1984 european history section I, 100 Questions, expected time: 75 minutes

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1984 EUROPEAN HISTORY SECTION I, 100 Questions, expected time: 75 minutes

Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case and then blacken the corresponding space on the answer sheet.
1. Which of the following most accurately states Martin Luther’s basic religious belief as a leader of the Protestant Reformation?

(A) Monasticism is the highest calling.

(B) Personal works matter more than beliefs.

(C) Faith is the key to salvation.

(D) Christians are hot subject to secular authority.

(E) Christians should show tolerance toward other faiths.



2. The newspaper headlines above reflect attitudes associated with

(A) nihilism

(B) militarism

(C) Marxism

(D) liberalism

(E) nationalism
3. During the Renaissance, humanism contributed LEAST to which of the following?

(A) Popularization of medieval legends

(B) Renewed interest in original Greek and Roman manuscripts

(C) Development of modern national languages

(D) Promotion of liberal arts education

(E) Refinements in social manners and personal habits
4. Which of the following statements about Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) is true?

(A) He was a staunch advocate of violent revolution.

(B) He was the greatest scientist of his age.

(C) He was the leading atheist of his century.

(D) He was the best known skeptic of his time.

(E) He was the leading military strategist of his era.

5. “A prince should have only one end and one idea in mind, take only one subject for study, and it is war, its science and discipline; for it is the only science that deals with the ruler’s prob­lems. . . . [Success in war] not only maintains those born to princedoms but often causes men of private origin to rise to that rank. .. . The first cause of losing power is the neglect of this art; the cause of winning power lies in its mastery.”

In writing the passage above, Machiavelli drew on his observations of

(A) feudal warfare in medieval Europe

(B) warfare among the Italian city-states

(C) sixteenth-century religious wars

(D) warfare among the European colonial powers

(E) warfare during the Crusades

6. A sixteenth-century traveler would have been most likely to encounter this type of architecture in which of the following European countries?

(A) Spain

(B) France

(C) Germany

(D) England

(E) Sweden
7. Which of the following resulted from the English Reformation?

(A) Immediate wholesale persecution of Catholics in England

(B) Establishment of the English monarch as head of the Church of England

(C) The pope’s naming of Henry VIII as “Defender of the Faith”

(D) Papal recognition of the English church as independent, but still affiliated with Rome

(E) A revolt by members of the English aristocracy opposed to the Reformation

8. The painting shown above, “Judith and Holofernes” by Artemisia Gentileschi, is distinguished by its dramatic treatment of the subject, an oversized canvas, and intensified use of light and shadow. The art movement it represents is which of the following?

(A) Baroque

(B) Realism

(C) Impressionism

(D) Surrealism

(E) Neoclassicism

9. Of the following, the major political opponent of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V was

(A) Pope Clement VII

(B) Henry VIII of England

(C) Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden

(D) Francis I of France

(E) Philip II of Spain

10. The leaders of the Protestant Reformation have been divided by some contemporary Reforma­tion historians into a “right wing” and a “left wing.” Of the following, who is the only one who may be said to have belonged to the left?

(A) Martin Luther

(B) John Knox

(C) Philipp Melanchthon

(D) Thomas Münzer

(E) John Calvin

And New Philosophy calls all in doubt,

The element of Fire is quite put out;

The Sun is lost, and th’ Earth, and no man’s wit

Can well direct him where to look for it.
11. These verses by John Donne (1573-1631) refer to the scientific work of

(A) Harvey

(B) Leeuwenhoek

(C) Copernicus

(D) Paracelsus

(E) Ptolemy
12. In the period from Columbus’s discovery of the Americas to the American Revolution all of the following goods were imported from the New World to Europe in large quantities EXCEPT

(A) sugar

(B) gold

(C) iron ore

(D) furs

(E) tobacco
13. “All I can do is beg our virtuous ladies to raise their minds somewhat above their distaff and spindles and try to prove to the world that if we were not made to command, still we should not be disdained as companions in domestic and public matters by those who govern and command obedience.”

In the excerpt above from a letter written in 1555 by the French poet Louise Labê, the author does which of the following?

(A) Rejects domestic roles for women.

(B) Champions women’s intellectual abilities.

(C) Condemns the French school system.

