19th Century Abolitionist Movement Historical Context and background



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Kristen Borges

Johann Knets

Hamilton-Wenham Regional High School
19th Century Abolitionist Movement
Historical Context and background
The topic of our unit is the leadership and strategies of the Abolitionist Movement. This eight day series of lesson plans fits within the scope of a larger study of Pre-Civil War Reform. In order to understand the historical context of this unit, students previously studied the global colonial economy and its early connections to the institution of slavery. In addition, students also have the historical context of both the Enlightenment and the American Revolution time periods. Immediate context for this unit includes background on the causes of Pre-Civil War Reform movements, the role of the Second Great Awakening and the specific categories of reform (Moral, Social, and Radical).

One of the central ideas of our study of the Abolitionist Movement is that the Northern American economy was heavily intertwined with the institution of slavery. This idea will be stressed early in our unit and students will be able to make connections to prior information studied regarding the global colonial economy. Earlier in their study, students will have learned about the Massachusetts Cod industry and its connection to the institution of slavery. In addition, students will have learned about other commodities that were traded within North America, including rum, which was also an integral part of the global slave trade.

Another area of historical context that students will have prior to this unit is the major themes and philosophers of the Enlightenment. Students will have studied the essential ideas and concepts of natural rights. Students will have knowledge of the Enlightenment’s influence on the American Revolution and US Constitution. Both of these time periods are important for the study of Abolition because they are frequently referenced by the different Abolitionist Movement leaders on which we will focus.

The final component that is essential for student understanding is the immediate context of Pre-Civil War Reform. Students will have studied the causes of Pre-Civil War Reform, including the Second Great Awakening and problems resulting from industrialization. Students will be given the framework of three categories of reform as well, being moral, social, and radical. Moral reform will be highlighted as having the goal of creating a Godlike society with such reform movements as temperance. Social reform was intended to help create institutions to combat problems within society such as poor education, crime, and treatment of the poor and the mentally ill. The third category presented to students will be radical reform, with the intention to combat underlying inequalities such as sexism and racism with the movements of Women’s rights and Abolition. These three areas of reform will have provided the appropriate foundation for students’ understanding of the 19th century Abolitionist Movement.



Written Narrative


  • If you worked on this with a partner, how was the work divided in creating this unit?

Much of the planning was done collaboratively as a group. We planned the overall idea of the unit, the scope and sequence, the overall idea of the final assessment, and many of the aspects of the daily lesson plans as well. In addition, we also divided up work to be done separately, which was then reviewed together again before being finished. The types of activities that were done separately included lesson plans, power point presentations, worksheets, selection of readings, and development of classroom activities. Listed below are the individual items that were created separately, but were also reviewed together. All other elements of the unit were worked on collaboratively.


Individual Responsibilities

Kristen Borges

  • Economic Power Point presentation

  • Day One lesson plan

  • Day Two lesson plan

  • Day Three lesson plan

  • Day Five lesson plan

  • Sarah’s Long Walk discussion questions

  • Day Seven lesson plan

  • Final Assessment Assignment


Johann Knets

  • Day Four lesson plan

  • Abolitionist Leaders Chart

  • Found poem assignment

  • Liberator Images/Fugitive Slave Law Power Point presentation

  • Day Six lesson plan

  • Unit Background Narrative

  • Written Narrative Summary

  • Fugitive Slave Law Activity: Anthony Burns trial



  • When and how do you plan to teach this unit during the academic year?

This unit of study will fit in well with the 10th grade U.S. and World History I curriculum at Hamilton Wenham Regional High School. It will fit in with an already existing unit on Pre-Civil War Reform. We will connect this in-depth study of the Abolitionist Leadership and the strategies they used to bring about the end of slavery to the other types of reform that came about during the 19th century. There is a great deal of new content added and the learning activities have been newly created as well.




  • What did you add to this unit that you would not have thought of if you hadn’t participated in TAH?

There are a number of components added to this unit from the content of the TAH summer institute. For starters, the use of Sarah’s Long Walk would not have been incorporated if not part of the reading for the institute. We chose to use a chapter from the book that fit well with our unit. We also used the classroom activity of a Found Poem during our unit, which was not a technique that we would have used otherwise. When assigning primary sources, we used the primary document questions provided by Professor Sean Condon during his Reform and Civil War module. These are questions that can be asked of any primary source; and are questions that we have both already incorporated into our classrooms since this past spring. Further examples of applications from the TAH grant are various items of content. There are a number of leaders and specific content details from different presenters that are utilized within our unit. The variety of information that we have learned and received during the TAH grant has in many ways supplemented our existing knowledge and also enhanced it with completely new material.




