| 2.0 Нормальна анатомія
A 10-year-old child complains of weakness, nausea, irritability. Helminthes of while color and
5-10 mm long were found on the underwear. On microscopy of the scrape from the perianal
folds achromic ovums of unsymmetrical form were revealed. Indicate what helminth is
parasiting on the child?
A Enterobins vermicularis
B Ancylostoma duodenalis
E Ascaris lumbricoides
A patient has been brought to the hospital with the complaints of headache, pain in left
hypochondrium. He has been ill for 1,5 weeks. The sudden illness began with the increase of
body temperature up to 39,9oC. In 3 hours the temperature decreased and hydropoiesis
began. The attacks repeat rhythmically in 48 hours. The patient had visited one an African
country. The doctors have suspected malaria. What method of laboratory diagnostics is
necessary to use?
A Blood examination
B Immunological tests
C Stool examination
D Examination of vaginal and urethral discharge
E Urine examination
Slime, blood and protozoa 30-200 microns of length have been revealed in a man's feces.
The body is covered with cilias and has correct oval form with a little bit narrowed forward and
wide round shaped back end. On the forward end a mouth is visible. In cytoplasm there are
two nucleuses and two short vacuoles. For whom are the described attributes typical?
C Dysenteric amoeba
E Intestinal amoeba
A patient in three weeks after acute myocardial infarction has pain in the heart and joints and
pneumonia. What is the main mechanism of development of post-infarction Dressler’s
A Autoimmune inflammation
B Ischemia of myocardium
C Resorption of enzymes from necrotized area of myocardium
D Secondary infection
E Vessels ' thrombosis
During the fetal period of the development in the vascular system of the fetus large arterial
(Botallo's) duct is functioning which converts into lig. arteriosum after birth. What anatomical
formations does this duct connect between each other?
A Pulmonary trunk and aorta
B Right and left auricle
C Aorta and inferior vena cava
D Pulmonary trunk and superior vena cava
E Aorta and superior vena cava
Young man felt sharp pain in the back during active tightening on the horizontal bar.
Objectively: pain while moving of upper extremity, limited pronation and adduction functions.
Sprain of what muscle is presented?
A М. latissimus dorsi
B М. levator scapulae
C М. romboideus major
D М. trapezius
E М. subscapularis
Children often have heavy nasal breathing resulting from excessive development of lymphoid
tissue of pharyngeal mucous membrane. What tonsils growth may cause this effect?
A Tonsilla pharyngea
B Tonsilla palatina
C Tonsilla lingualis
D Tonsilla tubaria
E All above mentioned tonsils
In course of laparotomy a surgeon revealed gangrenous lesion of descending colon. It was
caused by thrombosis of the following artery:
A Sinister colic
B Median colic
C Dexter colic
E Superior mesenteric artery
Three separate bones connected with cartilage in the area of pelvis cavity are noticed on the
X-ray of the pelvis. What are these bones?
A Iliac, pubic, sciatic
B Pubic, sciatic, femoral
C Sciatic, femoral, sacral
D Iliac, sacral, coccyx
E Sacral, pubic, coccyx
A 60-year-old patient has reduced perception of high-frequency sounds. What structures'
disorder of auditory analizer caused these changes?
A Main membrane of cochlea near the oval window
B Main membrane of cochlea near helicotrema
C Eustachian tube
D Muscles of middle ear
E Tympanic membrane
The alveolar ventilation of the patient is 5 L/min, the breath frequency is 10 per/min, and the
tidal volume is 700 ml. What is the patient's dead space ventilation?
A 2,0 L/min
B 0,7 L/min
C 1,0 L/min
D 4,3 L/min
During investigation of patient, it was found formation in the white substance of cerebral
hemispheres with location in the knee and frontal part of posterior crus of internal capsule.
Fibres of what conductive tract of the brain will be disrupted?
A Tr. pyramidalis
B Tr. frontothalamicus
C Тr. thalamocorticalis
D Tr. frontopontinus
E Tr. parietooccipitopontinus
Only one factor can influence the charge of amino acid radicals in the active centre of enzyme.
Name this factor:
A pH medium
D The presence of a competitive inhibitor
E The surplus of a product
Succinate dehydrogenase catalyses the dehydrogenation of succinate. Malonic acid
HOOC-CH2-COOH is used to interrupt the action of this enzyme. Choose the inhibition
D Limited proteolysis
The gluconeogenesis is activated in the liver after intensive physical trainings .What
substance is utilized in gluconeogenesis first of all in this case:
A patient with a stab wound of the anterior stomach wall is in surgical care. What formation of
abdominal cavity did the stomach contents get into?