(D) Encourages women to seek public office.

(E) Asserts the social superiority of women.

Questions 14-15 refer to the following statement:

Self-interest drives people to action and the Invisible Hand of competition acts as an automatic regulator so that the market will generate wealth for the nation.
14. The author of this passage would have agreed with which of the following statements?

(A) Government regulation of the market helps to promote a healthy economy.

(B) People will produce according to their abilities and be compensated according to their needs.

(C) Individual self-interest, however enlightened, will destroy the market.

(D) Government must not interfere with the market mechanism if it is to perform properly.

(E) Wealth will be divided equally by the market mechanism.

15. The ideas expressed in the passage are fundamental to the economic theories of

(A) socialism

(B) capitalism

(C) mercantilism

(D) communism

(E) fascism

16. In French political history the years 1814, 1830, and 1848 are known, respectively, for the

(A) execution of Louis XVI, the restoration of the Bourbons, and the establishment of

the Paris Commune

(B) restoration of the Bourbons, the election of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte as president and the establishment of the Paris Commune

(C) July Revolution of Louis Philippe, the resto­ration of the Bourbons, and the founding of the Second Republic

(D) restoration of the Bourbons, the July Revo­lution of Louis Philippe, and the

founding of the Second Republic

(E) restoration of the Bourbons, the July Revo­lution of Louis Philippe, and the coronation of Napoleon Ill as French emperor

17. The nation had been tottering on the verge of military insurrection since it became a republic in 1931, because the Republicans included not only moderate middle-class liberals but a wide array of extremists. ... A revolt by the army led to civil war, in which each side received aid from outside nations, which served to transform the local conflict into an international ideological war.

The nation described above was

(A) Spain

(B) Italy

(C) Poland

(D) Yugoslavia

(E) Algeria
18. Eighteenth-century popularizers of the seventeenth-century scientific revolution would have most likely agreed with which of the following statements?

(A) God intervenes actively in the universe’s operation.

(B) Understanding the natural order is beyond human comprehension.

(C) Humans are imperfect and wicked by nature.

(D) Underlying natural laws govern society.

(E) Respect for tradition ensures human progress.

19. The Council of Trent (1545-1563) was the major body through which

(A) Spain strengthened its position against the Turks

(B) the house of Hapsburg gained control over Italy

(C) the Roman Catholic church reformed itself

(D) European states entered into economic cooperation

(E) Puritans and Catholics were reconciled

20. Which of the following is NOT true of the Edict of Nantes (1598)?

(A) It was issued by Henry IV of France.

(B) It allowed the practice of Protestantism in France.

(C) It was responsible for the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre.

(D) It was revoked by Louis XIV.

(E) It was accepted by the French Huguenots.
21. The Dutch Republic rose to prominence in seventeenth-century Europe because of which of the following factors?

(A) Its agricultural innovations

(B) Its military strength

(C) Its literary creativity

(D) Its religious unity

(E) Its shipping and commerce
22. Which of the following was most typical of pre-industrial European village society?

(A) Single-crop agricultural production

(B) Domestic manufacture of most household goods

(C) Upward economic mobility from one generation to the next

(D) Low infant-mortality rates

(E) Long life expectancy

23. According to the theory of mercantilism, colonies should be

(A) granted independence as soon as possible

(B) acquired as markets and sources of raw materials

(C) considered an economic burden for the colonial power

(D) used as settlement areas for surplus population

(E) encouraged to develop their own industries

24. The revolt against France’s increasingly centralized monarchy in 1648-1652 is generally known as

(A) the Mazarinade

(B) Colbertism

(C) the Fronde

(D) the seige of La Rochelle

(E) the Pazzi Conspiracy
25. Poland’s decline as a major political entity during the seventeenth century can be attributed largely to

(A) the failure of the papacy to recognize the legitimacy of the Polish kings

(B) a population decline resulting from the Thirty Years’ War

(C) the conquest of the kingdom by the Ottoman Turks

(D) failure of the universities to create a literate aristocracy

(E) the absence of a powerful central authority
26. Which of the following is true about the rulers of both Austria and Prussia during the 17th century?

(A) They patterned their society after that of the Ottoman Empire.

(B) They succeeded in avoiding war for most of the century.