  • What did you want your students to understand about leadership in terms of dilemmas and opportunities?

Over the course of our unit we focused on a number of different leaders and the dilemmas and opportunities that they faced. One of the major themes within our unit includes the act of persuasion, with a focus on the effectiveness of strategies used in trying to achieve the abolition of slavery. By focusing on these ideas, we want students to evaluate the decisions made by the different leaders within our unit. We would like our students to be able to analyze and evaluate the dilemmas and opportunities faced by leaders such as William Lloyd Garrison or Frederick Douglass. Therefore, we tried to create a unit that encourages students to think critically about the issues the leaders faced during the time period. We placed an emphasis on the decisions made by the different leaders, the tactics they used, and the impact of their decisions.




  • Which historical thinking standards did you find were essential in developing understanding of your topic?

Although each of the five historical thinking standards could be applied in some way to our unit, standards 2, 3, and 5 were especially important in developing understanding of our topic. Historical Standard 2, Historical Comprehension, involves important skills that are important to understanding the many primary documents used in our unit. For example, items within this standard included the following: centered on historical interpretation, understanding of central questions, considering perspectives, and drawing upon visual sources. These types of skills played a key role in understanding the material in our unit. In addition, Historical Standard 3, Historical Analysis and Interpretation, also fit well into understanding of our unit. Items within this standard that played a central role in our unit included the following: comparing and contrasting different sets of idea, considering of multiple perspectives, and analysis of cause and effect relationships. It was especially important to incorporate the idea of comparing and contrasting differing sets of ideas as a major focus of our unit was the different strategies used within the Abolitionist movement. Finally, Historical Thinking Standard 5, Historical Issues-Analysis and Decision Making, was essential to understanding of our unit for a number of reasons. We incorporated the use of skills including each of the following: evaluate alternative courses of action, the formulation of a position or course of action on an issue, and the evaluation of implementation of a decision. These three aspects of this standard were essential to understanding our unit because we focused in particular on the dilemmas and opportunities faced by the different leaders involved in the Abolitionist movement.


Goals of Unit:

Students will understand…



  • the connection between the development of the American economy and the institution of slavery.

  • the origins of the 19th century abolitionist movement and its leaders.

  • the various methods used to achieve a common goal.

  • how the 19th century abolitionist movement evolved over time including essential leaders, events and strategies involved.

  • the obstacles and challenges faced by leaders of the abolitionist movement.

  • how the African American community of Boston developed and the role that it played within the national abolitionist movement.

  • the different perspectives of people living in different sections of the country to Abolitionist thought and action.

  • slavery plays a role in today’s global economy.

  • economic factors often play a significant role in shaping historical events.

  • modern events and situations have parallels in historical events.


Essential Questions for Unit:


  • Did Abolitionists want equality for African Americans?

  • To what extent did the North benefit from the institution of slavery?

  • To what extent did religion shape the abolitionist movement?

  • How are people persuaded?

  • How do you shape public opinion?

  • What dilemmas/obstacles did the leaders of the abolitionist movement face?

  • What was the most persuasive strategy used by the abolitionist movement?

  • Was the abolitionist movement successful? Was slavery truly abolished?

  • What is the role of slavery in today’s global economy?

  • How did economic factors shape historical events?

  • To what extent do modern events and situations have parallels in historical events?



Lesson Plan Day One
Unit Name: The 19th Century Abolitionist Movement
School District: Hamilton-Wenham Regional School District
Date: Summer Institute Project 2008
Class and Grade: U.S. and World History I, 10th Grade (Honors Level)
State framework standard:

U.S. History I

The Revolution through Reconstruction,


1763-1877
Economic Growth in the North and South, 1800-1860
USI.29 Describe the rapid growth of slavery in the South after 1800 and analyze slave life and resistance on plantations and farms across the South, as well as the impact of the cotton gin on the economics of slavery and Southern agriculture. (H)
Historical thinking standard:

Standard 5: Historical Issues-Analysis and Decision-Making



  1. Identify issues and problems in the past and analyze the interests, values, perspectives and points of view of those involved in the situation.

  2. Marshall evidence of antecedent circumstances and current factors contributing to contemporary problems and alternative courses of action.


Leadership: No specific leaders focused on. Focus on the development of the American economy and the institution of slavery.
Enduring understandings:

Students will understand…



  • slavery plays a role in today’s global economy.

