous wars (such as the Yom Kippur War and the Suez Canal Crisis). Gwertzman’s account of the Camp David Accords furthered our understanding of this event and enhanced the significance of the event during the contemporary era. The article furthermore contained numerous primary sources, such as the text of the Camp David Framework Accord as well as other relevant documents related to the Arab-Israeli conflict.
Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Israel’s Story in Maps. Map. Jerusalem: Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2008. Israel’s Story in Maps. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Israel’s Story in Maps. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .
During our research, we came upon this extensive collection of maps that visually illustrated Israel’s history and constantly shifting borders. After encountering mainly textual sources during the research process, these maps offered a new visual perspective to the historical context of the Camp David Accords. We used this resource in order to understand how numerous Arab-Israeli wars shifted borders and how the Camp David Accords stabilized borders and led to peace.
Jimmy Carter: ‘No Downside’ to Palestinian Statehood. By NPR Staff. National Public Radio. N.p., 18 Sept. 2011. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .
This segment on the NPR was on the NPR website to listen to, and the transcript of the segment on the webpage as well. It included a quote of Jimmy Carter supporting the UN Security Council vote for Palestinian statehood in 2011. It further illustrated Carter’s interest in finding solutions for peace in the Middle East.
Knell, Yolande. “Egypt-Israel ‘cold peace’ suffers a further chill.” BBC News 10 Sept. 2011: BBC. Web. 10 Apr. 2013. .
This article was published in 2011 by BBC News. It viewed the Egypt-Israeli relationship in light of the recent “departure of Israel’s ambassador from Egypt after protesters tried to break into the embassy,” giving a short history of events transpiring after the Camp David Accords, including information on how Sadat’s successor, Hosni Mubarak, “safeguard[ed] the peace treaty,” making him a western ally and securing western aid for Egypt. The article was invaluable in forming conclusions about the world’s modern perspective of the Accords; it helped us conclude that they are still widely viewed as positive today. The article’s emphasis on the “coldness” of the Egypt-Israeli relationship, however, also shows that there is still much to be achieved, which we mentioned in our conclusion.
The Learning Network. “Nov. 29, 1947 / U.N. Partitions Palestine, Allowing for Creation of Israel.” The New York Times 29 Nov. 2011: n. pag. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .
The article was a summary of events that happened in the United Nations General Assembly on Nov. 29, 1947. It provided information on how Arab nations responded to the creation of Israel and gave us an idea of the hostility between Israel and Arab countries.
LeVine, Mark. Telephone interview. 16 Feb. 2013.
This interview with Mark Levine, who teaches at UCI, was extremely helpful in shaping multi-layered thoughts about the Camp David Accords. He made several historical connections to causes and results that we had not yet come across in our research. For example, he mentioned that Sadat was looking for a way to align Egypt with the US rather than the Soviet Union, and he made interesting points about how the US was eager to find a new alliance in the Middle East after the Shah regime fell in Iran. He also talked about the success and failures of the Camp David Accords and what they meant for future peace efforts. We quoted this interview several times throughout the website and included a complete transcript of the interview on the Supplements page.
Litvak, Meir. E-mail interview. 21 Feb. 2013.
Our interview with Meir Litvak, a professor at Tel Aviv University, was useful in that it offered another long-term perspective on the Camp David Accords, specifically that of an educated Israeli scholar. Litvak commented widely on the Oslo Accords, which stemmed directly from the Camp David Accords; for example, he thought that “to a large extent, the [Oslo] Accords failed,” and introduced us to some more negative consequences of the Accords, though he also acknowledged that the Accords were an “important landmark... in Israeli-Palestinian relations.” We placed an entire transcript of the interview under the supplements page.
Menachem Begin Heritage Institute. Menachem Begin Making Peace. Youtube. Youtube, 8 Mar. 2009. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. .
Menachem Begin Heritage Institute’s video clip on its namesake was an excellent source on Begin’s accomplishments regarding the establishment of a peace process in the Middle East between Israel and its neighboring Arab countries. The video provided a thorough overview of the prelude to the Camp David Accords, which included Begin’s legislative victory resulting in a Likud-led government and Sadat’s overtures for peace towards Israel. Additionally, the video emphasized the significance of the Camp David Accords and highlighted its accomplishments of establishing long-term diplomacy and peace in the region. We used excerpts from this clip and posted it in our home page due to its comprehensive portrayal of the Camp David Accords.
Newman, John J., and John M. Schmalbach. “Limits of a Superpower.” United States History. 2nd ed. New York: AMSCO School Publications, 2010. 619-41. Print.
Newman’s United States History gave an excellent account of Jimmy Carter’s background and rise to the presidency. Not only did this source give a useful account of the Camp David Accords, it also told of many of Carter’s other successes and failures, putting the Camp David Accords in the greater context of Carter’s presidential administration and final legacy.
Oakman, Jonathan. The Camp David Accords: A Case Study on International Negotiation. Princeton: Princeton University, 2002. Print.
Oakman’s extensively researched report on the Camp David Accords offered a unique perspective on the strategy behind Begin, Carter, and Sadat during the Camp David Accords, which we found to be immensely helpful in understanding how the negotiations at Camp David defied odds to ultimately succeed. Oakman provided detailed analysis of each of the initial positions and flexibility of the three men, and how early moves during the negotiation process defined much of the later results of the Accords. We quoted a handful of excerpts from this report in order to more effectively illustrate the negotiations process during the Camp David Accords.