(C) They created centralized, unified nation-states.

(D) They abolished serfdom.

(E) They maintained permanent standing armies.
27. The concept of the European balance of power, as it emerged by the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries, had which of the following as its most fundamental aim?

(A) The elimination of war as an instrument of international relations

(B) The prevention of the preponderance of one power in Europe

(C) An approximate balance between the land and the sea powers

(D) Isolation of conflict to certain contested land areas

(E) The division of Europe into two groups of states, both approximately equal in potential military power

28. Surgeon barbers of the preindustrial period are generally associated with which of the following treatments for illness and disease?

(A) Herbal medicines

(B) Exorcism

(C) “Touching” by the king

(D) Quarantine

(E) Bloodletting
29. Of the following, which setting provided unmar­ried women in preindustrial Europe with the greatest opportunity to exercise their literary, artistic, and administrative talents?

(A) Government councils

(B) Convents

(C) Guilds

(D) Universities

(E) Banking houses

30. Which of the following was a persistent cause of agitation and protests by the Parisian lower classes in the eighteenth century?

(A) Efforts to reimpose the guild system

(B) Bourgeois demands for a greater voice in government

(C) Lavish displays of wealth by the clergy

(D) Frustration of artisans’ attempts to organize into unions

(E) Substantial increases in the cost of bread
31. Which of the following had the largest population in 1763?

(A) France

(B) Sweden

(C) England
(D) Austria

(E) Spain

32. “Sincerely influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment, this monarch abolished capital punishment, established equality before the law, freed the serfs, created a system of primary education, established religious toleration, and tightened the control of the state over the established church.”

The enlightened despot described above was

(A) Catherine the Great of Russia

(B) Joseph II of Austria

(C) Maria Theresa of Austria

(D) Frederick the Great of Prussia

(E) Charles III of Spain

33. The primary goal of France in entering the Thirty Years’ War was to

(A) defend Catholicism against German Protestants

(B) reduce the power of the Hapsburgs

(C) punish the Swedish king, Gustavus Adolphus

(D) conquer Brandenburg-Prussia

(E) place a Bourbon on the Spanish throne

34. Disturbances in Belgium, France, Germany, and Italy between 1830 and 1832 can best be explained as manifestations of

(A) religious revivalism in the face of materialism and secularism

(B) a communist offensive against the capitalists

(C) a crusade by romantic intellectuals to overthrow classicism

(D) student campaigns for access to higher education and the professions

(E) liberal and nationalist dissatisfaction with the Restoration political order
35. Which of the following is true of Frederick William I, king of Prussia from 1713-1740?

(A) He lived lavishly off the taxes that his bureaucracy collected.

(B) He built a first-rate army and infused Prussian society with military values.

(C) He refused to employ commoners in his bureaucracy.

(D) He recruited tall soldiers from all of Europe to fight in his frequent wars.

(E) He encouraged the development of local self-government.

36. Which of the following is true of the Romantic movement in early nineteenth-century Europe?

(A) It opposed emotional exuberance and excess

  1. It shunned the study and writing of history

  2. It was, in part, a reaction to the classicism of an earlier period

  3. Among the arts, its influence was felt almost exclusively in music

  4. It emphasized adherence to universally accepted standards in the arts

37. Which of the following facilitated the counter-revolutionary triumph within the Hapsburg Empire in 1849?

(A) The adoption of a new constitution that provided for regional autonomy

(B) The loyalty of the Slavs and the Germans to the monarchy

(C) The neutrality of Serbia

(D) The military intervention by the Ottoman Empire

(E) The lack of cooperation among nationalities in the Hapsburg Empire

  1. “As historians from Karl Marx through Georges Lefebvre and Albert Soboul have argued, the main accomplishment of the French Revolution was to abolish feudalism in France and to clear the ground for capitalist economic expansion and the rule of the bourgeoisie.”

Which of the following views is consistent with the interpretation above?