  • economic factors often play a significant role in shaping historical events.

  • modern events and situations have parallels in historical events.


Essential Questions: What is the role of slavery in today’s global economy?

To what extent do modern events and situations have parallels in historical events?



Development and selection of activities and resources:

  1. Consumer Practices Survey: All of our daily decisions have moral implications. Everyday decisions can be viewed as value statements. In this activity, ask students to consider the implications of their daily consumption. Give students the Consumer Practices Survey (Handout 1) regarding moral and ethical dilemmas relating to products that they consume. For example, students are asked questions relating to the clothes they wear and the technology items the use ranging from IPods to cell phones. Lead students in a discussion where they consider the origins of the products they consume and corporate and consumer responsibility.




  1. View 12 minute video clip from http://www.freetheslaves.net called Slavery 101. Covers a range of topics from modern day slavery to free trade.




  1. Connections to slavery and the global economy are made through this beginning activity. Ask students to comment on modern day slavery and draw comparisons between modern day and the 19th century conditions surrounding slavery. This will help students be able to understand the historical significance of this era.


Content:

Modern day slavery and its economic impact.


Assignment:

  1. Students are to read Chapter 2 of Sarah’s Long Walk and respond to accompanying reading questions. (This is a lengthy reading, so it should be assigned BEFORE day one.) (Homework 1)

  2. Read David Walker’s Appeal and answer accompanying reading questions.

(Homework 2)

Lesson Plan Day Two

Unit Name: The 19th Century Abolitionist Movement
School District: Hamilton-Wenham Regional School District
Date: Summer Institute Project 2008
Class and Grade: U.S. and World History I, 10th Grade (Honors Level)
State framework standard:

U.S. History I

The Revolution through Reconstruction,


1763-1877
Economic Growth in the North and South, 1800-1860
USI.29 Describe the rapid growth of slavery in the South after 1800 and analyze slave life and resistance on plantations and farms across the South, as well as the impact of the cotton gin on the economics of slavery and Southern agriculture. (H)
Historical thinking standard:

Standard 5: Historical Issues-Analysis and Decision-Making



  1. Identify issues and problems in the past and analyze the interests, values, perspectives and points of view of those involved in the situation.

  1. Evaluate the implementation of a decision by analyzing the interests it served; estimating the position, power, and priority of each player involved; assessing the ethical dimensions of the decision; and evaluating its costs and benefits from a variety of perspectives.

Standard 4: Historical Research Capabilities



  1. Obtain historical data from a variety of sources.

  2. Interrogate historical data by uncovering the social, political, and economic context in which it was created; testing the data source for its credibility, authority, authenticity, internal consistency and completeness’ and detecting and evaluating bias, distortion, and propaganda by omission, suppression or intervention of facts.


Leadership: Students will be introduced to the final assessment in which they must focus on TWO leaders from the 19th century abolition movement. They will use an Abolition Leaders Chart to keep track of the many leaders and the strategies they used to bring about the end of slavery.
Enduring Understandings:

Students will understand…



  • the connection between the development of the American economy and the institution of slavery.

  • The obstacles and challenges faced by leaders of the Abolitionist movement

Essential Questions: To what extent did the North benefit from the institution of slavery?
Development and selection of activities and resources:

  1. Introduce students to the final assessment. Students will create an abolitionist newspaper that embraces ONE of the strategies used by the abolitionist movement. Students will need to evaluate which strategy they believe would be the most effective to bring about the emancipation of slaves. Spend time explaining the assignment and grading rubric. (See Newspaper- Assessment 1)




  1. As students learn more about the various abolition leaders, they will be required to keep track of each leader’s beliefs on the Abolition Leaders’ Chart. Spend time in class explaining the type of information they should record for each leader. Specific time should be spent on the difference between Moral Persuasion, Political/Legal and Militant strategies. (See Chart- Assessment 2) This will help them complete the newspaper more efficiently.




