|1995 MLK Weekend Tournament
Questions by Chicago
1. Thought to be an illustration of Lucretius Poliziano's poem "La Giostra," it shows a grove of orange and myrtle trees and a procession of gods led by Mercury, Flora, and Zephyrus. The central figure of the painting is Venus, who stands wrapped in a read and white robes with Cupid hovering over her as she welcomes the end of winter. FTP, name this second most famous painting of Sandro Botticelli
2. There was no ink in his room at the Angleterre hotel, and therewas none forthcoming, even after several angry calls down to the front desk. But the poetic urge is sometimes too strong to suppress, and so he slashed his wrists, filled a pen with his own blood, and scratched out his last and most famous poem. FTP, name this Russian poet of "Goodbye, my friend," and former husband of Isadora Duncan.
Answer: Sergei YESENIN
3. Ruler of the island of Zealand, he lives in a magnificent palace called Heorot, and passes the time by putting on lavish feasts for his warriors. Unfortunately, these feasts attract the attention of
a monster, who raids the palace and eats about thirty of his men every night. FTP, name this Danish king, whom Beowulf eventually rescues from the ravages of Grendel.
4. In Russian, their names literally mean Boat, Elephant, Pedestrian, Horse, and King. In French, they are the King, Lady, Tower, Fool, Peon, and Cavalier. In German, they are the King, Queen, Tower, Runner, Jumper, and Peasant. FTP, what are these game pieces, which in English are called the King, Queen, Bishop, Knight, Rook, and Pawn?
Answer: CHESS Pieces
5. Take the closed interval from zero to one. Remove from this the open interval from one third to two thirds, and then remove the middle open thirds from each of the closed intervals that remain.
If this process is endlessly repeated, it will produce an uncountable perfect set of zero Lebesgue measure that has many important applications in topology. FTP, identify this special
set, named for the founder of set theory.
Answer: CANTOR Set
6. It is alleged that while visiting Philadelphia in 1853, she had the only love affair of her life, an adulterous fling with a married clergyman named Charles Wadsworth. However, she soon broke this off out of concern for Wadsworth's wife, and after this she never again left her hometown of Amherst. FTP, name this woman who created a literary sensation in 1890 with the posthumous publication of her poems.
Answer: Emily DICKINSON
7. Established by a 1913 act of congress, it consists of twelve regional institutions and is supervised by a central seven person board of governors, whose members serve staggered terms of fourteen years each. Its responsibilities include buying and selling U.S. securities and setting a credit limit for stock exchanges, but it is most important for its power to set the national discount rate. FTP, name this government body whose current chairman is Alan Greenspan.
Answer: The FEDERAL RESERVE Board
8. A protege of pope Julius III, he allegedly attended the Council of Trent, where he persuaded the church not to declare polyphonic music blasphemous. A successful fur merchant as well as a composer, his work includes 93 complete masses, over secular madrigals, and several hundred motets, for which he is most famous. FTP, name this master of Italian renaissance music and oldest composer whose work is still regularly performed.
Answer: Giovanni da PALESTRINA
9. The Portugese called it San Lorenzo, the early French colonists first called it East France and later Ile Dauphin, and from 1960 to 1975 it called itself the Malagasy Republic. FTP, name this fourth largest island in the world, whose capital and largest city is Antananarivo.
10. He was offered but declined the title of Lord Beaconsfield in 1794, three years after he had been purged from the Whig party because of his opposition to the French Jacobins. FTP, name this great British orator and statesman whose last work, Letters on a Regicide Peace, was a follow up to his Reflections on the Revolution in France.
Answer: Edmund BURKE
11. This acromatic salt, which is derived from the condensation of phtalic anhydride, has two major properties, the less important of which is that it makes a pretty effective laxative. Its more important property is that it is colorless when dissolved in a solution of pH 8 or less, but turns any solution of pH 9.6 or greater red. FTP, name this commonly used acid base indicator.
12. In 1486 he published 900 philosophical theses, and organized a seminar in which he would debate them with any interested scholars. However, shortly before the seminar was to open, it was canceled by order of the papacy, and he was forced to flee to France. FTP, name this Italian humanist whose most famous work is the never delivered introductory lecture to his canceled seminar, now known as the "Oration on the Dignity of Man."