(A) The Revolution strengthened the domination of landed proprietors in France

(B) The Revolution eliminated guilds, seigneurial rights, and other obstacles to French agricultural and industrial advance

(C) The long-term transition from feudalism to capitalism occurred over many centuries, not between 1789 and 1794

(D) The Revolution abolished private property in France and thus created a modern democratic society

(E) Both before and after the Revolution, France was ruled by leaders drawn from the ranks of the nobility and bourgeoisie

39. A major revolutionary ideal spread throughout Europe by the French armies during the Revolutionary and the Napoleonic periods was that

  1. careers should be open to talented individuals from all classes

  2. workers have the right to form labor unions and bargain collectively

  3. every individual is entitled to a free, public education

  4. private property should be abolished

  5. the aged and the infirm should have the right to public support

40. During 1793-1794, Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety owed much of their influence to the support of

(A) Catholics angered by the Civil Constitution of the Clergy

(B) liberal nobles eager to promote economic progress

(C) a group of small property owners and wage laborers in Paris who were concerned

about high food prices

(D) industrial workers in Paris and Lyon who were angry about conditions in the newly opened cotton mills

(E) provincial middle-class businessmen concerned about excessive centralization of government
41. The Peace of Utrecht (1713-1714) altered the balance of power in Europe by

(A) checking French expansion

(B) decreasing Austrian territorial holdings

(C) decreasing England’s colonial empire

(D) granting sovereignty over Belgium to the Netherlands

(E) granting independence to Spain’s New World colonies

42. The indentations at points X and Y on both sides of the graph above are best explained as the result of the

(A) drought and poor crop yields during the First and Second World Wars

(B) low number of births during the First and Second World Wars

(C) influenza epidemics following the First and Second World Wars

(D) deportation of French citizens by Germany during the First and Second World Wars

(E) military losses suffered by France in the Indochinese and Algerian wars

43. All of the following were aspects of life in the largest cities of Western Europe during the latter half of the nineteenth century EXCEPT

(A) increasing availability of what had been luxury foodstuffs—sugar, tea, and

meat—to the lower middle classes

(B) sensationalist tabloid newspapers covering both national and international news

(C) significant numbers of workers responsive to socialist ideology

(D) declining standards of public health and life expectancy

(E) increasing nationalism among the urban populations

44. Prince Klemens von Metternich used the Germanic Confederation to

(A) oppose liberalism and nationalism in Central Europe

(B) encourage the penetration of France into the German states

(C) prevent British military domination of the European continent

(D) aid the spread of radicalism in the German states

(E) make Prussia the dominant power among the German states

45. Elizabeth I of England and her contemporary, Henry IV of France. have been called politiques because they believed that

(A) doctrinal unity was necessary to political unity

(B) religious questions were as important as political questions

(C) religion was the most important part of politics

(D) political leaders should not be involved in religious questions

(E) theological controversy should be subordinate to political unity


Population Size (millions) Average Growth Rates per Annum

1800 1850 1900 1800-1850 1850-1900

France 28 36 41 0.47% 0.25%

Great Britain 11 21 37 1.30% 1.14%
46. The difference between French and British population growth was primarily caused by the

(A) earlier adoption of birth control in Great Britain

(B) earlier adoption of birth control in France

(C) higher level of infant mortality in Great Britain

(D) higher reproduction rate in France

(E) greater loss of population in Great Britain due to wars

47. Which of the following best characterizes the social structure of the German Empire in1871?

(A) A conservative compromise between the old aristocracy and the new middle class

(B) The triumph of the middle class

(C) An equitable federation of the traditional German states

(D) An amicable compromise between the middle class and the industrial proletariat

(E) The triumph of the industrial east over the agrarian west
48. Which of the following describes the Carbonari?

(A) Members of a union of coal miners

(B) Members of a secret revolutionary society

(C) A group of tax collectors on the Rhine

(D) Members of the Italian Communist Party

(E) A selected force of Turkish cavalry

49. “His enthusiasm for scientific method, his belief that everything could be reduced to mathemat­ical terms, and his insistence on systematic doubt of all earlier theories left a profound mark on the thinking of scientists in the next two centuries.

The passage above is a description of the work of

(A) Francis Bacon

(B) Tycho Brahe

(C) Isaac Newton

(D) Renê Descartes

(E) Baruch Spinoza

50. Which of the following is true of Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642)?

(A) He led the French church in opposition to the monarchy.

(B) He expelled the Huguenots from France.

(C) He strengthened the intendant method of local government.

(D) He effectively abolished the sale of offices and tax farming in France.

