2. First nations to explore



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Colonial America Period Overview 1607-1763

1. European Discovery of the Western Hemisphere due to searching a Water route to the trade of Asia

2. First nations to explore -

A) Portugal to the East

B) Spain to the West - Columbus

3. Mercantilism - political economy

A) keep national wealth at home

B) maintain a favorable trade balance

C) Tariffs

D) promote home monopolies

E) more the influence of the Merchant class than a theory

F) establishing colonies for resources and markets

4. Spanish and French governments directly finance and administered their colonies

5. English left it to private investments proprietors and corporations. Resulted in independent character and culture for British colonies (freedom vs. neglect)

6. Colony owners selected governors but salaries came from local colonial legislatures

Geographic breakdown

7. New England Colonies - Mass. Conn. RI, NH, Maine. All populations spread from Massachusetts.

Original residents to Mass. came for religious mission more that money (but

made more money than the Chesapeake colonies)

Followers of Jean Calvin - Covenant theology, Separatists - 1620 Plymouth Puritans 1630 Massachusetts Bay - John Winthrop "City upon a hill"

Blue laws, protestant work ethic . Dairy farming, lumber, and shipping

Dissenters Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson banished to Rhode Island



8. Middle Colonies - Penn. NY NJ Del.

Bread basket region, grain, corn. wheat, millet, barley Also fur trade, shipping and trading (NY City)

Most cosmopolitan populations , Dutch in NY, Germans in Penn. Quakers first abolitionist in Penn.

Penn separated from MD by Mason Dixon Line (Del. same governor as Penn, bought by Penn)

New York moved from Dutch to English control 1664 - Duke of York

9. Southern Colonies - MD VA SC NC Georgia (del?)

1607 Jamestown, Virginia, Virginia joint stock co. John Smith, Pocahontas, John Rolfe

1632 Maryland Catholic refuge, Calvert family (Lords Baltimore) - Puritan migration 1640’s - 1649 Act of Toleration (overthrown 1654)

Carolinas 1663 (North Carolina Separate in 1729) Huegonots 1680’s

Land owning in the North based on townships, in the South sparse

yeoman farming or plantations

Indentured servants later slave labor

Tobacco (later cotton) rice indigo -SC naval stores - NC

10. Much greater social equality in the North than South

11. Voting in all colonies based on property ownership and religious

Affiliation (lasted in some colonies/states till 1830’s , Va. as early 1786)

12. Navigation Acts of 1660 - all trade between colonies and Europe must be on English ships with 3/4 English or American crews. Enumerated items (restricted to England) tobacco fur lumber indigo

13. Navigation Act of 1663- imports to the colonies pass through Eng. pay duties,

rebates


14. Navigation Act of: 1673- required bonds to prevent violating.
15. flagrant violations, smuggling privateering, bribes
16.. Dominion of New England 1685 created to enforce navigation laws
17. Edmond Andros NY Governor levied taxes w/out leg. promoted Anglican Church

establishment, enforced navigation acts, Colonial Charters removed


18. Overthrown 1689 with revelation of the Glorious Revolution.
19. James II 1685-88 followed by William & Mary, English Bill of Rights 1689, Act of

'Toleration


20. J. Locke “Two treatises on Govt.“ 1690, Right of Revolution
21. Navigation Act of 1690- Col Gov oaths, Board of Trade & Plant. Customs agents

use writs of Assistance.


22. Molasses Act .1733, 6 pence per barrel of non-English Molasses
23. R. Walpole 1725 Salutary Neglect - two reasons (Govt disarray & wars with France)
25. John Peter Zenger 1735, libel case, New York (influence on Am. Revolution)
Enlightenment, Age of Reason
26. Copernicus “On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres“ led to challenge of medieval

traditions and church dogma, first in science later political authority


Natural laws. rationalism, Belief in progress, inner goodness and potential of

Humanity, opposite of Calvinistic view, liberal view of human rights


27. J.J. Rousseau, Social Contract. John Locke “Two Treatises on Government” 1690

(following Glorious Revolution 1688)


28. Adam Smith Wealth of Nations. 1776, French Physiocrats, economic school
Imperial Wars England vs. France lasts from 1689-1763, four wars
29. King Williams War 1689-97 (War of the League of Augsburg) 1697 Treaty of

Ryswick, antebellum status quo treaty –American reactions


30. Queen Anne's War 1702-1713 (War of Spanish Succession) 1713 Treaty of Utrect

Gibraltar Acadia-Nova Scotia . Evangiline poem - Longfellow.


31. King George's War 1744-1748 (War of Austrian Succession) Aix-La-Chapelle

Treaty
32. 1749 Ohio Co. royal grant to settle west of Ohio River


33. French line of Forts, Duquesne (Ft Pitt- Pittsburgh)
34. Washington, 1754 Battle of Great Meadows
35. Albany Congress- Iroquois, B. Franklin plan of union rejected
36. Wm Braddock 1755 Ft. Duquesne
37. French and Indian War, Seven Years War.
38. Wm Pitt 1757, Wolf, Montcalm 1759 Plains of Abraham, Quebec, 1760 fall of

Montreal and Canada


39. Treaty of Paris 1763, French losses in North America
40. conflicting attitudes of the British & Americans over participation and war debt

and postwar administrative policies





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