1999 Chicago Open Round #4

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1999 Chicago Open

Round #4
1. He believed that the sun was only hot on the surface and that one could see its cold, inhabitable interior through its sunspots. He is better remembered for his correct discoveries, such as the period of rotation of Saturn, two of Saturn's moons, Mimas and Enceladus, and infrared radiation. FTP, identify this astronomer, who died in 1819 at the age of 84, which is coincidentally the period of rotation of his most famous discovery, an object he tried to call "George's Star" but which we know as the planet Uranus.

Answer: Sir William Herschel

2. The title refers to an entertainment that takes place on board the S.S. Thespian, commanded by Captain Jacob Adam, on either June 21 or 22, 1937. On that day, the protagonist of the novel realizes that the disposition of 72 jars of feces will allow him to win a case for his friend Harrison Mack, and also decides to commit suicide. FTP, identify this work, which was written in 1955 and which ends with Todd Andrews deciding to live, the first novel of John Barth.

Answer: The Floating Opera

3. Their leaders included Azariah Flagg and Silas Wright, and their chief opponents were Daniel Dickinson and William Marcy. After they split from the Democratic national convention, they met at Utica and nominated Henry Dodge for Vice-President and Martin Van Buren for President before joining forces with the Free-Soil party. FTP, identify this faction of the Democratic party of New York, who were opposed to slavery, the annexation of Texas, and the conservative Hunkers, a group of radicals whose name referred to the proverbial Dutch farmer who destroyed a building to get rid of the rats that infested it.

Answer: the Barnburners

4. It features three major dialects, Elati, Kituhwa, and Otali. Of its 85 written symbols, 78 represent consonant-vowel combinations, while the rest represent the six vowels and the consonant "s". FTP, identify this language, currently spoken by about 14,000 people in North Carolina and Oklahoma, which is over 3,000 years old but which did not acquire a writing system until one was invented by Sequoyah.

Answer: Cherokee

5. Its eastern limit is considered to be the Karambar Pass between Chitral and Gilgit, while its western boudary is roughly at the Kirmu Pass west of Kabul. Dividing the Amu Darya valley from the Indus River Valley, its highest peak is Tirich Mir in the Eastern section. FTP, identify this mountain range, which supports the Pamir Pleateau near China and runs southwest into Pakistan and Afghanistan, considered a continuation of the Karakoram Range.

Answer: the Hindu Kush mountains

6. It begins with the title character telling his wife that he is satisfied with his lot, as captain of the dragoons, aide de camp to the King, decorated with the order of the Red Eagle of Poland, and ex-king of Aragon. In its sequels, the title character is cuckolded and enchained, but in it he kills King Wenceslas with the help of Captain Macnure, is driven off by Boggerlas, and ends up sailing in the Baltic past Castle Elsinore. FTP, identify this play, which was first performed at the Theater of Phynances by marionettes in 1888, a parody of Macbeth which is the best known work of Alfred Jarry.

Answer: Ubu Rex or Ubu Roi or Ubu King

7. After returning to America from Dusseldorf in 1859 he concentrated on portraiture, but his portraits of Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay were lost in the Capitol fire of 1911. Although his early works were also portraits, such as those of Jacob Wyan and John Quincy Adams, he went on to try genre painting, producing such canvases as Watching the Cargo and Shooting for the Beef before turning to politics, which produced paintings like Canvassing for a Vote. FTP, name this painter of Raftsmen Playing Cards, Jolly Flatboatmen, and Fur Traders Descending the Missouri, who was known as the "Missouri Artist" for his depictions of Western life.

Answer: George Caleb Bingham

8. Topologically speaking, this can be defined, for some integer n, as a Hausdorff space with a countable basis such that each point has a neighborhood which is homeomorphic with a open subset of n-dimensional Euclidean space. If compact, these spaces can be imbedded in Euclidean space and, even if not, all examples of these spaces are metrizable, an essential quality for their use in physics. FTP, name this type of space central to algebraic topology, differential geometry and general relativity, whose name suggests that it should have numerous parts.

Answer: manifold

9. The first one lasted for two months, the second for over four months, while the third and fourth each went for five years. There were 524 members of the first, a number which was cut down to 442 after the controversial second demanded that court martial be abolished and that large estates be confiscated. FTP, identify these legislative bodies, the first of which met on May 19, 1906, included Social Democrats, Cadets, and Octobrists, and was quickly dissolved by Tsar Nicholas II.