A Antegastrial bursa
B Omental bursa
C Hepatic bursa
D Left mesenteric sinus
E Right mesenteric sinus
A patient had been taking glucocorticoids for a long time. When the preparation was
withdrawn he developed the symptoms of disease aggravation, decreased blood pressure
and weakness. What is the reason of this condition?
A Appearance of adrenal insufficiency
B Hyperproduction of ACTH
A patient has tissue ischemia below the knee joint accompanied with intermittent
claudication. What artery occlusion should be suspected?
A Popliteal artery
B Peroneal artery
C Posterior tibial artery
D Anterior tibial artery
E Proximal part of femoral artery
A patient, who suffers from congenital erythropoietic porphyria, has skin photosensitivity. The
accumulation of what compound in the skin can cause it?
A Uroporphyrinogen 1
C Uroporphyrinogen 2
D Coproporphyrinogen 3
A patient has a malignisation of thoracic part of esophagus. What lymphatic nodes are
regional for this organ?
A Anulus lymphaticus cardiae
B Nodi lymphatici paratrachealis
C Nodi lymphatici prevertebralis
D Nodi lymphatici pericardiales laterales
E Nodi lymphatici mediastinales posteriores
The patient has come to the hospital from the smelting workshop in the condition of
hyperthermia. What is the direct cause of loss of consciousness at the heat stroke?
A Decreased brain blood supply
B Arterial pressure drop
C Increased water loss through sweating
D Decrease of heart output
E Dilatation of peripheral vessels
A patient's blood was analyzed and the decreased erythrocyte’s sedimentation rate (ESR)
was discovered. What disease from the listed below is accompanied with decreased ESR?
D Vitamin B deficiency
E Myocardial infarction
A 55-year-old patien was hospitalized in result of the trauma of the medial group of femoral
muscles. What kind of movements is the patient unable to do?
A Adduction of femur
B Abduction of femur
C Flexion of femur
D Extension of femur
E Suppination of femur
A mother of a newborn complains of her baby's constant belching with undigested milk.
Which developmental anomaly is it an evidence of?
A Esophageal atresia
B Labium leporium
C Faux lupinum
D Anal atresia
E Esophageal fistula
During the endoscopy the inflammation of a major papilla of the duodenum and the
disturbances of bile secretion were found. In which part of duodenum were the problems
A Descendent part
B Ascendant part
D Upper horizontal part
E Lower horizontal part
A 18-year-old patient came to the out-patient department with the complaints of bleeding
trauma in the vestibule of his nose. On examination: the mechanical injure of the mucous
layer of the vestibule without continuation into nasal cavity proper. What is the boundary
between the vestibule and nasal cavity proper?
A Nasal limen
B Nasal roller
C Nasal septa
A 32-year-old patient has been diagnosed with bartholinitis (inflammation of Bartholin's
glands ). In what part of the female urogenital system are the Bartholin's glands located?
A The labia major
B The labia minor
C The clitoris
D The vagina
E The uterus
A 50 year-old patient had hemorrhage of the brain and was taken to the hospital. The place of
hemorrhage was revealed on the lateral hemispheres surfaces during the medical
examination. What artety was injured ?
A The middle cerebral artery
B The anterior cerebral artery
C The posterior cerebral artery
D The anterior communicating artery
E The posterior communicating artery
A 30-year-old patient was hospitalized due to bleeding of the facial artery . What place on the
face has to be pressed to stop bleeding?
A The mandible’s edge
B The mental process
C The mandible’s branch
D The nose’s back
E The molar bone
A 19 year-old patient was diagnosed with appendicitis and was hospitalized. The surgical
operation on ablating appendix vermiformis is to be performed. What artery must be fixed to
stop bleeding during the surgical operation?
A The ileocolic artery
B The colica dextra
C The colica media
D The colica sinistra
E The iliac
A 45-year-old man fell on the right knee and felt the acute pain in the joint. On examination:
severe edema on the anterior surface of the knee joint. Crunching sounds are heard while
moving the joint. Which bone is destroyed?
B Neck of the thigh bone
C Left epicondyle of the thigh
D Right epicondyle of the thigh
E Head of the thigh bone
During the operation on the hip joint of a 5-year-old child her ligament was damaged which
caused bleeding.What ligament was damaged?
A The head of the thigh
B Perpendicular of the acetabule
A 6-year-old child fell on the cutting object and traumatized soft tissues between tibia and
fibula . What kind of bone connection was injured?
Usually the intravenous injection is done into median cubital vein because it is slightly
movable due to fixation by the soft tissues. What does it fix in the cubital fossa?
