200 Statement to the Knesset by Prime Minister Begin on the Camp David agreements



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Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources

Begin, Menachem. “200 Statement to the Knesset by Prime Minister Begin on the Camp David agreements.” Knesset. 25 Sept. 1978. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. 13 May 2013. .

This transcript of Begin’s speech to Knesset after the Accords served as an insightful primary source in analyzing the Israeli public’s reaction to the signing of the Accords. It was a very direct display of Begin’s rationale and motivation behind his going through with the Accords. His statements such as “The critical importance of the agreement with Egypt lies in the fact that this time we undertook to sign a peace treaty. No more partial agreements. No more interim agreements - in which the state of war remains as it was.” supported our thesis about the significance of the Accords as a turning point. Begin also put emphasis on the importance of the Accords as a peaceful gesture.

Carter, Jimmy. “Framework for a Settlement in Sinai.” Sept. 1978. TS.

This primary source, Jimmy Carter’s early draft and notes on what would eventually become the Camp David Accords, showed Carter’s thought processes during the nascent document’s creation. The document affirmed Carter’s continually noble intentions and gave a good comparison between what Carter, the American, wanted from the Accords and what was eventually agreed upon by all three parties.

“Interview with President Jimmy Carter.” Interview by CNN Cold War Series. The George Washington University. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .

This website had a transcript of the interview of Jimmy Carter by the Cold War documentary series of CNN. Carter briefly talked about his interest in the Middle East and his motives in initiating the Camp David Accords, and it was a very insightful look into how the Accords came into being. We quoted some of the interview on the Jimmy Carter page of our website.

Letter to Menachem Begin. 3 Aug. 1978. MS.

These letters were written by Carter personally inviting Begin to Camp David to discuss the possibility of peace with Sadat. We acquired these letters through contact with Professor Kenneth Stein of Emory University. The letters demonstrated Carter’s willingness to extend a personal hand to Middle Eastern political leaders despite the existing conflict. The letter was full of praise of Begin, illustrating Carter’s use of personal relationships for the benefit of his diplomatic efforts.

Letter to Yitzhak Rabin. 14 Feb. 1977. TS. Twenty-Five Documents After Twenty-Five Years. Jimmy Carter Library and Museum.

This primary source document from Jimmy Carter to Yitzhak Rabin, the then-Prime Minister of Israel, elucidated Jimmy Carter’s noble intentions to conduct a “common search for a lasting peace settlement in the Middle East.” The invitation, written during the first month of Carter’s presidency, showed that Carter was committed to finding peace and that it was a high priority in his administration.

“President Carter’s Remarks on Joint Statement at Camp David Summit.” 17 Sept. 1978. Miller Center. University of Virginia, n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .

The website had a full transcript of Carter’s Remarks after the signing of the Camp David Accords. It was a very useful resource to the “Accords” page, in addition to the actual video of the speech. The text of the speech summarized the accords and its key points in Carter’s own words.

President Jimmy Carter - Remarks on the Camp David Summit. 27 Sept. 1978. Youtube. Youtube, 28 Mar. 2008. Web. 3 Feb. 2013. .

The video of Carter’s remarks on the Camp David Summit after all negotiations was an excellent primary source to use to observe the general atmosphere and public reception of the Accords. It also provided a summary of the two Frameworks concluded at Camp David in Carter’s own words and served as a concise summary of information that our website needed to provide on the Accords page.

Carter, Jimmy, Menachem Begin, and Anwar El-Sadat. Letter to Jimmy Carter and Menachem Begin. 26 Mar. 1979. Jewish Virtual Library. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .

This series of letter exchanges between Begin, Sadat, and Carter on the day of the signing of the treaty gave a glimpse into the issues that were at stake during negotiation. The letters were also excellent primary sources that explained some of the terms of the treaty. These letters can be read on our “Short-Term Impact” page.

Cullen, Bob. “Two Weeks at Camp David.” Smithsonian Magazine Sept. 2003: n. pag. Smithsonian Magazine. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .

Bob Cullen, who was present during the Camp David Accords as a reporter, provides a personal account of the Camp David Accords with substantial historical context to establish historical relevancy, complemented with in-depth analysis with the individual actions and events that took place during the talks. Cullen provided excellent commentary on how the early life of all three leaders (Begin, Carter, and Sadat) shaped their actions during the Camp David Accords, and also provided unique perspectives on the short-term and long-term implications of the Accords. Because of this, we found this resource immensely useful during our research, and we quoted excerpts from this article throughout our website.