Answer: Giovanni PICO Della Mirandola
13. The narrator, who is never named, is a rather nervous traveller who visits his childhood friend Roderick, a man with painfully sharpened senses who buries his sister Madeline alive. Eight days later, Madeline rises from the grave, Roderick drops dead, and a sudden crack in the earth swallows up the siblings and their home. FTP, this is the plot of what short story by Edgar Allan Poe?
Answer: THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER
14. Their name literally meant, "The separated ones," and they advocated a general revival of ancient morals and a strict observance of Mosaic law. Primarily an urban, middle class group, they opposed the collaborationist policy of Saducees, but at the same time also rejected the violently anti Roman methods of the Zealots. FTP, name this influential religious group in first century Judea, most famous for their opposition to Jesus.
15. Of the 177 defendants, 35 were acquitted, 20 were sentenced to life in prison, 97 were given shorter prison terms, and 25 were sentenced to death. Among those condemned and executed were Julius Streicher, Alfred Jodl, and Joachim von Ribbentrop, while Herman Goering was sentenced to be hung but managed to commit suicide first. FTP, name this massive war crimes trial of 1946 and 1947.
Answer: The NUREMBURG Trials
16. The son of Charles V's court pharmacist, he first made a name for himself by disproving the biblical notion that men had one rib fewer than women, and he later debunked the Aristotelian theory that the heart is the seat of the mental activity. He is most important, however, for publishing the first comprehensive work on the human body since antiquity. FTP, name this Flemish scientist, considered the father of modern anatomy.
Answer: Andreas VESALIUS
17. Led by Andreies and Marthinius Pretorius, it began in 1835 when a few hundred families left British territory and crossed the Orange river with all their possessions and cattle. From there they split into three groups, with some remaining in place, some crossing to the other side of the Vaal river, and some invading Zulu territory to the east. FTP, give the name for this large northward migration of South Africa's Boers.
Answer: GREAT TREK
18. He served a term in parliament in the 1440s before deciding to quit politics for petty crime, and in 1451 he was imprisoned for rape, extortion, cattle rustling, and church robbing. While in jail he began a project of translating French chivalric romances, and eventually produced a work that he called "The Book of King Arthur and his Noble Knights of the Round Table." FTP, name this writer, whose book Caxton retitled as Le Morte d'Arthur.
Answer: Thomas MALORY
19. In 1895 he entered a scholarship competition to Cambridge and placed second, but was sent to England anyway after the first place finisher decided to remain in New Zealand and get married. Just thirteen years later, he was awarded a Nobel prize in chemistry, an award which he personally disowned, since he would have preferred to have been honored for physics. FTP, name this discoverer of the proton.
Answer: Ernest RUTHERFORD
20. One of his piano pieces contains the instruction that the performer play with both hands in his pockets, while his orchestral work "Vexations" consists of a single sheet of music which is to be played over and over again for twenty seven hours. FTP, name this French avant garde composer, best known for his score to Cocteau's ballet "Parade."
Answer: Erik SATIE
21. His original ambition was to be a singer for the Royal Danish Opera, and in his own lifetime he was best known as the author of such serious novels as "O.T.," "Only a Fiddler" and "The Improvisatore." FTP, name this writer now remembered primarily for "The Fir Tree," "The Tinder Box," "The Snow Queen," "The Princess and the Pea," "The Ugly Duckling," and 163 other fairy tales.
Answer: Hans Christian ANDERSEN
22. A great grandson of Louis XVI's defense attorney, this government official went abroad to study American prisons in 1831, and after this he published his first book, "The Penitentiary
System in the United States and its Application in France." Two years later, he revised this into a longer work, which dealt not only with prisons, but also with religion, political parties,
racial relations, and the Constitution. FTP, name this author of "Democracy in America."
Answer: Alexis de TOCQUEVILLE
23. Its first permanent European settlers were refugees from the 1771 Regulator crisis, who formed an independent government known as the Watauga association. Re annexed by its eastern neighbor in 1776, it revolted again in 1784, declaring itself the state of Franklin. FTP, name this former region of North Carolina, which was admitted to the Union as a separate state in 1796.
24. Three elderly men, Megillus the Spartan, Clinias the Cretan, and an unnamed Athenian meet and begin talking about good and bad systems of government. The conversation quickly becomes dominated by the Athenian, who begins describing not an ideal state, but the best possible government that can exist in a world of imperfect men. FTP, name this longest and last dialogue of Plato, the only one in which Socrates never appears.