  1. Spend the remaining part of the class focused on the PowerPoint entitled Slavery and the Northern Economy. (See PowerPoint 1)


Content:

Slavery and the Northern Economy PowerPoint Presentation
Assignment:

  1. Students are to read Chapter 2 of Sarah’s Long Walk and respond to accompanying reading questions. (This is a lengthy reading, so it should be assigned BEFORE day one.) (Homework 1)




  1. Read David Walker’s Appeal and answer accompanying reading questions.

(Homework 2)

Lesson Plan Day Three

Unit Name: The 19th Century Abolitionist Movement
School District: Hamilton-Wenham Regional School District
Date: Summer Institute Project 2008
Class and Grade: U.S. and World History I, 10th Grade (Honors Level)
State framework standard:

U.S. History I

The Revolution through Reconstruction,


1763-1877
Social, Political, and Religious Change, 1800-1860
USI.31 Describe the formation of the abolitionist movement, the roles of various abolitionists, and the response of southerners and northerners to abolitionism. (H)
Historical thinking standard:

Standard 2: Historical Comprehension



  1. Identify the author or source of the historical document or narrative.

  2. Reconstruct the literal meaning of the historical passage.

  3. Identify the central question(s) the historical narrative addresses and the purpose, perspective, or point of view from which it has been constructed.

  4. Differentiate between historical facts and historical interpretations.

F. Appreciate historical perspectives.
Leadership: David Walker and Maria Stewart
Enduring understandings:

Students will understand…



  • the origins of the 19th century abolition movement and its leaders.


Essential Questions:

  • How are people persuaded? How do you shape public opinion?

  • What dilemmas did the leaders of the abolition movement face?

  • What was the most persuasive strategy used by the Abolitionist movement?


Development and selection of activities and resources:

  1. Students read David Walker’s Appeal and Chapter 2 from Sarah’s Long Walk for homework. Begin class by dividing students into small groups to work on the Found Poem Activity. (Handout 2) Ask students to share their poems with the rest of the class.




  1. Seminar: Have students move from their groups into a larger circle for a seminar discussion. Using the readings Chapter 2 of Sarah’s Long Walk and David Walker’s Appeal, students should focus on the seminar questions for the remainder of the class.




  1. Have students add David Walker and Maria Stewart to their Abolition Leaders Chart at the end of class. Students can do this with a partner if you choose.


Content:

Introduction to Boston’s 19th century Black Community and David Walker’s Appeal.


Assignment:

1. Students are asked to watch four short videos (2 -3 minutes each) offered by the Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History where historians Lois Horton Professor of History, George Mason University and David W. Blight Professor of History, Yale University and Director of the Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, and Abolition comment on a number of topics.


2. Have students complete the “What do historians think?” sheet as they watch the videos. (Homework 3)
3. Read William Lloyd Garrison’s Opening Editorial from the inaugural issue of the Liberator. Answer the primary source document questions.

(Homework 4)

Lesson Plan Day Four

Unit Name: The 19th Century Abolitionist Movement
School District: Hamilton-Wenham Regional School District
Date: Summer Institute Project 2008
Class and Grade: U.S. and World History I, 10th Grade (Honors Level)
State framework standard:

U.S. History I

The Revolution through Reconstruction,


1763-1877
Social, Political, and Religious Change, 1800-1860
USI.31 Describe the formation of the abolitionist movement, the roles of various abolitionists, and the response of southerners and northerners to abolitionism. (H)
USI.32 Describe important religious trends that shaped antebellum America. (H)
Historical thinking standard:

Standard 2: Historical Comprehension

B. Reconstruct the literal meaning of a historical passage

C. Identify the central questions(s)

D. Differentiate between historical facts and historical interpretations

E. Read historical narratives imaginatively

I. Draw upon visual, literary, and musical sources including (a) photographs, paintings, cartoons, and architectural drawings.
Leadership: William Lloyd Garrison
Enduring understandings:

Students will understand…



  • the 19th century abolition movement evolved over time including essential leaders, events and strategies involved.

  • the obstacles and challenges faced by the abolitionist movement.


Essential Questions:

  • To what extent did religion shape the abolitionist movement?

  • What was the most persuasive strategy used by the abolitionist movement?


Development and selection of activities and resources:

  1. Have students react to the following paragraph by William Lloyd Garrison as a way to lead into the discussion of homework. Connect the documents to the historians’ opinions. Ask students if they agree with the historians’ conclusions about Garrison based on their own understanding and interpretation of the editorials. Ask students to discuss the contents of the Primary Source Questions regarding William Lloyd Garrison’s Opening Editorial of the Liberator. Focus will be on the strategies used by Garrison, his beliefs, and his goals.