“Declaration of Establishment of State of Israel.” Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. State of Israel, n.d. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. .

The Israeli Declaration of Independence was an invaluable primary source during our research process for the Camp David Accords, especially for establishing the context of the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Camp David Accords. Not only did this document dictate the fundamental Zionist ideals for establishing a Jewish state in Palestine, but it provided a list of reasons for Israeli independence. The Israeli Declaration of Independence greatly increased our understanding for the creation of the State of Israel, and also the cause of Arab-Israeli tensions and conflict stemming from this document. We used an excerpt from this document in the “Birth of a Jewish Homeland” page of our website because the document exemplified the underlying theme of this website.



Egypt’s Anwar El-Sadat Speaks to Israeli Parliament. Knesset. Jerusalem, Israel. 20 Nov. 1977. History. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .

Anwar Sadat’s speech to the Knesset was revolutionary as it marked the first time the leader of an Arab country visited Israel and spoke to the Knesset, thereby recognizing the existence of Israel. The audio clip of Sadat’s speech embodies Sadat’s ideals of peace in the Middle East, and we used excerpts from this audio recording in order to better portray the beginning of reconciliation in the Middle East as part of the context of the Camp David Accords.

Herzl, Theodor. Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State). Trans. Sylvie D’Avigdor. New York: Dover, 1988. Project Gutenberg. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. .

As Theodor Herzl’s most widely-known and most significant work, Der Judenstaat (or the Jewish State) was instrumental in laying the foundation for Zionism and the notion of an independent Jewish state in Palestine. We found this work to be extremely helpful in enhancing the fundamental general context behind the Camp David Accords, and discovering the roots of conflict between Israel and its Arab neighbors. Because of its historical significance and relevance to our topic, we quoted excerpts from this novel in the “Birth of a Jewish Homeland” page of our website.



Israel - The Suez War of 1956. Youtube. Youtube, 2 Aug. 2006. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. .

This primary source newsreel footage accurately enabled us to understand the general context for the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Camp David Accords and also understand the nature of the Arab-Israeli conflict. We used excerpts from this video on the “Sworn Enemies” page of our website to better portray the wars resulting from the Arab-Israeli conflict and establish a coherent historical context for the Camp David Accords and future diplomatic negotiations for long-term piece in the region.

Kamil, Muhammad Ibrahim. The Camp David Accords: A Testimony. N.p.: KPI, 1986. Print.

Kamil served as a Foreign Minister under Sadat, and his book offered a balanced account of what actually happened at the summit. It also provided a look into Sadat’s motives in venturing to make such a bold move and reach out for peace. It was a good reference for the website’s page on Sadat.

Quandt, William. E-mail interview. 20 Feb. 2013.

William Quandt was involved in the negotiations leading up to the Camp David Accords and was an excellent source to talk to about the Camp David Accords. The interview was important for us in understanding that the Camp David Accords was a mix of success and failure in terms of its stated goals. We also learned further that the personalities of the participants of the summit were crucial in shaping negotiations and the eventual outcome of the treaty.

Sadat, Anwar. “Address of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat to the Knesset, November 20, 1977.” Knesset. Knesset, Jerusalem, Israel. 20 Nov. 1977. Knesset. State of Israel, 2008. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. .

This primary source transcript of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat’s speech to the Knesset, made during his groundbreaking visit to Israel and Jerusalem, provided an in-depth and personal account of Sadat’s overtures of peace in the Middle East. We found this speech transcript to be extremely important in realizing the shift of Sadat’s foreign policy views from belligerent to more diplomatic and peaceful, and illustrated the extent of this change. We excerpted parts of this speech on the “Beginning Reconciliation” page of our website to highlight Sadat’s role in the foundation and context of the Camp David Accords.

“President Anwar Sadat’s Address to the Israeli Knesset.” Knesset. Jersualem, Israel. 20 Nov. 1977. Ibiblio. Ed. Terry Sullivan. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 26 Jan. 1996. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .

The transcript of Sadat’s historic speech to the Knesset in Jerusalem enabled us to understand Sadat’s peace plan for the Middle East and his reasons for implementing it. In this transcript, Sadat outlines the benefits of peace between Egypt and Israel, and calls for an end to hostilities and a new era of peace and cooperation in the Middle East. We excerpted parts of this speech throughout our website to effectively demonstrate Sadat’s peace initiative and how it led to the success of the Camp David Accords.