Answer: the Dumas

10. In chapter 15 of the first essay, a passage from the De spectaculis of Tertullian is quoted which states that life in heaven will be pleasant because you will be able to see the torments of the damned. The preface begins by stating that "We knowers are unknown to ourselves" and claims that the book was inspired by opposition to a book by Paul Rée, while the first essay goes on to distinguish between evil and bad and the noble and slave value systems associated with them. FTP, identify this 1887 work, subtitled "An Attack," whose other two essays deal with bad conscience and the meaning of ascetic ideals, a book by Friedrich Nietzsche.

Answer: The Genealogy of Morals (accept On The Genealogy of Morals or Toward the Genealogy of Morals or Zur Genealogie der Moral)

11. This order appears to have first appeared around the end of the Paleocene in northern Asia. They were once classified as the suborder Duplicidentata of the order Rodentia, because they have two pairs of upper incisors, but this was superseded by the current classification, which is divided into three families: the extinct Eurymylidae, Ochotonidae, and Leporidae. FTP, identify this order of occasionally coprophagous herbivores, which includes pikas, hares and bunny rabbits.

Answer: lagomorpha

12. Its airforce was led by the Swedish Count Carl Gustav von Rosen, who outfitted a small fleet of Minicon planes with rockets. After Yabuku Gowon announced a division of his nation into twelve states, lieutenant colonel Odemegu Ojukwu declared independence for his eastern region. FTP, identify this short-lived republic, which fell after the capture of Owerri in 1970, following four years of fighting with Nigeria.

Answer: Biafra

13. In a poem by Wallace Stevens, he is described as the "symbol of the seeker" who says "As I know, I am and have the right to be" under "the shape of his sail." In a poem by Samuel Daniel, he says that "ease finds tediousness, as much as labor yields annoy" in a dialogue with a Siren. FTP, identify this figure from Greek myth, who also appears in the twenty-sixth canto of the Inferno and who resolves to "strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield" in a dramatic monologue by Alfred, Lord Tennyson.

Answer: Ulysses

14. Beginning in 1954, Peter Thomson won it four times in five years, and finished second to Bobby Locke in the one he didn't win. It was won by Mungo Park in 1874, and the early years of the event's history were dominated by Parks and Morrises, with 13 of the first 15 being won by a member of one of those families. FTP, identify this golf championship, first held in 1860, which was won five times between 1975 and 1983 by Tom Watson, and which was won in 1968 by Gary Player, the last time it was held in Carnoustie before Peter Lawrie won it in 1999.

Answer: the British Open

15. The third of its composer's four symphonic poems, it was inspired by a poem by Henri Cazalis. At its premiere in Colonne in 1875, the audience received it poorly, finding the use of xylophones particularly offensive, but it went on to become immensely popular, especially after Franz Liszt transcribed it for solo piano. FTP, identify this composition, in which a harp announces the hour of midnight and the infamous xylophone depicts rattling bones, a sinister work by Camille Saint-Saëns.

Answer: Danse Macabre

16. For a component of a mixture, the change in the natural logarithm of this function is equal to the change in the chemical potential divided by the temperature and the gas constant. Logarithmically related to the Gibbs free energy, the ratio of this quantity to pressure is equal to one in the limit where pressure goes to zero. More importantly, however, it can be used in place of pressure when considering real gases rather than ideal ones. FTP, name this quantity related to partial pressures and giving a measure of a substance's tendency to escape from its current phase via some chemical process, represented by a lower case f.

Answer: fugacity

17. Two years after his death, one of his former vassals established control of the country at the battle of Sekigahara. He began his career fighting the Mori family in the west, but returned to defeat Mitsuhide in 1582 after Mitsuhide killed Nobunaga. FTP, identify this general, who became kampaku, or dictator, of Japan in 1585, led an invasion of Korea in 1592 which was beaten back by the Chinese, and was succeeded by Tokugawa Ieyasu.