Answer: The LAWS
25. He was a co winner of the 1930 Nobel Prize in Medicine with his supervisor, John MacLeod, but opted to split his prize money with Charles Best, a graduate student assistant who had been snubbed by the Nobel committee. FTP, name this Canadian physiologist whose work on dog pancreases led to the isolation of the hormone insulin.
Answer: Frederick BANTING
26. He was just fifteen when he independently devised the founding principles of conic theory, and a series of his letters to Fermat about gambling gave rise to the field of probability theory. A pioneer of both computing and infinitesimal mathematics, he also made the important discovery that the height of a mercury column in a barometer changes with altitude. FTP, name this French mathematician and philosopher, the namesake of both a computer language and an SI unit of pressure.
Answer: Blaise PASCAL
27. Children should not be taken to the doctor except for life threatening injuries, nor should they wear shoes or be sheltered from any discomfort or physical strain. Boys are not to be taught reading until the age of twelve, when they are presented with a copy of "Robinson Crusoe," while girls are to be trained exclusively to be the servants and pleasure objects of men. FTP, these are among the theories propounded by what 1762 treatise of education by Jean Jacques Rousseau?
28. It was invaded by its neighbor to the south in 1775 and 1812, it suppressed with great difficulty a secessionist revolt in 1837, and its western provinces were the site of two major rebellions led by Louis Riel in 1869 and 1885. FTP, name this large country with a perhaps undeserved reputation for political tranquility, which in 1994 saw a secessionist government come to power in its second largest province.
29. The former capital of the Mossi empire, this city of 500,000 sits on a plateau between the Red and White branches of the Volta river. Captured by the French in 1897, it was part of the Ivory Coast until 1947, when it was made capital of the new colony of Upper Volta. FTP, identify this fun to pronounce African city, which is now the capital of Burkina Faso.
He considered himself the living incarnation of Hercules and tried to rename the city of Rome after himself, but it was probably his insistence on being allowed to fight in gladiatorial combats
that led to his deposition in 192. For ten points, name this eccentric son and successor of Marcus Aurelius, whose ascension brought the period of the "good emperors" to an end.
1995 MLK Tournament
Questions by University of Chicago
1. Pencil and paper ready for this population genetics bonus. You may express your answers either as a percentage or as a fraction. A certain harmless trait is caused by a recessive allele on the x-chromosome which has a frequency of one in a hundred. For ten points each,
1. What is the percentage of persons having the trait among the male population?
Answer: 1 percent (1/100)
2. What is the percentage of persons having the trait among the female population?
Answer: .01 per cent (1/10,000)
3. Assuming that the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, exactly what percentage of females in the general population carry the gene but do not display the trait? (25 seconds)
Answer: 1.98 percent (198/10,000)
2. Many Christian saints have particular objects which they are almost always shown holding in paintings, the most famous example of which are the keys of St. Peter. For ten points each, given a saintly accessory and its meaning, name the apostle with which it is associated.
a: Either a cup containing a snake, which refers to an incident in he miraculously escaped being poisoned; or an eagle, the symbol of his Gospel.
b: A fishnet, signifying the original career of this apostle, or an x-shaped cross, signifying the method of his death.
c: This apostle is typically shown with a knife and a human skin, since legend has it that he met his martyrdom by being flayed alive.
Answer: Bartholomew (acc: NATHANIEL)
3. Women who like to dress as men, and the women who love them... Teenage suicide... Weddings on the run... Abandoned children... A series of topics for a trashy talk show? No, just a few of the recurring plot lines in Shakespeare's plays. Given a Shakespearean character and the play in which she appears, identify her as a cross-dresser, a woman who falls in love with a female cross-dresser, a suicide, a eloping bride, or an abandoned baby. Five points each.
1.Portia, "The Merchant of Venice" CROSS-DRESSER
2.Portia, "Julius Caesar" SUICIDE
3.Jessica, "The Merchant of Venice" ELOPES
4.Perdita, "The Winter's Tale" ABANDONED
5.Rosalind, "As You Like It" CROSS-DRESSER
6.Olivia, "Twelfth Night" LOVES3.D
4. Identify the following Vice.Presidents of the United States on a 10-5 basis.
1.(10) The only bachelor vice president as well as the only VP to be sworn in outside the country, he is thought to have been the homosexual lover of James Buchanan.