Vance, Cyrus. “Study Papers for the Camp David Talks.” N.d. MS.

These letters from Cyrus Vance to Jimmy Carter were a series of study papers for Carter’s preparation for the Camp David Accords, given to us by Professor Kenneth Stein of Emory University. The intimate texts contained a wide range of documents, from notes on Begin’s and Sadat’s sleeping and waking patterns to suggestions on how and when to mediate discussions on peace in Camp David. The documents also defined the United States’ own objectives in the Accords, as well as potential pitfalls, or “impasse’s,” which could impede peace. Vance outlined tentative schedules, and Carter’s own thoughts were also scribbled into the margins of the papers, further displaying his meticulous attention to detail. This primary source was an invaluable resource in examining the discussions and context of the negotiations of the Accords, as well as the United States position on what should be done and what was feasible.



Witnesses Talk About Sabra and Shatila Massacre 1982. Youtube. Youtube, 30 Sept. 2009. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .

This clip includes an account of a witness who was present at the Sabra & Shatila Massacre in 1982 in Lebanon. His mention of the Israeli soldiers who neglected to prevent the massacres was an excellent demonstration of how Begin’s leadership in the invasion of Lebanon alienated the international community and ended his political career. We featured the clip on our “Short-Term Impact” page.


Secondary Sources

Anwar El Sadat visit to Israel 1977. Youtube. Youtube, 11 Dec. 2010. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. .

This primary source footage of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat’s trip to Israel, an unprecedented move for the leader of an Arab nation, gave great insight to us about the foundations of a peace process between Egypt and Israel that culminated in the Camp David Accords and the peace treaty between the two nations. We found this video useful during the research of our topic because it provided insight into the beginning of Egyptian-Israeli diplomacy and a relationship for peace. We excerpted parts of this video on the “Beginning Reconciliation” page of our website to emphasize the significance of Sadat’s groundbreaking trip to Israel and his speech to the Knesset.



Anwar Sadat - Biography - 45 Mins. Youtube. Youtube, 15 Mar. 2012. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .

This online clip is from a History Channel biographic documentary on Anwar Sadat. The excerpt we used and put on our Sadat page explains the risks Sadat took in reaching out to Israel and visiting Jerusalem. It also served as a foreshadowing of Sadat’s assassination, which we explained on the “Short-Term Impact” page.

The Anwar Sadat Chair for Peace and Development, ed. “Anwar Sadat.” Anwar Sadat Chair for Peace and Development. Ed. The Anwar Sadat Chair for Peace and Development. University of Maryland, n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .

The Anwar Sadat Chair for Peace and Development’s website was a comprehensive resource that we discovered during our research for this project that not only supplied information on Sadat’s history and involvement in the Camp David Accords, but led us to additional resources, such as audio clips of important Sadat speeches and transcripts of his speech to the Knesset. We used this resource extensively when we were working on our pages on Sadat, as it established a solid historical context on him.

“The Arab-Israeli War of 1948.” Office of the Historian. United States Department of State, n.d. Web. 21 Jan. 2013. .

This website provided a comprehensive overview of Israel’s independence in 1948 and the resulting Arab reaction, the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. This article helped us to understand why Arab nations were dissatisfied with the UN Partition of Palestine and angered by the Israeli Declaration of Independence, and the underlying causes of the Arab-Israeli conflict. We used excerpts from this website in our “Sworn Enemies” page of the website to illustrate the causes and results of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.

“Arab-Israeli War of 1967.” Office of the Historian. United States Department of State, n.d. Web. 21 Jan. 2013. .

This website contained a detailed account of the Six-Day War, covering the causes of the war, the main events that occurred during war, and historical significance of the war. Moreover, we developed an enhanced understanding of the Camp David Accords as a result of researching with this article. We used excerpts from this website in our “Sworn Enemies” page of the website to illustrate the causes, significance, and results of the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, or the Six-Day War.

“Arab-Israeli War 1973.” Office of the Historian. United States Department of State, n.d. Web. 21 Jan. 2013. .

