2. 0 Нормальна анатомія

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A patient with infectious mononucleosis had been taking glucocorticoids for two weeks. He

was brought into remission, but he fell ill with acute attack of chronic tonsillitis. What action of

glucocorticoids caused this complication?

A Immunosuppressive

B Anti-inflammatory

C Antishock

D Antiallergic

E Antitoxic


A 45-year-old man with domestic apper arm injuiry came to the trauma unit. The objective

data are: there are no extension, adduction or pronation functions of the arm. What muscle

damage caused this condition?

A Teres major

B Subscapular

C Teres minor

D Subspinous

E Supraspinous


A man with internal abdominal right side injury and suspicion of liver rupture was admitted to

the traumatological department. In what peritonial structure will blood accumulate?

A Excavatio rectovesicalis

B Bursa omentalis

C Recessus intersigmoideus

D Fossa ischio-analis

E Recessus duodenalis inferior


A histological spacemen presents parenchymal organ, which has cortex and medulla. Cortex

consists of epitheliocytes bars with blood capillaries between them; the bars form three

zones. Medulla consists of chromaffinocytes and venous sinusoids. Which organ has these

morphological features?

A Adrenal gland

B Kidney

C Lymph node

D Thymus

E Thyroid


After trauma a 44-year-old patient had a rupture of left palm muscle tendons and of the

surface of blood vessels. After operation and removal of the most part of the necrotically

changed muscle tissue the bloodstream was normalized. What vessels have helped with

restoration of bloodstream?

A Arcus palmaris profundus

B Arcus palmaris superficialis

C Aa. digitales palmares communes

D Aa. metacarpeae palmares

E Aa. perforantes


A 45-year-old man applied to the trauma unit because of domestic shoulder trauma.

Objectively: flexibility, reduction and pronation functions of the shoulder are absent. What

muscle was injured?

A Teres major muscle

B Subscapular muscle

C Teres minor muscle

D Infraspinous muscle

E Supraspinous muscle


Ovarian tumour was diagnozed in the woman. Surgery was indicated. What ligament should

be cut by the surgeon to disconnect the ovary and the uterus?

A The ovarial ligament

B Broad ligament of uterus

C Lateral umbilical ligament

D Suspensory ligament of ovary

E Round ligament of uterus


An old woman was hospitalized with acute pain, edema in the right hip joint; the movements

in the joint are limited. Which bone or part of it was broken?

A The neck of the thigh

B The body of the thigh bone

C Condyle of the thigh

D Pubic bone

E Ischial bone


A 53-year-old female patient was diagnosed with liver rupture resulting from a blunt

abdominal injury. The escaped blood will be assembled in the following anatomic formation:

A Rectouterine pouch

B Vesicouterine pouch

C Right mesenteric sinus

D Omental bursa

E Left mesenteric sinus


A patient complains about edemata of legs, skin cyanosis, small ulcers on one side of the

lateral condyle. Examination revealed a swelling, enlarged veins, formation of nodes. The

pathological process has started in the following vein:

A V. saphena parva

B V. saphena magna

C V. femoralis

D V. profunda femoris

E V. iliaca externa


A 70 year old female patient was diagnosed with fracture of left femoral neck accompanied by

disruption of ligament of head of femur. The branch of the following artery is damaged:

A Obturator

B Femoral

C External iliac

D Inferior gluteal

E Internal pudendal


A woman underwent an operation on account of extrauterine (tubal) pregnancy. In course of

the operation the surgeon should ligate the branches of the following arteries:

A Uterine and ovarian

B Superior cystic and ovarian

C Inferior cystic and ovarian

D Uterine and superior cystic

E Uterine and inferior cystic


A 6 month old baby ill with bronchitis was taken for an X-ray of chest. Apart of changes

associated with bronchi the X-ray film showed a shadow of thymus gland. What might have

caused such changes?

A The above-mentioned condition is a normal variant for this age

B It's the effect of bronchitis

C It is caused by abnormal position

D It is caused by thymus inflammation

E It is caused by neoplastic process


A 7-year-old child can't abduct the shoulder, raise it to the horizontal level. He can raise the

hand to the face only with dorsal side with abduction of the shoulder (with help of

supraspinous muscle ) - "bugler" arm. Active function of what muscle is absent?

A Deltoid

B Infraspinous

C Pectoral major

D Teres minor

E Teres major


A 7-year-old girl has signs of anemia. Laboratory examination revealed pyruvate kinase

deficiency in erythrocytes. What process disturbance plays the main role in anemia


A Anaerobic glycolysis

B Oxidative phosphorylation

C Tissue respiration

D Peroxide decomposition

E Aminoacids desamination


A patient complained about being unable to adduct and abduct fingers in the

metacarpophalangeal articulations towards and away from the 3rd finger. Which muscles'

function is impaired?