Answer: Hideyoshi Toyotomi

18. His later novels include the story of a struggle over an oil field whose protagonist is Felix Maldonado, The Hydra Head, and the story of the Comte de Branly and his encounters with two people named Victor Heredia, Distant Relations. His first collection of short stories, The Masked Days, was published in 1954, and it was followed by such novels as The Good Conscience, Aura, and Where the Air Is Clear. FTP, name this author of Christopher Unborn and Terra Nostra, best known for a 1962 novel about the demise of a survivor of the Mexican Revolution, The Death of Artemio Cruz.

Answer: Carlos Fuentes

19. Demetrius of Phalerum wrote a poem in praise of this god after his blindness was cured by him. Depicted as a man with curly hair and a basket on his head, he was introduced by Ptolemy I Soter, possibly to provide a patron god for the city of Alexandria, where Ptolemy III built an enormous temple to him in the third century B.C. FTP, identify this deity, who displaced Osiris as the husband of Isis and developed out of a Memphian cult of an Osiris-Apis hybrid, whose name also designates a British man-of-war captured in 1779 by John Paul Jones.

Answer: Serapis

20. He was imprisoned in 1694 for killing a man in a duel over a woman, but he escaped the next year and fled England. After eloping with the wife of a Frenchman, he made a fortune in Genoa, with which he returned to Edinburgh in a futile attempt to make the Scottish parliament take his proposals, as outlined in his Money and Trade Considered, seriously. FTP, name this man, who founded a private bank in Paris in 1716, the success of which led the regent to adopt his plan of a national bank, and who went on to become comptroller general of France before his joint-stock company went under as the Missisippi Bubble burst.

Answer: John Law

Boni for Round 4:
1. Identify these chemical compounds that are related to lipids, FTP each.

1. Sune Bergstrom and Bengt Samuelsson won a Nobel Prize in 1982 for their discovery of these compounds, which are biosynthesized from the 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acids and which were discovered in semen, leading to their name.

Answer: prostaglandins

2. Also known as isoprenoids, they are composed of compounds with a head-to-tail joining of isoprene units, and include menthol and camphor.

Answer: terpenes

3. These are the alkali metal salts of fatty acids, and molecules contain long hydrocarbon chains with ionic ends, which may be suspended in water since they cluster together in micelles.

Answer: soaps
2. Answer these questions about the works of William Walton FTP each.

1. This Biblical oratorio for Baritone, Chorus, and Orchestra premiered at the Leeds Festival in 1931.

Answer: Belshazzar's Feast

2. This opera, which was based on a work by Chaucer, not Shakespeare, premiered in 1954.

Answer: Troilus and Cressida

3. Walton wrote the Crown Imperial March for the coronation of this monarch in 1937.

Answer: King George VI
3. Answer these questions about a war FTP each.

1. The two main battles of this war were fought at Great Swamp and Hadley, both victories for the colonists.

Answer: King Philip's War

2. King Philip's War derived its name from the colonial name for Metacomet, a chief of this Indian tribe.

Answer: the Wampanoag

3. Give either year in which King Philip's War was fought.

Answer: 1675 and 1676
4. Identify these works of Sean O’Casey, FTP each.

1. This 1923 work, which ends with the murder of Minnie Powell, was the first of O’Casey’s plays to be produced.

Answer: The Shadow of a Gunman

2. When the Abbey Theatre rejected this expressionistic drama concerning Harry Heegan, whose football team wins the titular trophy, O’Casey broke with them, and the play was produced in London in 1929.

Answer: The Silver Tassie

3. After the 1926 production of this play, whose title refers to the banner of the Irish Citizen Army, Dubliners rioted in protest of its treatment of the Easter Rising.

Answer: The Plough and the Stars
5. Answer these questions about a Christian heresy FTP each.

1. This fourth-century British theologian claimed that humans by nature have the capacity to advance toward salvation, which implied that original sin was a falsehood.

Answer: Pelagius

2. Pelagius's first great opponent was this African bishop, who argued that grace enables our will to turn to God, and that after salvation grace cooperates with our will to serve God.

Answer: Saint Augustine

3. This author of On the Bound Will, a response to Erasmus, claimed that almost all medieval theologians were actually Pelagians.

Answer: Martin Luther
6. Answer the following questions about photon scattering, FTP each.

1. This is the unit of area often used in scattering. Expressed in square centimeters, it is equal to 10 raised to the negative twenty-fourth power.