The Office of Historian provided a detailed analysis of the Yom Kippur War and effectively illustrated the surprise attack on Israel Moreover, we found this article useful because of the website’s emphasis on the Yom Kippur War’s instrumental role in changing the foreign policy outlook of the United States, Israel, and Egypt, ultimately leading to the Camp David Accords and diplomatic recognition of Israel by Egypt. We used excerpts from this website in our “Sworn Enemies” page of the website to illustrate the causes, significance, and results of the Arab-Israeli War of 1973, or as it is more commonly known, the Yom Kippur War.

Associated Press. “Carter Gives 3-Point Mideast Peace Plan.” The Spokesman-Review [Spokane] 17 Mar. 1977, sec. Google News. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .

The Spokesman-Review’s coverage of Carter’s historical call for a Palestinian homeland helped us establish the context of the Camp David Accords and elucidate Carter’s motivations and initial positions during the negotiations. Furthermore, the article helped us understand how Carter’s personal history influenced his views on the Middle Eastern peace process. Due to this, we excerpted portions of this article and placed it in our website to illustrate the influence of Carter’s history on his view of the Middle East and the Arab-Israeli conflict.

“Pope Paul, Sadat Hold Warm Talks at Vatican.” Eugene Register-Guard [Eugene] 8 Apr. 1976, sec. A: 5. Google News. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .

This article in the Eugene Register-Guard reports one of Sadat’s peace initiatives - meeting with the Pople in the Vatican to outline his plans for Middle Eastern peace. We were greatly aided by this source as it provided a contemporary perspective of Sadat’s actions to implement and achieve peace, and we integrated excerpts from this article into our website due to its contemporary perspective.

Beschloss, Michael, and Hugh Sidey. “James Carter.” The White House. N.p., 2009. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. .

This brief biography of Jimmy Carter on the White House website was also helpful in creating the map of Carter’s rise to the presidency on the Carter page of the website. We quoted a passage about his birth in Georgia and his governorship in the state.

Bregman, Ahron. E-mail interview. 4 May 2013.

Our interview with Ahron Bregman, a British-Israeli scholar and teaching fellow at King’s College, London, was useful in that it provided us with a modern Israeli perspective on the Camp David Accords. Bregman had served both in the Israeli army and as an assistant in the Knesset, and he offered us a knowledgeable perspective on the Knesset’s reaction to the Accords and how Israelis currently viewed the Accords. Bregman acknowledged that Camp David’s peace was a “cold” peace, but also commented on the strength of the peace which had been created. We placed a quote by Bregman under the Short-Term Impact tab and an entire transcript of the interview under the supplements page.

British Pathe. The Six-Day War, 1967. Youtube. Youtube, 22 Aug. 2011. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. .

The British Pathe used primary source newsreels and other primary source video footage in order to effectively portray the causes, events, and results of the Six-Day War. This video enhanced our understanding of the Six-Day War in the general context of all Arab-Israeli wars, and helped us to understand why Israel felt self-complacent and invincible before the Yom Kippur War and how this self-complacency and invincibility hindered an effective diplomatic solution to peace in the Middle East. We used this clip in the “Sworn Enemies” page of our website in order to provide an interactive multimedia experience on one of the many wars that Arab nations and Israel fought between Israel’s independence and the Camp David Accords.

“Camp David Day by Day.” Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2013.

This webpage accounted daily events at the Camp David Accords in great detail. It described personal interactions between the three leaders and the specific issues they wrestled with. It was crucial in creating our timeline in the “Ideas and Events” section of our website. We quoted many passages from the webpage, as it included many firsthand accounts of witnesses who were present at the Accords. It was a very detailed yet concise overview of what happened in thirteen days at Camp David in 1978.

Elzy, Martin I., ed. “The Camp David Accords After Twenty-Five Years: ‘Thirteen Days After Twenty-Five Years.’” The Camp David Accords After Twenty-Five Years: “Thirteen Days After Twenty-Five Years.” Ed. Jimmy Carter Library & Museum. Jimmy Carter Library & Museum, 2003. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. .

Originally written for the twentieth anniversary temporary exhibit on the Camp David Accords and created by the Carter Museum staff in 1998, this narrative on the Camp David Accords provided invaluable information and analysis into the day-by-day breakdown of the Camp David Accords. Additionally, the narrative’s extensive discussion on historical context enabled us to better understand the historical context and significance of the Camp David Accords. Due to the excellence of this resource, we quoted many excerpt from this narrative throughout our website.

Fallows, James. "The Passionless Presidency." The Atlantic May 1979: n. pag. Print.