A Interosseous muscles

B Lumbrical muscles

C Breviflexors of fingers

D Long flexors of fingers

E Extensors


A 45-year-old patient was admitted to the surgical department with complaints of abrupt sharp

pain in the epigastric region. After examination it was diagnosed: perforated ulcer of the

posterior wall of the stomach. Where did content of the stomach flow out while perforation?

A To the omental bursa

B To the liver bursa

C To the proventriculus sack

D To the left mesenteric sinus

E To the right mesenteric sinus


A 25-year-old patient complained of the decreased vision. Accommodation disorders, dilated

pupil, not reacting on the light were revealed on examination. Function of what muscles is


A Pupil narrowing muscle, ciliary

B Pupil dilating muscle, ciliary

C Inferior oblique muscle, ciliary

D Lateral rectus muscle, pupil narrowing

E Pupil narrowing and dilating muscle


Microspecimen of spinal cord contains a nucleus that should be analyzed. Its neurons form

motor endings in the skeletal muscles. What nucleus of spinal cord is meant?

A Proper nucleus of the anterior horn

B Thoracic nucleus

C Intermediate lateral nucleus

D Proper nucleus of the posterior horn

E Proper nucleus of gray substance


A man with cut wound of his right foot sole was admitted to the hospital ward. The patient has

limited elevation of the lateral foot edge. In course of wound management the injury of a

muscle tendon was revealed. What muscle is injured?

A Long peroneal

B Anterior tibial

C Long extensor muscle of toes

D Triceps muscle of crus

E Short peroneal


A 35 year old man with a trauma of his left hand was admitted to the traumatology

department. Objectively: cut wound of palmar surface of left hand; middle phalanxes of II–V

fingers don't bend. What muscles are damaged?

A Superficial finger flexor

B Profound finger flexor

C Lumbrical muscles

D Palmar interosseous muscles

E Dorsal interosseous muscles


A 38-year-old patient came to a traumatology centre and complained about an injury of his

right hand. Objectively: the patient has a cut wound in the region of the thenar eminence on

the right hand; distal phalanx of the I finger cannot be flexed. What muscle was injured?

A Long flexor muscle of thumb

B Short flexor muscle of thumb

C Short abductor muscle of thumb

D Opposer muscle of thumb

E Abductor muscle of thumb


A patient with neuritis of femoral nerve has disturbed flexion of thigh as well as disturbed crus

extension in the knee joint. What muscle's function is disturbed?

A Quadriceps muscle of thigh

B Biceps muscle of thigh

C Triceps muscle of thigh

D Semitendinous muscle

E Semimembranous muscle


In the specimen of one of the parts of respiratory system a tubular organ was found. It has low

epithelium, well developed muscular tunic, glands and cartilage are absent. Name this


A Minor bronchs

B Trachea

C Larynx

D Major bronchs

E Median bronchs


Where should the cathetor for evacuation of the lymph from the thoracic lymph duct be


A To the left venous corner

B To the right venous corner

C To the superior vena cava

D To the inferior vena cava

E To the left inguinal vein


A patient has difficulties with hand movement. Examination revealed inflammation of common

synovial sheath of flexor muscles. It is known from the patient's anamnesis that he got a stab

wound of finger a week ago. Which finger was most probably damaged?

A Digitus minimus

B Pollex

C Digitus medius

D Index

E Digitus anularis


An injured man has bleeding from branches of carotid artery. For a temporary arrest of

bleeding it is necessary to press the carotid artery to the tubercle of a cervical vertebra. Which

vertebra is it?







As a result of an accident a patient has intense painfullness and edema of the anterior crus

surface; dorsal flexion of foot is hindered. Function of which crus muscle is most likely to be


A M.tibialis anterior

B M.flexor digitorum longus

C M.flexor hallucis longus

D M.peroneus longus

E M.peroneus brevis


A 40-year-old patient complains of intensive heartbeats, sweating, nausea, visual

impairment, arm tremor, hypertension. From his anamnesis: 2 years ago he was diagnosed

with pheochromocytoma. Hyperproduction of what hormones causes the given pathology?

A Catecholamines

B Aldosterone

C Glucocorticoids


E Thyroidal hormones


A patient who suffers from cancer of back of tongue has an intense bleeding as a result of

affection of dorsal lingual artery by the tumour. What vessel should be ligated to stop


A Lingual artery

B Dorsal lingual artery

C Deep lingual artery

D Facial artery

E Ascending pharyngeal artery


A 58-year-old patient with acute cardiac insufficiency has decreased volume of daily urine -

oliguria. What is the mechanism of this phenomenon?

A Decreased glomerular filtration

B Decreased number of functioning glomerules

C Drop of oncotic blood pressure

D Rise of hydrostatic blood pressure in capillars

E Reduced permeamility of renal filter


An 18-year-old man was delivered to the hospital after a road accident. Examination at the

traumatological department revealed multiple injuries of soft tissues of face in the region of

the medial eye angle. The injuries caused massive haemorrhage. What arterial anastomosis

might have been damaged in this region?