(E) He supported the French nobility against the monarchy.
51. Which of the following best describes the Christian humanism of Erasmus?

(A) A complete break with Roman Catholic theology

(B) A defense of individual interpretation of the Bible

(C) The application of Renaissance scholarship to questions of ecclesiastical & moral reform

(D) A return to the Scholastic theology of Thomas Aquinas

(E) A plea for a return to monasticism as the highest Christian calling
Questions 52-53 refer to the following document.

The National Assembly, considering that it has been summoned to establish the constitution of the kingdom, to effect the regeneration of public order, and to maintain the true principles of monarchy; that nothing can prevent it from continuing its delibera­tions in whatever place it may be forced to establish itself; and, finally, that wheresoever its members are assembled, there is the National Assembly;

Decrees that all members of this Assembly shall immediately take a solemn oath not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established and consolidated upon firm foundations; and that, the said oath taken, all members and each one of them individually shall ratify this steadfast resolution by signature.
52. This document records an oath of unity taken by members of the

(A) English Parliament in their opposition to Charles I, thus marking the beginning of the

Puritan revolt

(B) English Parliament in their opposition to James II, thus marking the beginning of the Glorious Revolution

(C) First Continental Congress in their opposition to George III, thus marking the beginning of the American Revolutionary War

(D) French Estates General in opposition to Louis XVI, thus marking the beginning of the French Revolution

(E) French legislative assembly in response to the defeat of Napoleon 1, thus marking the restoration of the French monarchy

53. This agreement is commonly known as the

(A) Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

(B) Oath of Supremacy

(C) Carlsbad Decrees

(D) Tennis Court Oath

(E) Petition of Right

54. All of the following were factors in the spread of literacy during the 15th and 16th cen­turies EXCEPT

(A) the invention of printing

(B) the Protestant Reformation

(C) the rise of state bureaucracies

(D) an increase in compulsory state education

(E) a decline in the use of Latin

55. Which of the following was a major social effect of the early Industrial Revolution?

(A) New rhythms of work and leisure

(B) Increase of the average age at first marriage

(C) Rapid improvement in workers’ wages

(D) Decline of children’s employment opportunities

(E) Extensive government efforts to provide public housing
56. Johannes Kepler improved on Copernicus’ theories by

(A) introducing the concept of heliocentrism

(B) demonstrating the laws of gravitational attraction

(C) initially questioning the theory of crystalline spheres

(D) demonstrating that planets have elliptical orbits

(E) charting the epicycles of the planets

57. The chart above depicts the process of urbaniza­tion in

(A) Austria- Hungary

(B) England and Wales

(C) France

(D) Germany

(E) Spain and Portugal

58. One policy Peter the Great used to make Russia a great power was to

(A) decrease the tax burden on his poorer subjects

(B) build a new capital where his nobles and merchants were obliged to settle

(C) abolish serfdom

(D) encourage national pride by urging his subjects to retain traditional dress and customs

(E) introduce military conscription for all adult males

59. The principal reason England reverted to a monarchical form of government following the Interregnum of Oliver Cromwell lay in Cromwell’s

(A) ineffective mercantilist policy

(B) inability to establish broad popular support for his government

(C) inability to impose religious uniformity

(D) ineffective foreign policy

(E) inability to control dissidents in the army

60. One of the major tenets of Karl Marx’s work was that

(A) peasants and artisans would combine with factory workers to lead the forthcoming socialist revolution

(B) by increasing social interaction, capitalism improved the quality of human relation­ships

(C) the Industrial Revolution was a social disas­ter which had to be undone to restore the humane preindustrial society

(D) history moves inevitably through a series of stages culminating in socialism

(E) the historical function of government has been to protect the weak from exploita­tion by the powerful

61. The symbol above advocates the union in political action of which of the following classes or groups in Italian society?