This article by James Fallows examined America through the wider lens of Jimmy Carter's presidency. It argued that his presidency was lackluster, and explained the role of his personality and beliefs in his political decision making. The article noted that the way which Carter handled Camp David, one of Carter's few victories, was based on "the impression he would create," rather than his predecessor Johnson's tactic of exploiting "intimate knowledge of the other party, which told him how to flatter, threaten, and cajole." Such knowledge was instrumental in discerning why Carter's predecessors may have not pursued a peace treaty, as well as useful in our characterization of Carter.

Farrell, William E. “Sadat Assassinated At Army Parade as Men Amid Ranks Fire Into Stands; Vice President Affirms ‘All Treaties.’” New York Times [New York] 7 Oct. 1981, Late City ed., sec. A: 1. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .

The New York Times’ breaking front page report on Sadat’s assassination gave us a contemporary perspective of this event and the implications of Sadat’s death into the Middle Eastern peace process tentatively established by the Camp David Accords. The article provides an in-depth discussion of the role of the Camp David Accords in the event, and the uncertain future of Middle Eastern peace as a result of the assassination. We used this resource in order to familiarize ourselves with Sadat’s assassination and to research more into the after effects of the Camp David Accords.

Feron, James. “Menachem Begin, Guerrilla Leader Who Became Peacemaker.” New York Times [New York] 10 Mar. 1992: n. pag. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. .

Menachem Begin’s obituary in the New York Times illustrated a detailed portrait of a man who transformed from a guerrilla militant fighting against Palestinian and Arab militants in the British Mandate of Palestine to an accomplished statesman who successfully negotiated peace with Sadat during the Camp David Accords in 1978. Feron’s analysis of both the high points and low points of Begin’s career as a politician gave us significant understanding of how Begin’s past shaped his position and strategy during the Camp David Accords. We quoted from this article a few times in our website because of its excellent and accurate historical portrayal of Begin.

Gelvin, James. The Modern Middle East: A History. N.p.: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.

The book provided a historically comprehensive view of the development of international relationships in the Middle East, including the beginning of mutual hostility between Israel and other Arab nations. It was useful in setting up our “Historical Context” pages and the background for the history between the three nations.

Gwertzman, Bernard. “Egypt and Israel Sign Formal Treaty, Ending a State of War After 30 Years; Sadat and Begin Praise Carter’s Role.” New York Times [New York] 27 Mar. 1979, Late City ed.: A1+. Print.

The New York Times articles provided a comprehensive overview of the Arab-Israeli conflict up to the Camp David Accords, with detailed explanations of previous wars (such as the Yom Kippur War and the Suez Canal Crisis). Gwertzman’s account of the Camp David Accords furthered our understanding of this event and enhanced the significance of the event during the contemporary era. The article furthermore contained numerous primary sources, such as the text of the Camp David Framework Accord as well as other relevant documents related to the Arab-Israeli conflict.

Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Israel’s Story in Maps. Map. Jerusalem: Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2008. Israel’s Story in Maps. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Israel’s Story in Maps. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .

During our research, we came upon this extensive collection of maps that visually illustrated Israel’s history and constantly shifting borders. After encountering mainly textual sources during the research process, these maps offered a new visual perspective to the historical context of the Camp David Accords. We used this resource in order to understand how numerous Arab-Israeli wars shifted borders and how the Camp David Accords stabilized borders and led to peace.



Jimmy Carter: ‘No Downside’ to Palestinian Statehood. By NPR Staff. National Public Radio. N.p., 18 Sept. 2011. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .

This segment on the NPR was on the NPR website to listen to, and the transcript of the segment on the webpage as well. It included a quote of Jimmy Carter supporting the UN Security Council vote for Palestinian statehood in 2011. It further illustrated Carter’s interest in finding solutions for peace in the Middle East.

Knell, Yolande. “Egypt-Israel ‘cold peace’ suffers a further chill.” BBC News 10 Sept. 2011: BBC. Web. 10 Apr. 2013. .

This article was published in 2011 by BBC News. It viewed the Egypt-Israeli relationship in light of the recent “departure of Israel’s ambassador from Egypt after protesters tried to break into the embassy,” giving a short history of events transpiring after the Camp David Accords, including information on how Sadat’s successor, Hosni Mubarak, “safeguard[ed] the peace treaty,” making him a western ally and securing western aid for Egypt. The article was invaluable in forming conclusions about the world’s modern perspective of the Accords; it helped us conclude that they are still widely viewed as positive today. The article’s emphasis on the “coldness” of the Egypt-Israeli relationship, however, also shows that there is still much to be achieved, which we mentioned in our conclusion.