I am aware that many object to the severity of my language; but is

there not cause for severity? I will be as harsh as truth, and as

uncompromising as justice. On this subject, I do not wish to think,

or to speak, or write, with moderation. No! no! Tell a man whose house

is on fire to give a moderate alarm; tell him to moderately rescue his wife

from the hands of the ravisher; tell the mother to gradually

extricate her babe from the fire into which it has fallen; – but urge me

not to use moderation in a cause like the present. I am in earnest – I will

not equivocate – I will not excuse – I will not retreat a single inch – AND

I WILL BE HEARD. The apathy of the people is enough to make every statue

leap from its pedestal, and to hasten the resurrection of the dead.

William Lloyd Garrison, “To the Public,” from the Inaugural Editorial


  1. Have students read William Lloyd Garrison’s Response to David Walker’s Appeal (Handout 3) and discuss the differences in opinion and strategy shared between Walker and Garrison; have students fill out their Abolition Leaders’ Chart.




  1. Finally, students will analyze the three mastheads of the Liberator in conjunction with discussion of the strategies and impact of the Liberator on the Abolitionist Movement. (Students will also be provided with hard copies of the three mastheads in addition to viewing them on a projection screen)


Content:

PowerPoint presentation for masthead images from The Liberator, related masthead analysis worksheet, Garrison’s Response to David Walker’s Appeal, and Garrison’s opening editorial of The Liberator.



Assignment:

  1. Go to: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1319240

Listen to the 4:00 minute podcast of Frederick Douglass speech and answer the Primary Source Questions. (Homework 5)


  1. Have students read David Blight’s Time Magazine article on the impact of Frederick Douglass’ Meaning of the Fourth of July speech. Answer the discussion questions. (Homework 6)




Lesson Plan Day Five
Unit Name: The 19th Century Abolitionist Movement
School District: Hamilton-Wenham Regional School District
Date: Summer Institute Project 2008
Class and Grade: U.S. and World History I, 10th Grade (Honors Level)
State framework standard:

U.S. History I

The Revolution through Reconstruction,


1763-1877
Social, Political, and Religious Change, 1800-1860

USI.31 Describe the formation of the abolitionist movement, the roles of various abolitionists, and the response of southerners and northerners to abolitionism. (H)


Historical thinking standard:

Standard 4: Historical Research Capabilities

B. Obtain historical data from a variety of sources, including: library and museum collections, historical photos, journals, diaries, eyewitness accounts, newspapers, and the like; documentary compilations, and economics indicators.

C. Interrogate historical data by uncovering the social, political, and economic context in which it was created; testing the data source for its credibility, authority, authenticity, internal consistency and completeness; and detecting and evaluating bias, distortion, and propaganda by omission, suppression, or invention of facts.

F. Support interpretations with historical evidence in order to construct closely reasoned arguments rather than facile opinions.
Leadership: American Colonization Society, Paul Cuffee, Bushrod Washington
Enduring understandings:

Students will understand…



  • the 19th century abolition movement evolved over time including essential leaders, events and strategies involved.

  • the obstacles and challenges faced by the abolitionist movement.

  • the various methods used to achieve a common goal.



Essential Questions:

  • Did Abolitionists want equality for African Americans?

  • What was the most persuasive strategy used by the abolitionist movement?


Development and selection of activities and resources:

  1. Have students read the Jacob Harris letter. With partners they should discuss the Primary source questions. (Handout 4) Ask them whether they think colonization was the best policy to bring about the end of slavery.




  1. Post the following statement on the board.

Colonization is the only way that African Americans will gain true equality and freedom.

Direct students to brainstorm the pros and cons of this statement.




  1. Tell students they will participate in a mini-debate regarding colonization.




  1. Divide the class in half. One side will debate the affirmative, and one side will debate the negative of the statement.




  1. The following web sites can assist students in their research:

"Back to Africa?" The Colonization Movement in Early America by Timothy Crumrin



http://www.connerprairie.org/HistoryOnline/colon.html

Colonization The Library of Congress



http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afam002.html

American Colonization Slavery in the North



http://www.slavenorth.com/colonize.htm

Colonization Africans in America PBS



http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3narr4.html

PaulCuffee



http://www.africanamericans.com/PaulCuffe.htm



  1. Have students participate in the mini-debate. After the debate, write the following statement on the board:

Although William Lloyd Garrison initially supported Colonization, he later

gave his support to programs that focused on immediate emancipation

without repatriation. Why do you suppose he changed his position?




  1. Have students finish by filling out their Abolition Leaders’ Chart.


Assignment

Have students work on Abolitionist Newspaper Project. Students should be prepared to share their newspapers in class.