A a. carotis externa et a. carotis interna

B a. carotis externa et a. subclavia

C a. carotis interna et a. subclavia

D a. subclavia et a. ophthalmica

E a. carotis interna et a. ophthalmica


After a 2 y.o. child has had flu, there appeared complaints about ear ache. A doctor revealed

hearing impairment and inflammation of the middle ear. How did the infection penetrate into

the middle ear?

A Through the auditory tube

B Through foramen jugularis

C Through canalis caroticus

D Through atrium mastoideum

E Through canalis nasolacrimalis


A surgeon has to find the common hepatic duct during the operative intervention on account of

concrements in the gall ducts. The common hepatic duct is located between the leaves of:

A Hepatoduodenal ligament

B Hepatogastric ligament

C Hepatorenal ligament

D Round ligament of liver

E Venous ligament


Cerebral trauma caused increase of ammonia formation. What aminoacid takes part in

removal of ammonia from cerebral tissue?

A Glutamic

B Tyrosine

C Valine

D Tryptophan

E Lisine


A 40-year-old woman was admitted to the infectious diseases department with high body

temperature. Objectively: marked meningeal symptoms. A spinal cord punction was made.

What anatomic formation was puncturated?

A Spatium subarachnoideum

B Spatium subdurale

C Spatium epidurale

D Cavum trigeminale

E Cisterna cerebellomedullaris posterior


After resection of the middle third of femoral artery obliterated by a thromb the lower extremity

is supplied with blood due to the surgical bypass. Name an artery that plays the main role in

reestablishment of blood flow:

A Deep femoral artery

B Superficial circumflex artery of hip bone

C Descending genicular artery

D Superficial epigastric artery

E Deep external pudendal artery


A patient's knee joint doesn't extend, there is no knee-jerk reflex, skin sensitivity of the anterior

femoral surface is disturbed. What nerve structures are damaged?

A Femoral nerve

B Superior gluteal nerve

C Big fibular nerve

D Obturator nerve

E Inferior gluteal nerve


The electronic microphoto of kidney fragment has exposed afferent glomerular arteriole,

which has giant cells under its endothelium, containing secretory granules. Name the type of

these cells:

A Juxtaglomerular

B Mesangial

C Smoothmuscular

D Juxtavascular

E Interstitial


A 50 y.o. patient was admitted to the hospital with complaints about pain behind his

breastbone, asphyxia during physical activity. Angiography revealed pathological changes in

the posterior interventricular branch of the right coronary artery. What heart parts are affected?

A Posterior wall of the right and left ventricles

B Left atrium

C Anterior wall of the right and left ventricles

D Right atrium

E Right atrioventricular valve


A patient was admitted to the surgical department with suspected inflammation of Meckel's

diverticulum. What part of bowels should be examined in order to discover the diverticulum in

course of an operation?

A Ileum

B Duodenum

C Jejunum

D Caecum

E Colon ascendens


Examination of a newborn boy's genitals revealed a cleft of urethra that opens on the inferior

surface of his penis. What developmental anomaly is meant?

A Hypospadia

B Hermaphroditism

C Epispadia

D Monorchism

E Cryptorchism


A patient complains about impaired evacuatory function of stomach (long-term retention of

food in stomach). Examination revealed a tumour of initial part of duodenum. Specify

localization of the tumour:

A Pars superior

B Pars inferior

C Pars descendens

D Pars ascendens

E Flexura duodeni inferior


A man after 1,5 litre blood loss has suddenly reduced diuresis. The increased secretion of

what hormone caused such diuresis alteration?

A Vasopressin

B Corticotropin

C Natriuretic

D Cortisol

E Parathormone


A young man consulted a doctor about disturbed urination. Examination of his external

genitals revealed that urethra is split on top and urine runs out of this opening. What anomaly

of external genitals development is the case?

A Epispadia

B Phimosis

C Hermaphroditism

D Paraphimosis

E Hypospadia


A 35 year old patient applied to a doctor with complaints about having intense rhinitis and

loss of sense of smell for a week. Objectively: nasal cavity contains a lot of mucus that covers

mucous membrane and blocks olfactory receptors. In what part of nasal cavity are these

receptors situated?

A Superior nasal turbinate

B Median nasal turbinate

C Inferior nasal turbinate

D Common nasal meatus

E Vestibule of nose


Inflammatory process of modified subserous layer around cervix of the uterus caused an

intensive pain syndrome. In what region of genitals does the pathological process take


A Parametrium

B Mesometrium

C Myometrium

D Endometrium

E Perimetrium


In course of an operation surgeon removed a part of a lung that was ventilated by a tertiary

bronchus accompanied by branches of pulmonary artery and other vessels. What part of a

lung was removed?

A Bronchopulmonary segment

B Middle lobe

C Inferior lobe

D Superior lobe

E Pulmonary lobule
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