The Learning Network. “Nov. 29, 1947 / U.N. Partitions Palestine, Allowing for Creation of Israel.” The New York Times 29 Nov. 2011: n. pag. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .

The article was a summary of events that happened in the United Nations General Assembly on Nov. 29, 1947. It provided information on how Arab nations responded to the creation of Israel and gave us an idea of the hostility between Israel and Arab countries.

LeVine, Mark. Telephone interview. 16 Feb. 2013.

This interview with Mark Levine, who teaches at UCI, was extremely helpful in shaping multi-layered thoughts about the Camp David Accords. He made several historical connections to causes and results that we had not yet come across in our research. For example, he mentioned that Sadat was looking for a way to align Egypt with the US rather than the Soviet Union, and he made interesting points about how the US was eager to find a new alliance in the Middle East after the Shah regime fell in Iran. He also talked about the success and failures of the Camp David Accords and what they meant for future peace efforts. We quoted this interview several times throughout the website and included a complete transcript of the interview on the Supplements page.

Litvak, Meir. E-mail interview. 21 Feb. 2013.

Our interview with Meir Litvak, a professor at Tel Aviv University, was useful in that it offered another long-term perspective on the Camp David Accords, specifically that of an educated Israeli scholar. Litvak commented widely on the Oslo Accords, which stemmed directly from the Camp David Accords; for example, he thought that “to a large extent, the [Oslo] Accords failed,” and introduced us to some more negative consequences of the Accords, though he also acknowledged that the Accords were an “important landmark... in Israeli-Palestinian relations.” We placed an entire transcript of the interview under the supplements page.

Menachem Begin Heritage Institute. Menachem Begin Making Peace. Youtube. Youtube, 8 Mar. 2009. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. .

Menachem Begin Heritage Institute’s video clip on its namesake was an excellent source on Begin’s accomplishments regarding the establishment of a peace process in the Middle East between Israel and its neighboring Arab countries. The video provided a thorough overview of the prelude to the Camp David Accords, which included Begin’s legislative victory resulting in a Likud-led government and Sadat’s overtures for peace towards Israel. Additionally, the video emphasized the significance of the Camp David Accords and highlighted its accomplishments of establishing long-term diplomacy and peace in the region. We used excerpts from this clip and posted it in our home page due to its comprehensive portrayal of the Camp David Accords.

Newman, John J., and John M. Schmalbach. “Limits of a Superpower.” United States History. 2nd ed. New York: AMSCO School Publications, 2010. 619-41. Print.

Newman’s United States History gave an excellent account of Jimmy Carter’s background and rise to the presidency. Not only did this source give a useful account of the Camp David Accords, it also told of many of Carter’s other successes and failures, putting the Camp David Accords in the greater context of Carter’s presidential administration and final legacy.

Oakman, Jonathan. The Camp David Accords: A Case Study on International Negotiation. Princeton: Princeton University, 2002. Print.

Oakman’s extensively researched report on the Camp David Accords offered a unique perspective on the strategy behind Begin, Carter, and Sadat during the Camp David Accords, which we found to be immensely helpful in understanding how the negotiations at Camp David defied odds to ultimately succeed. Oakman provided detailed analysis of each of the initial positions and flexibility of the three men, and how early moves during the negotiation process defined much of the later results of the Accords. We quoted a handful of excerpts from this report in order to more effectively illustrate the negotiations process during the Camp David Accords.

“Peace Talks at Camp David, September 19778.” PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2013. .

The PBS webpage, which serves an introduction to the American Experience documentary on Jimmy Carter, included a quote of Carter talking to Sadat and convincing him to stay at Camp David. Carter’s showdown with Sadat and Sadat’s agreement to stay were important milestones in the negotiations, so we used the quote in our timeline in the “Ideas and Events” section.

“Pope Paul, Sadat Hold Warm Talks at Vatican.” Eugene Register-Guard 8 Apr. 1976: 5A. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. .