(A) Intellectuals, priests, and industrialists

(B) Workers, peasants, and intellectuals

(C) Students and civil servants

(D) Workers and priests

(E) Industrialists and intellectuals

62. In the eighteenth century, all of the following were significant motives for wars EXCEPT

(A) dynastic claims

(B) balance of power considerations

(C) commercial rivalries

(D) religious differences

(E) policies of territorial expansion

63. The 1870 English political cartoon shown above is a comment on

(A) the division of Italy into a number of religious and secular states

(B) the pope’s retention of spiritual authority in spite of his loss of temporal control

(C) the military power of the pope as opposed to that wielded by the king

(D) church control of secondary education

(E) the eagerness of the pope to ally himself with the king

64. Surrealism, an artistic genre of the twentieth century, has as a central theme the

(A) accurate portrayal of a moment in time

(B) exploration of dream images and the irra­tional

(C) depiction of contemporary mass-produced goods and images

(D) idealization of cone, cube, and cylinder shapes

(E) portrayal of ordinary people in natural settings

65. Which of the following was the primary cause of the Hapsburg-Valois feud, which dominated European international politics in the sixteenth century?

(A) The differences in the religious positions taken by the two families during the Protestant Reformation

(B) The refusal of Charles of Hapsburg to marry a Valois princess

(C) Competition for colonies overseas

(D) The conflicting political ambitions of the two families

(E) Clashing territorial interests in southern Germany

66. The Industrial Revolution was partially responsible for all of the following developments in Great Britain EXCEPT

(A) an increase in the mobility of the work force

(B) the improvement of the transportation network

(C) increased emigration to the colonies

(D) a large increase in annual national income

(E) an increase in the number of small landowners

67. In the mid-seventeenth century, the area shaded black shown on the map above belonged to

(A) Russia
(B) Poland

(C) Sweden

(D) Austria

(E) Brandenburg-Prussia
68. Which of the following best explains the motivation of the Bolshevik government in signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918?

(A) The Bolshevik government made no claim to authority in non-Russian-speaking territories.

(B) Lenin was sympathetic to the German cause and felt that the treaty would aid the German war effort on the western front.

(C) Lenin was attracted by German promises to aid Russian industrial development.

(D) Lenin was not willing to risk his limited power base through further struggle against a foreign enemy.

(E) The Bolsheviks thought that the treaty could be discarded soon because the Germans would lose the war in a few months

69. For China, a major consequence of the Opium War (1841) was

(A) a unification of its territories

(B) a rapid increase in industrialization

(C) a decline in nationalist sentiment

(D) the Westernization of government policies

(E) an increase in hostility to Europeans

70. Louis XIV did which of the following to provide better protection for himself and to reduce the influence of the Paris mob?

(A) Built the Bastille.

(B) Introduced religious instruction in the Parisian public schools.

(C) Moved the government from Paris to Versailles.

(D) Increased the number of soldiers stationed in Paris.

(E) Banned further internal migration from the countryside into Paris.

Year Area I Area II

1850 90% 3%

1875 36% 52%

71. Areas I and II in the table above refer, respectively, to

(A) North America and Australia

(B) Europe and North America

(C) France and Prussia

(D) Australia and France

(E) Europe and Asia

72. Which of the following was most closely associated with anarchism?

(A) The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie

(B) The execution of Tsar Nicholas 11 and his family

(C) The split between the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks

(D) The formation of the Fabian Society

(E) The growth of the syndicalist movement

73. The painting above, the “Gare Saint-Lazare” (1877) by Claude Monet, is an example of which of the following schools of painting?

(A) Abstract

(B) Surrealism

(C) Cubist

(D) Impressionist

(E) Baroque

74. By the 1870’s, most Western European governments had begun to provide all of the following EXCEPT

(A) primary schooling for children

(B) safety inspection of factories

(C) public parks, museums, and libraries

(D) municipal water and sewage disposal in urban areas

(E) medical and health insurance
75. After the Second World War, events in France indicated that the Fourth Republic had which of the following in common with the Third Republic?

(A) Legislative instability because of frequent dissolution of the legislature

(B) Legislative stability because of the presence of two strong parties in the legislature

(C) Executive stability because of steady support from the legislature

(D) Executive instability because of frequent changes of party coalitions in the legislature

(E) Legislative and executive stability because of strong support from trade unions and small businessmen

“We see men living with their skulls blown open; we see soldiers run with their two feet cut off . . . Still the littlest piece of convulsed earth in which we lie is held. We have yielded no more than a few hundred yards of it as a prize to the enemy. But on every yard there lies a dead men.”
76. The quotation above presents a major theme in

(A) Emile Zola’s Germinal

(B) Albert Camus’s The Stranger

(C) T.S. Eliot’s The Waste Land

(D) James Joyce’s Ulysses

(E) Erich Remarque’s All Quiet on the Western Front
77. Which of the following was a major factor responsible for the Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War (1918-1921) ?