(5) This vice president of Franklin Pierce also had the shortest tenure of office, dying of tuberculosis just six weeks after his inauguration.
2.(10) Shortly before his election, this vice president created a minor scandal by sponsoring a government expedition to Mongolia in search of cave paintings by Jesus Christ.
(5) This second vice president of FDR later ran as a thir4. party candidate for president in 1948.
3.(10) As postmaster general in 1885, this Illinois democrat earned the nickname of "Axeman" after firing 40,000 republican postal employees.
(5) This vice resident of Grover Cleveland is less well-known than his grandson of the same name, who ran for president in 1952 and 1956.
Answer: William Rufus DeVane KING; Henry WALLACE; Adalai STEVENSON
5. For the stated number of points, identify the following Soviet film directors from brief descriptions.
1. For five points: perhaps the only Soviet filmmaker to have a permanent influence of American cinema, his films include "Strike," "The Battleship Potemkin," and "Alexander Nevsky."
2. For fifteen points: this co-founder of the experimental FEX studio is best known for his pr5.war "Maxim" trilogy, as well as his later adaptions of "Hamlet" and "King Lear."
3. For ten points: considered the last great Soviet film director, he died in exile in Sweden after a career that included "Ivan's Childhood," "The Mirror," and "Andrei Rublov."
Answer: Sergei EISENSTEIN, Grigori KOZINTSEV, Andrei TARKOVSKY
6. For ten points each, identify the following novels by William Faulkner, given a brief summary of their plot.
1.The matriarch of the extremely rustic Bundren family dies, and husband and children must overcome numerous natural disasters in order to carry her rotting corpse to the city for burial.
Answer: As I Lay Dying
2.Temple Drake is raped, abducted, and sold into prostitution, but afterwards blames it all on an innocent man, who is then lynched by a mob.
3.Eleven-year-old Lucius Priest, Boon Hogganbeck, and Ned McCaslin steal grandfather's car, drive it halfway to Memphis, and trade it for a racehorse.
Answer: The Reivers
7. For ten points each, identify the following heretics, given the circumstances under which they were burned.
a: This Bohemian religious reformer was burned at the Council of Constance in 1415, in spite of the fact that he had been given a pass of safe conduct by the Holy Roman Emperor.
b: In 1553, this Spanish theologian fled to Geneva to escape the Catholic Inquisition, only to be burned by the protestant theocracy of John Calvin.
c: This Bulgarian neo-Manichaeist preacher, who died at the stake in 1184, was the principal victim of the Byzantine Empire's last major persecution of heretics.
Answer: John HUSS, Michael SERVETUS, BASIL the BOGOMIL
8. For ten points each, identify these cows of world mythology.
1. In Greek mythology, this girl was transformed into a heifer after being seduced by Zeus, and was later chased all over the world by the Gadfly of Hera.
2. In Norse mythology, this primeval cow was one of the first two creatures to be created, and was the source of food for the primeval giant Ymir.
3. In Egyptian mythology, this sacred bull was the son of Isis and Ptah and acted as intermediary between the gods and the priests of Memphis.
Answer: IO; AUDHUMLA; APIS
9. Given a novel of the American south, identify the real or fictional state in which it is set, for ten points each.
1."To Kill A Mockingbird," by Flannery O'Connor ALABAMA
2."All The King's Men," by Robert Penn Warren LOUISIANA
3."Look Homeward, Angel," by Thomas Wolfe CATAWBA
10. Write down the following list: Dead, Married, Alive but broken- hearted, Imprisoned, None of the above. Now, given a character from a Russian novel, describe that character's status at the end of the book by using one of the terms from the list.
1.Eugene Onegin, from Pushkin's "Eugene Onegin." ALIVE/BROKEN-HEARTED
2.Chichikov, from Gogol's "Dead Souls." NONE OF THE ABOVE
3.Bazarov, from Turgenev's "Fathers and Sons." DEAD
4.Raskolnikov, from Dostoevskii's "Crime and Punishment" IMPRISONED
5.Natasha Rostova, from Tolstoy's "War and Peace." MARRIED
6.The Master, from Bulgakov's "Master and Margarita." DEAD
11. For ten points each: given a list of buildings and designs,
name the Finnish architect responsible for them. 1. The Helsinki Railway station; Christ Church, Minneapolis, and an unused design for the Chicago Tribune Tower. 2. The TWA Terminal at JFK airport; Ezra Stiles and Morse colleges at Yale; The main terminal of Dulles Airport.