A Aponeurosis of biceps muscle
B Tendon of the triceps muscle
C Brachial muscle
D Brachioradial muscle
E Anconeus muscle
Victim has elbow joint trauma with avulsion of medial epicondyle of humerus. What nerve can
be damaged in this trauma?
C Musculocutaneous nerve
D Cardiac cutaneous nerve
E Medial cutaneous nerve of forearm
A 54-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with complaints of pain in the right subcostal
region, vomiting with blood. Objectively: enlarged liver, varicose veins in the stomach and
esophagus. Disfunction of what vessel is likely to be?
A Vena porta
B Aorta abdominalis
C Vena hepatica
D Vena cava superior
E Vena cava inferior
Examination of a 2-year-old child revealed physical developmental lag, the child often has
pneumonias. The child was diagnosed with nonclosure of ductus arteriosus.
Haemodynamics disorder was caused by the intercommunication of the following vessels:
A Aorta and pulmonary trunk
B Pulmonary trunk and pulmonary veins
C Superior cava and aorta
D Superior cava and pulmonary trunk
E Aorta and pulmonary veins
A 5-year-old child was admitted to the otorhinolaryngological department with diagnosis -
suppurative inflammation of the middle ear. Disease started from the inflammation of the
nasopharynx. Through the what canal of the temporal bone did the infection get into the
A Musculortubal canal
B Tympanic Canaliculus tympanicus
C Carotid canal
D Canaliculus chordal tympani
E Canaliculi caroticotympanici
Inflammation of the tympanic cavity (purulent otitis media) was complicated by inflammation
of mammillary process sockets. What wall of tympanic cavity did the pus penetrate into the
A 19-year-old female suffers from tachycardia in rest condition, weight loss, excessive
sweating, exophtalmos and irritability. What hormone would you expect to find elevated in her
A 60-year-old patient was diagnosed with hypothalamic lateral nuclei stroke. What changes in
patient’s behavior may be expected?
A The rejection of food
B Aggressive behaviour
E Unsatisfied hunger
The process of heart transplantation determined the viability of myocardial cells. The
determination of what myocardium parameter is the most important?
A Rest potential of cardiomyocytes
B Heart temperature
C Concentration of oxygen in heart vessels
D Concentration of calcium-ions in myofibrils
E Concentration of Ca-ions in heart vessels
It is necessary to take the cerebrospinal fluid from a patient with suspected inflammation of
brain tunics. Diagnostic puncture was performed between the arches of the lumbar vertebras.
During the puncture the needle went through the following ligament:
A Yellow (flaval)
C Anterior longitudinal
D Posterior longitudinal
Nowadays about 50 minor bases have been found in the t-RNA structure besides the main
four nitrogenous bases. Choose the minor nitrogenous base:
Obturative jaundice developed in a 60-year-old patient because of malignant tumour of the
big papillary of the duodenal. Lumen of what anatomical structure is squeezed with tumour?
A Hepatopancreatic ampulla
B Cystic duct
C Common hepatic duct
D Right hepatic duct
E Left hepatic duct
The patient with thymoma (thymus gland tumour) has cyanosis, extention of subcutaneous
venous net and edema of the soft tissues of face, neck, upper part of the trunk and upper
extremities. What venous trunk is pressed with tumour?
A Superior vena cava
B External jugular vein
C Clavicular vein
D Internal jugular vein
E Frontal jugular vein
A patient operated on complicated appendicitis has the following changes of blood count:
erythrocytes - 4,0*1012/l, Нb - 120 g/l, color index - 0,9, leukocytes – 18*109/l,
basophils - 0, eosinophils - 0, myelocytes - 0, juvenile - 0, stab neutrophils - 20,
segmentonuclear neutrophils - 53, lymphocytes - 21, monocytes - 5. How is such nuclear
shift of leukocytic formula called?
A Degenerative left shift
B Right shift
C Regenerative left shift
Patient complains of frequent and difficult urination. Imperfection of what formation can cause
C Bulb-uretic glands
D Testicle adnexa
E Sperm bubbles
Child inspired button. Where is it likely to be?
A In the right main bronchus
B In the left main bronchus
C In the trachea
D In the larynx
E In the gullet
Vegetative abnormalities in the sleep, heat regulation, all kinds of metabolism, diabetes
insipidus are developing in the patient due to grouth of the tumour in the III ventricle of brain.
Irritation of the nucleus of what part of the brain can cause this symptoms?
B Cerebral peduncles (cruces cerebri)
C Mesencephalic tegmentum
D Pons cerebelli