(A) The Bolsheviks controlled the periphery of the country

(B) The governments of France and Great Britain supported the Bolshevik cause with food and war supplies

(C) Trotsky created a disciplined and effective Red Army

(D) The Bolsheviks had the undivided support of the peasants

(E) The Bolsheviks refused to use the Cheka to subdue the opposition
78. Policies adopted by the major European states between 1929 and 1936 to deal with the economic depression included which of the following?

  1. Protective tariffs and bilateral international trade agreements

  2. Deflationary fiscal and monetary policies

  3. Cooperative international efforts to redevelop old industries

  1. I only

  2. III only

  3. I and II only

  4. II and III only

  5. I, II, and III

79. All of the following describe aspects of Lenin’s New Economic Policy (NEP) EXCEPT:

(A) State ownership of heavy industry, banks, and transport ended

(B) The growth of a group of prosperous, independent peasants was encouraged

(C) There was a tactical retreat in communist economic planning

(D) Industries employing fewer than twenty workers were denationalized

(E) All agricultural requisitions ended and were replaced by conventional taxes
80. Of the following, which of Wilson’s Fourteen Points was fully implanted?

(A) “Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety.”

(B) “Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at . . . .”

(C) “A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims.”

(D) “All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored, and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871 in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine . . . should be righted . . .”

(E) “A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality.”

81. The League of Nations differed from the United Nations in that the League

(A) could send troops to any area to stop a war or enforce economic sanctions

(B) was not concerned with the improvement of world health standards

(C) did not have as members several of the world’s most important industrialized nations

(D) had a larger treasury from which to make grants for food and technological


(E) had authority to enforce decisions made by the World Court

82. Which of the following contributed to the economic decline of Spain in the seventeenth century?

I. The overexpansion of Spanish manufactures

II. The loss of a colonial empire

III. The debasement of the coinage

IV. The expulsion of the Moriscos

(A) I and II only

(B) II and III only

(C) III and IV only

(D) I, II, and III only

(E) I, II, III, and IV
83. Historically, which of the following factors has proved LEAST necessary for making a success­ful revolution?

(A) Support of the military forces

(B) Well-organized revolutionary leaders

(C) Grievances providing motivation to revolt

(D) Active participation of the majority of citizens

(E) Ineptness of the government in power

“The worth of a State, in the long run, is the worth of the individuals composing it: and a State which dwarfs its men, in order that they may be more docile instruments ... will find that with small men no great thing can be accomplished.”
84. Which of the following would agree with the statement above?

(A) Benito Mussolini

(B) John Stuart Mill

(C) Otto von Bismarck

(D) Louis XIV

(E) Pope Leo XI

85. Which of the following best describes a League of Nations “mandate”?

(A) A colonial territory assigned to a member nation to be administered for the League

(B) A League action requiring parties in a dispute to observe a “cooling-off period”

(C) A call on member nations to take action against an aggressor

(D) An appointment of a member nation to the Council of the League of Nations

(E) A report of a finding by the League that an act of aggression has been committed

86. Which of the following had the LEAST effect on European thought in the first half of the twentieth century?

(A) The uncertain and complex universe of Einstein’s and Heisenberg’s physics

(B) The undermining of the optimistic belief in human rationality by Freudian


(C) The utopian literature of Sir Thomas More and Roger Bacon

(D) Logical empiricism’s limitation of the scope of philosophical inquiry to the scientifi­cally and mathematically verifiable

(E) The Darwinist idea of human behavior as determined by evolutionary forces
87. Which of the following developments occurred in Europe in the 1920’s?

(A) Devastating inflation in Germany

(B) High prices paid to farmers for agricultural commodities

(C) Repudiation of the Locarno treaties

(D) The widespread formation of Popular Front governments

(E) Nearly full employment in Great Britain

88. All of the following statements regarding changes that occurred in the religious life of Western Europe between 1870 and 1914 are true EXCEPT:

(A) Many Protestant groups became divided between fundamentalists and modernists.