Answer: 1 Barn

2. This is slightly more than half a barn in area and is the relevant cross-section for photons with energy much less than the rest mass energy of an electron scattering off of electrons. It is also approximately three times the classical electron cross-section.

Answer: Thompson cross-section

3. The Thompson scattering cross-section can be derived by applying this formula to electrons. The formula in question gives the differential power radiated by an accelerating charge per unit angle in the classical limit.

Answer: Larmor formula
7. Answer these questions about the history of South Africa in the nineteenth century FTP each.

1. After 1854's Convention of Bloemfontein, the British government withdrew to the south of a certain river, leading to the formation of this state by local settlers.

Answer: the Orange Free State

2. Great Britain recognized the independence of the Transvaal by this 1852 convention, which led to the withdrawal from all territory north of the Orange River.

Answer: the Sand River Convention

3. The British fought this war with the Kaffirs between 1846 and 1847. It led to the formation of British Kaffraria between the Kei and Keiskamma rivers.

Answer: the War of the Axe
8. Identify these films by Akira Kurosawa, for the stated number of points.

1. (5 points) Winner of the Grand Prix at the 1951 Venice Film Festival, it adapts a story written by Akutagawa Ryunosuke which tells of a rape and murder in 10th century Japan.

Answer: Rashomon

2. (10 points) Although this 1957 movie doesn't use a word of the work on which it is based, it is considered one of the finest film adaptations of a Shakespeare play.

Answer: Throne of Blood or Kumonosu-jo

3. (15 points) Released the year after The Seven Samurai, this pessimistic film tells the story of a dentist who is horrified by nuclear testing.

Answer: Record of a Living Being or Ikimono no Kiroku
9. Identify these Roman poets, on a 10-5 basis.

1. (10 points) The first of his four books of poems was published in 29 B.C. and known as the Monobiblos, because it was often sold apart from his other works.

(5 points) This elegist to Cynthia may be best known for the homage Ezra Pound paid him.

Answer: Sextus Propertius

2. (10 points) This poet's works include the five books of Silvae, or Forests, and an incomplete epic about the education of Achilles.

(5 points) This Silver Age writer is better known for his complete epic, the Thebaid, and for his appearance in the Purgatorio.

Answer: Publius Papinius Statius

3. (10 points) Tennyson's "Frater Ave Atque Vale" describes his visit to this poet's home in Sirmio.

(5 points) This lyric poet is best known for his poems to Lesbia.

Answer: Gaius Valerius Catullus

10. Answer these questions about modern art and bodies of water, FTP each.

1. This Bulgarian-born "artist" is best known for his mammoth packaging projects, such as wrapping one million square feet of Australian coast in plastic.

Answer: Christo Javachef

2. One of Christo's most hideous projects may have been wrapping islands in this Floridian body of water in bright fuchsia fabric in the early 1980's.

Answer: Biscayne Bay

3. Though not as famous as Christo, Robert Smithson practiced a similar kind of art. His best known work involved building a spiral jetty 1,500 feet long out of rock in this American body of water in 1970. Unfortunately, rising waters have drowned the project, but it was captured on film if you want to see it.

Answer: the Great Salt Lake
11. Answer these questions about France under the Fourth Republic, FTP each.

1. During Bidault's second term as prime minister, he authorized the Schuman plan, which led to the formation of this economic coalition.

Answer: the European Coal and Steel Community (prompt on ECSC)

2. Although Guy Mollet's socialist government was embarrased by the Suez Crisis, it did manage to sign this treaty establishing the European Economic Community.

Answer: the Treaty of Rome

3. In 1947, this man launched a five-year plan for the recovery of French industry, and he went on to serve as the first President of the European Coal and Steel Community.

Answer: Jean Monnet
12. Identify these landmarks of the history of embryology, FTP each.

1. Proposed by Caspar Wolff in 1759, this theory suggested that the zygote contains the materials from which the new individual will form, rather than containing a miniature individual. An experiment by Wilhelm Roux on amphibians misleadingly suggested that this theory was mistaken.

Answer: epigenesis

2. This theory struggled with epigenesis until Hans Driesch conducted experiments which held up the latter. It held that if something arose from the zygote, it must be in the zygote, and postulated that sperm contains homunculi which then grow up in the egg.