“Peace Talks at Camp David, September 19778.” PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2013. .
The PBS webpage, which serves an introduction to the American Experience documentary on Jimmy Carter, included a quote of Carter talking to Sadat and convincing him to stay at Camp David. Carter’s showdown with Sadat and Sadat’s agreement to stay were important milestones in the negotiations, so we used the quote in our timeline in the “Ideas and Events” section.
“Pope Paul, Sadat Hold Warm Talks at Vatican.” Eugene Register-Guard 8 Apr. 1976: 5A. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. .
The article offered a perspective of a primary source on Sadat’s visit to the Vatican. As Sadat succeeded in acquiring the Pope’s support for a Middle East peace initiative, the article was useful in gathering the scale of the international importance of his visit. We used an image of the article headline in the Sadat website page.
Quandt, William B. Camp David: Peacemaking and Politics. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1986. Print.
We found this book around the beginning of our research, and it was very helpful in shaping an opinion about the Accords and the extent to which they were a turning point in history. The book talked about how the Accords could be considered to be a turning point, despite their failure to establish lasting peace in the Middle East. It explained the treaty’s limits and failures but also explained its effect on inter-Arab relations.
Rogan, Eugene. The Arabs: A History. Philadelphia: Basic Books, 2009. Print.
Rogan’s comprehensive overview of Middle Eastern history provided us with an invaluable historical context behind the Camp David Accords all the way back to the Ottoman Empire of the 209th century, where tensions between Palestinians and the Jews originated. Rogan also provided great context to the Cold War motives behind Begin, Sadat, and Carter as they were negotiating Middle Eastern peace at Camp David.
Rutherford, Bruce. E-mail interview. 19 Feb. 2013.
The email interview with Bruce Rutherford, who specializes in Egypt and the Middle East, helped us understand the extent of the success and failure of the Camp David Accords. He also offered a different perspective on the Accords and explained how one may reject the notion of the Camp David Accords being a turning point in history. The interview helped us take a balanced approach to the Accords.
Sadat Assassination. Youtube. Youtube, 14 Oct. 2007. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .
This video was a clip from the CBC Newsworld documentary “Death of a Pharaoh - Anwar al Sadat and the Holy Warriors”. The clip showed the firsthand witness of the assassination of Sadat during the military parade and was a direct display of the consequences Sadat bore as a result of the Camp David Accords. This clip is up for viewing on our “Short-term Impact” page.
“Sadat’s Visit to Israel, 1977.” Palestine Facts. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .
This webpage included an explanation of Sadat’s motives behind visiting Jerusalem. It was very useful in creating our page on Sadat in the “People” section.
“Short History - Carter’s Foreign Policy.” Office of the Historian. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .
This website was a very reliable and balanced view of Carter’s foreign policies. It explained Carter’s philosophy and belief in American’s duty to serve as a moral leader in international politics, and it helped explain his motives behind Camp David Accords. The webpage was instrumental in creating the page on Carter in the “People” section.
“Suez Crisis, 1956.” Office of the Historian. United States Department of State, n.d. Web. 21 Jan. 2013. .
We found this web article on the Suez Crisis very useful during the research of the historical context of the Camp David Accords as it analyzed the background and consequences of the military conflict between israel, Egypt, France, and the United Kingdom. The website greatly aided to our general understanding of the Arab-Israeli conflict before diplomatic negotiations between Israel and Arab nations were established through the Camp David Accords. We used excerpts from this website in our “Sworn Enemies” page of the website to illustrate the causes and significance of the Suez Crisis, or Suez War of 1956.
Troubled Israel. 18 May 1981. Image. TIME Magazine Cover.
This image of TIME Magazine’s Cover in 1981 illustrated Begin’s troubles as a politician after the Camp David Accords and his alienation from the international community, due to his reckless foreign policies borne from his success at the Accords. The title of the cover, which was “Troubled Israel” demonstrated the point perfectly. We featured this image on the “Short-Term Impact” page.
“United States Presidential Election of 1976.” Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Encyclopedia Britannica, 24 Nov. 2009. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. .
This online encyclopedia entry was instrumental in gathering information for the map briefly summarizing Carter’s rise to the presidency on our website’s page on Carter. In fact, we quoted several passages from the entry in the map, including specific statistics about the election results. It also helped analyze the reasons behind his victory, which were also related to his motivation in organizing the Camp David Accords.
Wanis-St. John, Anthony. Personal interview. 5 Mar. 2013.
Our interview with Anthony Wanis-St. John, a professor at American University specializing in international peace processes and negotiation, was extremely useful in shaping more nuanced and critical perspectives on the Camp David Accords. Professor Wanis-St. John gave us a greater background on the Accords and their origins, and an alternate view of their success and subsequent effect on history. He also introduced us to the concept of a bilateral and comprehensive peace process, of which the Accords were the former, and offered explanations for the benefits and shortcomings of the accords being a bilateral process. We recorded a short video clip of the interview to place on the website and included a complete transcript of the interview on the supplements page.