3. The Finlandia Concert Hall in Helsinki; the Finnish Pavilion at the 1937 Paris exhibition; lots of bent plywood furniture.
Answer: ELIEL SAARINEN; EERO SAARINEN; Alvar AALTO
12. For the stated number of points, identify these American civil war battles of 1862.
1. (5 pts) The bloodiest singl5.day battle of the war, this September 17 battle turned back Lee's invasion of Maryland.
2.(15 pts) Fought a month after Antietam and like Antietam a tactical draw, this battle ended Braxton Bragg's invasion of Kentucky.
3.(10 pts) This December 13 battle found Lee's army entrenched in a virtually invincible position on top of a long, open hill, against which the northerners made no less than thirteen suicidal assaults. At day's end, what was left of the Union army retreated to Washington.
Answer: ANTIETAM (acc: SHARPSBURG); PERRYVILLE; FREDERICKSBURG
13. In honor of all those endlessly repetitive bonus questions that ask you to match the vitamin to the deficiency disease, we present this bonus about the scientists whose discoveries made those questions possible. For fifteen points each, identify:
1.Either of the two winners of the 1929 Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology, whose experiments with beriberi, rickets, and scurvy first made the connection between the abscence of trace substances and certain diseases.
2.The Polish-American biochemist who, while attempting to systematize the earlier work of Hopkins and Eijkman, invented the name "vitamin."
Answer: Christiaan EIJKMAN or Frederick HOPKINS, Casimir FUNK
14. For ten points each, identify the Chinese dynasties in which the following cultural or religious events tooks place.
1. Considered the classical age of Chinese literature, it was the era of Mencius, Lao Tzu, and Confucius.
2. The government is reorganized and the country unified according to the principles of Confucius, paper is invented, and Buddhism is introduced from India.
3. The golden age of Chinese painting and sculpture, it also produces many of China's greatest poets, including Li Po, Po Chu-Yi, and Tu Fu.
Answer: CHOU, HAN, T'ANG
15. This bonus will test your knowledge of cities that are not yet the capitals of independent countries, but which would very much like to become so. Given some secessionist regions and the countries from which they are trying to separate themselves, name their capitals for five points each.
1.East Timor, Indonesia DALI
2.Tibet, China LHASA
3.Basque Province, Spain BILBAO
16. Answer the following questions about mishaps in the history of space exploration, for ten points each.
1. Name the first-ever fatality of the space program, a Soviet cosmonaut killed when the parachute of his capsule failed to open during splashdown in 1967.
2. Next, give the name and number of the 1971 Soviet mission in which a capsule suddenly depressurized in space, the only killing three cosmonauts.
3.Finally, name the 1970 American moon mission that had to be aborted after both the oxygen and fuel systems suddenly failed, the subject of a current film.
Answer: Vladimir KOMAROV; SOYUZ 11; APOLLO 13
17. For the stated number of points, identify the following Mozart operas from a partial list of characters.
1. (5 pts) Leperello, Donna Elvira, the Commendatore.
2. (10 pts) Constanze, Belmonte, Pasha Selim
3. (5) Tamino, Papageno, the Queen of the Night
4. (10) Vitellia, Servilla, Publio
Answer: DON GIOVANNI; The ABDUCTION FROM THE SERAGLIO; The MAGIC FLUTE; LA CLEMENZA DI TITO (acc: "The Clemency of Titus.")
18. For five points each: given a winner of the Nobel Prize in economics, identify the university with which they were associated at the time of the award.
1.Paul Samuelson, 1970 M.I.T.
2.Simon Kuznets, 1971 HARVARD
3.Milton Friedman, 1976 CHICAGO
4.Herbert Simon, 1978 CARNEGI5.MELLON
5.Franco Modigliani, 1985 YALE
6.Gary Becker, 1992 CHICAGO
19. For ten points each, identify the following international team sports, given the names of a few of their most prestigious competitions and trophies.