Answer: preformation

3. First stated in 1828, it says that the features shared by a group of different kinds of animals appear earlier in embryonic development than those features that are unique to a particular species, which is why embryonic humans start out like most other chordates before exhibiting human characteristics.

Answer: Baer's law
13. Identify these works by Friedrich Schiller, FTP each.

1. Set in sixteenth-century Germany, the play concerns the brothers Karl and Franz.

Answer: The Robbers or Die Räuber

2. Schiller distinguished between these two types of poetry and poets in a famous essay first published in 1795. The first kind of poet is nature, Schiller says, while the latter kind seeks it.

Answer: On Naive and Sentimental Poetry or Uber naive und sentimentalische Dichtung

3. This historical drama consists of three parts: the first, set in the title character's camp, followed by two five-act tragedies which end with the title character's death.

Answer: Wallenstein
14. Answer these questions about a sociological classic, FTP each.

1. Written in collaboration with Nathan Glazer and Reuel Denny, this 1950 book argued that a basic change in the American character, stressing conformity over individualism, had been brought about by the mass media.

Answer: The Lonely Crowd

2. After the publication of The Lonely Crowd, this University of Chicago professor, its author, became the only sociologist ever to appear on the cover of Time magazine.

Answer: David Riesman

3. Riesman argued that this new personality type had replaced the type formed by good old-fashioned family values.

Answer: the other-directed type
15. Think back to 1980 and answer these questions about the Presidential election of that year, for the stated number of points.

1. (5 points) This senator opposed Carter for the Democratic nomination in 10 primaries, but lost at the national convention.

Answer: Edward Kennedy

2. (15 points) John Anderson chose this former governor of Wisconsin as his running mate.

Answer: Patrick Lucey

3. (10 points) Ed Clark finished fourth in the popular vote as this party's candidate for President.

Answer: the Libertarian party
16. Identify these features of Romania, FTP each.

1. The highest points in this mountain chain are Moldoveanul and Negoiul, in the Fagaras Massif.

Answer: the Romanian Carpathians

2. This region of northeastern Romania lies between the Subcarpathians and the Prut River, and includes the former regional capitals of Iasi and Suceava.

Answer: Moldavia

3. This northwestern city on the Somesul Mic may be best known as the location of Gheorghe Muresan's alma mater.

Answer: Cluj
17. Answer these questions about a novel first published in 1904, FTP each.

1. The title character of the novel is a supposedly incorruptible dockworker who is killed at the end when the father of his fiancée mistakes him for a prowler.

Answer: Nostromo

2. The plot of Nostromo is driven by this owner of a silver mine, the husband of Dona Emilia who trusts a load of silver to Nostromo.

Answer: Charles Gould

3. Nostromo is set in this fictional South American republic.

Answer: Costaguana
18. Answer these questions about Thor for the stated number of points.

1. (5 points) Thor's most prized possession was this hammer.

Answer: Mjolnir

2. (10 points) At Ragnarok, Thor kills this creature with Mjolnir, but is killed by it.

Answer: the Midgard serpent

3. (15 points) Thor dressed up as Freya in order to get Mjolnir back from this giant.

Answer: Thrym
19. Answer these questions about a Norwegian chemist, FTP each.

1. He was awarded the 1968 Nobel Prize for his work on the quantization of vortices in liquid helium and his experiments on strong electrolytic solutions, work that was rejected as a proposed doctoral thesis at the University of Trondheim 37 years earler.

Answer: Lars Onsager

2. When Onsager discovered that a leading statistical theory of the behavior of strong electrolytes was wrong, he introduced himself to this physicist, who had come up with the theory along with Hückel, and told him that his theory was incorrect.

Answer: Pieter Josephus Debye

3. While a professor at Brown, Onsager came up with his theory of reciprocal relations in irreversible processes, which is better known as this law.

Answer: the Fourth Law of Thermodynamics
20. Identify these contemporary American composers of operas, FTP each.

1. This composer of a symphony dedicated to his friends who died of AIDS wrote The Ghosts of Versailles.

Answer: John Corigliano

2. Operas by this composer include Of Mice and Men, Susannah, and The Passion of Jonathan Wade.

Answer: Carlisle Floyd

3. This composer of Carry Nation is best known for his operas based on literary works, like The Devil and Daniel Webster and Giants in the Earth.

Answer: Douglas Moore

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