The article offered a perspective of a primary source on Sadat’s visit to the Vatican. As Sadat succeeded in acquiring the Pope’s support for a Middle East peace initiative, the article was useful in gathering the scale of the international importance of his visit. We used an image of the article headline in the Sadat website page.

Quandt, William B. Camp David: Peacemaking and Politics. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1986. Print.

We found this book around the beginning of our research, and it was very helpful in shaping an opinion about the Accords and the extent to which they were a turning point in history. The book talked about how the Accords could be considered to be a turning point, despite their failure to establish lasting peace in the Middle East. It explained the treaty’s limits and failures but also explained its effect on inter-Arab relations.

Rogan, Eugene. The Arabs: A History. Philadelphia: Basic Books, 2009. Print.

Rogan’s comprehensive overview of Middle Eastern history provided us with an invaluable historical context behind the Camp David Accords all the way back to the Ottoman Empire of the 209th century, where tensions between Palestinians and the Jews originated. Rogan also provided great context to the Cold War motives behind Begin, Sadat, and Carter as they were negotiating Middle Eastern peace at Camp David.

Rutherford, Bruce. E-mail interview. 19 Feb. 2013.

The email interview with Bruce Rutherford, who specializes in Egypt and the Middle East, helped us understand the extent of the success and failure of the Camp David Accords. He also offered a different perspective on the Accords and explained how one may reject the notion of the Camp David Accords being a turning point in history. The interview helped us take a balanced approach to the Accords.



Sadat Assassination. Youtube. Youtube, 14 Oct. 2007. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .

This video was a clip from the CBC Newsworld documentary “Death of a Pharaoh - Anwar al Sadat and the Holy Warriors”. The clip showed the firsthand witness of the assassination of Sadat during the military parade and was a direct display of the consequences Sadat bore as a result of the Camp David Accords. This clip is up for viewing on our “Short-term Impact” page.

“Sadat’s Visit to Israel, 1977.” Palestine Facts. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .

This webpage included an explanation of Sadat’s motives behind visiting Jerusalem. It was very useful in creating our page on Sadat in the “People” section.

“Short History - Carter’s Foreign Policy.” Office of the Historian. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. .

This website was a very reliable and balanced view of Carter’s foreign policies. It explained Carter’s philosophy and belief in American’s duty to serve as a moral leader in international politics, and it helped explain his motives behind Camp David Accords. The webpage was instrumental in creating the page on Carter in the “People” section.

“Suez Crisis, 1956.” Office of the Historian. United States Department of State, n.d. Web. 21 Jan. 2013. .

We found this web article on the Suez Crisis very useful during the research of the historical context of the Camp David Accords as it analyzed the background and consequences of the military conflict between israel, Egypt, France, and the United Kingdom. The website greatly aided to our general understanding of the Arab-Israeli conflict before diplomatic negotiations between Israel and Arab nations were established through the Camp David Accords. We used excerpts from this website in our “Sworn Enemies” page of the website to illustrate the causes and significance of the Suez Crisis, or Suez War of 1956.



Troubled Israel. 18 May 1981. Image. TIME Magazine Cover.

This image of TIME Magazine’s Cover in 1981 illustrated Begin’s troubles as a politician after the Camp David Accords and his alienation from the international community, due to his reckless foreign policies borne from his success at the Accords. The title of the cover, which was “Troubled Israel” demonstrated the point perfectly. We featured this image on the “Short-Term Impact” page.

“United States Presidential Election of 1976.” Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Encyclopedia Britannica, 24 Nov. 2009. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. .

This online encyclopedia entry was instrumental in gathering information for the map briefly summarizing Carter’s rise to the presidency on our website’s page on Carter. In fact, we quoted several passages from the entry in the map, including specific statistics about the election results. It also helped analyze the reasons behind his victory, which were also related to his motivation in organizing the Camp David Accords.



Wanis-St. John, Anthony. Personal interview. 5 Mar. 2013.

Our interview with Anthony Wanis-St. John, a professor at American University specializing in international peace processes and negotiation, was extremely useful in shaping more nuanced and critical perspectives on the Camp David Accords. Professor Wanis-St. John gave us a greater background on the Accords and their origins, and an alternate view of their success and subsequent effect on history. He also introduced us to the concept of a bilateral and comprehensive peace process, of which the Accords were the former, and offered explanations for the benefits and shortcomings of the accords being a bilateral process. We recorded a short video clip of the interview to place on the website and included a complete transcript of the interview on the supplements page.


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