1. The Five Nations Championship, the Pilkington Cup, the Schweppes Welsh Cup.
2. The Bermuda Bowl, the Venice Cup, the World Team Olympiad.
3. The Benson and Hedges Cup, the NatWest Bank Trophy, the Sheffield Shield.
Answer: Union RUGBY; Contract BRIDGE; CRICKET
20. For ten points each, identify the following scientific scales.
1.Named for a German minerologist, this scale for mineral hardness ranges from 1 (talc) to 10 (diamond).
2.Named for a nineteenth-century British navigator and explorer, this weather scale ranges from 0 (no wind at all) to 12 (hurricane or worse).
3. Like the Kelvin scale, this is an absolute temperature scale is calibrated to absolute zero. Unlike the Kelvin scale, it is based on the farenheit rather than the celsius system.
Answer: MOHS' Scale, BEAUFORT Scale, RANKINE Scale.
21. For the stated number of points, identify the following figures
of modern Polish literature.
1. For five points: Winner of the 1905 Nobel Prize in literature, he is the author of the historical novels "With Fire and Sword," "The Teutonic Knights," and "Quo Vadis."
2. For ten points: Winner of the 1980 Nobel Prize, this catastrophist poet of "Bells and Winter" and "The Captive Mind" spent much of his career in American exile.
3.For fifteen points: winner of the 1924 Nobel Prize, this novelist was best known for the trilogies "Rok," and "The Peasants."
Answer: Henryk SIENKIEWICZ, Czeslaw MILOSZ, Wladyslaw REYMONT
24. For five points each, given the administrative capitals of some British-administered islands, name the island.
1. Douglas ISLE OF MAN
2. Road Town BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS
3. Adamstown PITCAIRN Island
4. Jamestown SAINT HELENA
5. Hamilton BERMUDA
6. St. Peter Port GUERNSEY
25. For fifteen points each, identify these two influential figures of modern sociology.
1. The founder of Harvard's School of Social Relations, he is credited with developing the structural-functional school of sociology. Among his more important books are "The Social System" and "Politics and Social Structure."
2. Beginning with his 1952 work "The Mechanical Bride," this Canadian sociologist argued that modern communication would eventually render the concepts of individual and nation meaningless. He is best known for coining the phrase "global village."
Answer: Talcott PARSONS; Marshall MCLUHAN
26. For the stated number of points, idenitfy these members of the Adams family:
5 points: The grandson of John Quincy Adams, the writings of this historian and novelist include "Mont-Ssint-Michel," "Democracy," the essay, "The Virgin and the Dynamo," and a
10: The brother of Henry, he abandoned Wall Street for history-writing and produced such works as "Massachusetts: Its History and Historians" and "Railroads: Their Origins and Problems."
15: Yet another Adams historian, his major work is 1900's "America's Economic Supremacy," which predicted that by 1950, the world would be dominated by the United States and Russia.
Answer: HENRY Adams; CHARLES FRANCIS Adams; BROOKS Ada ms
27. In 1356, the Golden Bull of Charles IV established the system by which Holy Roman Emperors would be chosen by the bishops of three certain ecclesiastical sees and the secular rulers of four specific territories. For five points each, name any six of these seven orignal electorates.
Answer: Archbishops of TRIER, COLOGNE, and MAINZ: Margrave of BRANDENBURG, King of BOHEMIA, Count Palatinate of the RHINE, Duke of SAXONY
28. Consider the following human blood types: A, B, AB, and O. For ten points each:
1. Which of the four types of blood can safely be donated to
a person with any of the other blood types?
2. A person with which type can accept blood from each of the four groups?
3. Imagine that a person with type AB blood has a child with a person of type O blood. For a final ten points, what are the possible ABO blood types for the child?
Answer: O, AB, A and B
29. For ten points each: given a geologic or evolutionary development, identify the epoch of the Cenezoic era in which it occurred.
1. An isthmus develops between North America and South America; the first manlike apes appear.
2. Arabia splits from Africa; the first modern horses, pigs, and dogs appear.
3. Glacial drift reaches its peak; the horse and camel disappear from North America; Cro-Magnon man appears.
Answer: PLIOCENE, OLIGOCENE, PLEISTOCENE
British North America was divided into the thirteen colonies, but the mainland part Spain's much larger New World empire was divided into just four viceroyalties on the eve of the revolutions. For ten points each, name any three of them.
Answer: NEW SPAIN, PERU, NEW GRANADA, LA PLATA