(B) The Roman Catholic church was slower to adapt to cultural change than were the Protestant groups.

(C) The major Jewish communities rejected the changes brought about by urbanization and became more orthodox.

(D) The Status of religion generally in Western European culture was undermined by growing materialism.

(E) The churches’ traditional role in education and social welfare was being rapidly taken over by the state.
89. Which of the following provisions affecting Germany in the Versailles Treaty (1919) was LEAST important in fostering antagonisms that led to the Second World War?

(A) The loss of Germany’s Pacific island possessions

(B) The creation of the Polish Corridor and the establishment of Danzig as a self-governing city within the Polish tariff area

(C) The payment by Germany of reparations for war damages

(D) The limitation of the German army to 100,000 members

(E) The assignment of sole responsibility for planning and instigating the war to Germany
90. Konrad Adenauer, Alcide De Gasperi, and Robert Schuman were alike in their

(A) leadership of the Christian Democratic parties in their respective Countries after 1945

(B) refusal to cooperate with American policies in Europe after 1947

(C) determination to lessen Western European dependence on the United States after 1970

(D) advocacy of totalitarian governments for postwar Europe

(E) establishment of socialist political parties in Europe after 1945

•East Germany



91. The nations listed above were in 1984 all

(A) ethnically Slavic

(B) predominantly agricultural rather than industrial

(C) members of the Common Market

(D) practitioners of Keynesian economics

(E) members of the Warsaw Pact
92. All of the following were factors in the Holocaust EXCEPT the

(A) ability of the Nazis to secure collaborators in occupied territories

(B) long tradition of anti-Semitism in Germany and other areas of Europe

(C) ability of a totalitarian regime to mold ideas and suppress dissent

(D) vulnerability of the German Jews, who made up less than one percent of the German population

(E) near exclusive focus of Nazi genocidal policies on Jews of Germany
• Repression of individual liberties

• Control of the media

• Appeal to nationalism

• Glorification of the leader

94.The political philosophy incorporating the characteristics above is

(A) socialism

(B) anarchism

(C) fascism

(D) democracy

(E) Marxian communism
95. Boris Pasternak and Alexander Solzhenitsyn are best described as

(A) Russian Nobel Prize winners whose works are critical of the Soviet system

(B) literary exiles from the Soviet Union

(C) writers whose works antedate the Bolshevik regime

(D) authors who, under pressure, stopped criticizing the Soviet system

(E) literary supporters of the Soviet system
96. All of the following characterize existentialism EXCEPT

(A) writings that show the isolation of one human being from another

(B) intellectual ties to the nineteenth-century philosophers Kierkegaard and Nietzsche

(C) acceptance of the responsibility of humans for their choices

(D) a buoyant optimism about human existence and perfectibility

(E) writings that reflect the conditions of the twentieth century

97. Which of the following is NOT typical of social conditions as they have evolved in twentieth ­ century Western Europe?

(A) A trend toward smaller family size

(B) A rise in the number of women who are employed full-time outside the home

(C) An increasingly rigid class structure

(D) The emergence of a “consumer society”

(E) A declining rate of infant mortality
98. Which of the following is true of the Second Vatican Council (1962)?

(A) It reaffirmed the Syllabus of Errors.

(B) It promoted the ecumenical movement.

(C) It authorized the marriage of priests.

(D) It was opposed by Pope John XX III.

(E) It decreed that the Mass be said in Latin.

99. Which of the ‘following was NOT an aspect of the postwar economic recovery in Western Europe from 1945 to 1965?

(A) The Marshall Plan

(B) The presence of many educated and skilled workers

(C) A rapid rise in the standard of living in most Western European countries

(D) The decline in the relative value of the American dollar

(E) The formation of the European Coal and Steel Community

100. Which of the following is true of both the 1956 revolt in Hungary and the 1968 revolt in Czechoslovakia?

(A) Each was a popular grass-roots attempt to establish an American-style democracy.

(B) Neither received assistance from the United States because they were within the

Soviet sphere of influence.

(C) Each received the military and political support of the Warsaw Pact members.

(D) Neither had indigenous leadership they were led by emigre political figures.

(E) Each resulted in an increase in individual freedom.

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