Lesson Plan Day Six
Unit Name: The 19th Century Abolitionist Movement
School District: Hamilton-Wenham Regional School District
Date: Summer Institute, 2008
Class and Grade: U.S. and World History I, 10th Grade
State framework standard:

U.S. History I

The Revolution through Reconstruction,


1763-1877
Social, Political, and Religious Change, 1800-1860

USI.31 Describe the formation of the abolitionist movement, the roles of various abolitionists, and the response of southerners and northerners to abolitionism. (H)


Historical thinking standard:

Standard 5: The student engages in historical issues-analysis and decision-making:

D. Evaluate alternative courses of action

E. Formulate a position or course of action on an issue

F. Evaluate the implementation of a decision
Leadership: Frederick Douglass and William Lloyd Garrison
Enduring understandings:


  • the various methods used to achieve a common goal.

  • the abolition movement evolved over time including essential leaders, events and strategies involved.


Essential Questions:

What was the most persuasive strategy used by the Abolitionist movement?


Development and selection of activities and resources:


  1. Have students analyze quotation by Frederick Douglass concerning action in the Abolitionist movement. Connect to the ideas of strategies used and the evolution of Douglass’ opinion. (Quote is at beginning of Fugitive Slave Law section of power point presentation)




  1. Have students evaluate the evidence from the trial of Anthony Burns, an alleged runaway slave from Virginia who was living in Massachusetts. Have students read claims from each side, pieces of evidence, and will then analyze the strength of both sides.

(Taken from Slavery and the Making of America: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/experience/legal/feature.html) Issues in Constitutionality will be discussed, including the abuse of the 4th and 5th Amendments. Have students make judgments on how the outcome of the court case affected Abolitionists and Northerners. (Handout 5)




  1. Have students review/take brief notes on the details of the Fugitive Slave Law from Power Point. Significance of how the Fugitive Slave Law affected the Abolitionist movement will be the focus.


Content: See attached Power Point presentation for notes on the context of the Fugitive Slave Law and the attached assignment on the Anthony Burns trial.

Assignment:

1. Have students read the background on John Brown at:

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/oct16.html

Tell them to be prepared to discuss the reading in the next class.



Lesson Plan Day Seven
Unit Name: The 19th Century Abolitionist Movement
School District: Hamilton-Wenham Regional School District
Date: Summer Institute, 2008
Class and Grade: U.S. and World History I, 10th Grade
State framework standard:

U.S. History I

The Revolution through Reconstruction,


1763-1877
Social, Political, and Religious Change, 1800-1860

USI.31 Describe the formation of the abolitionist movement, the roles of various abolitionists, and the response of southerners and northerners to abolitionism. (H)


Historical thinking standard:

Standard 5: The student engages in historical issues-analysis and decision-making:

D. Evaluate alternative courses of action

E. Formulate a position or course of action on an issue

F. Evaluate the implementation of a decision
Leadership: John Brown
Enduring understandings:


  • the various methods used to achieve a common goal.

  • the abolition movement evolved over time including essential leaders, events and strategies involved.


Essential Questions:

What was the most persuasive strategy used by the Abolitionist movement?


Development and selection of activities and resources:


  1. Historian Michael Eric Dyson once noted of the American Revolution, "America was founded on breaking the law." Discuss insurgency as a means to change government policy with your class. Do students believe that it's ever right to break the law? If so, when? If not, why not? What specific circumstances do students consider worthy of insurgency? (Taken from PBS American Experience: John Brown’s Holy War)




  1. Have students briefly discuss last night’s reading. Begin with the following excerpt from Frederick Douglass. Ask students to reflect on this quote.

That a man might do something very audacious and desperate for money, power or fame, was to the general apprehension quite possible; but…that nineteen men could invade a great State to liberate a despised and hated race, was to the average intellect and conscience, too monstrous for belief.


"John Brown,”An Address by Frederick Douglass,
Harper's Ferry, West Virginia,
May 30, 1881.

  1. Show students Episode 1 The Cause Chapter 6 - The Meteor : 7:46 - :32:43 of Ken Burns’ The Civil War. In this chapter, John Brown raids the arsenal at Harper's Ferry in 1859, and is captured by Colonel Robert E. Lee.




  1. Ask students to complete their Abolition Leaders’ Chart.




  1. As a whole class review, ask them to discuss the various leaders and the strategies used by each. Have them focus on the strengths and weaknesses of each strategy. Discussion should include evaluation of the strategies and movement. Some of the unit’s essential questions can be helpful here.


Assignment:

Have students work on Abolitionist Newspaper Project. Students should be prepared to share their newspapers in class.







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