1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Adopted in Montego Bay, Jamaica on 10 December 1982



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1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

Adopted in Montego Bay, Jamaica on 10 December 1982

[http://treaties.un.org/doc/Treaties/1994/11/19941116%2005-26%20AM/Ch_XXI_06p.pdf]

PREAMBLE 15

PART I INTRODUCTION 16

Article 1 Use of Terms and Scope 16



PART II TERRITORIAL SEA AND CONTIGUOUS ZONE 17

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS 17

Article 2 Legal Status of the Territorial Sea, of the Air Space over the Territorial Sea and of its Bed and Subsoil 17



SECTION 2. LIMITS OF THE TERRITORIAL SEA 17

Article 3 Breadth of the Territorial Sea 17

Article 4 Outer Limit of the Territorial Sea 17

Article 5 Normal Baseline 17

Article 6 Reefs 17

Article 7 Straight Baselines 18

Article 8 Internal Waters 18

Article 9 Mouths of Rivers 18

Article 10 Bays 18

Article 11 Ports 19

Article 12 Roadsteads 19

Article 13 Low-Tide Elevations 19

Article 14 Combination of Methods for Determining Baselines 20

Article 15 Delimitation of the Territorial Sea between States with Opposite or Adjacent Coasts 20

Article 16 Charts and Lists of Geographical Coordinates 20

SECTION 3. INNOCENT PASSAGE IN THE TERRITORIAL SEA 20

SUBSECTION A. RULES APPLICABLE TO ALL SHIPS 20

Article 18 Meaning of Passage 20

Article 19 Meaning of Innocent Passage 21

Article 20 Submarines and Other Underwater Vehicles 21

Article 21 Laws and Regulations of the Coastal State Relating to Innocent Passage 22

Article 22 Sea Lanes and Traffic Separation Schemes in the Territorial Sea 22

Article 23 Foreign Nuclear-Powered Ships and Ships Carrying Nuclear or Other Inherently Dangerous or Noxious Substances 23

Article 24 Duties of the Coastal State 23

Article 25 Rights of Protection of the Coastal State 23

Article 26 Charges which May be Levied Upon Foreign Ships 23



SUBSECTION B. RULES APPLICABLE TO MERCHANT SHIPS AND GOVERNMENT SHIPS OPERATED FOR COMMERCIAL PURPOSES 24

Article 27 Criminal Jurisdiction on Board a Foreign Ship 24

Article 28 Civil Jurisdiction in Relation to Foreign Ships 24

SUBSECTION C. RULES APPLICABLE TO WARSHIPS AND OTHER GOVERNMENT SHIPS OPERATED FOR NON-COMMERCIAL PURPOSES 25

Article 29 Definition of Warships 25

Article 30 Non-Compliance by Warships with the Laws and Regulations of the Coastal State 25

Article 31 Responsibility of the Flag State for Damage Caused by a Warship or Other Government Ship Operated for Non-Commercial Purposes 25

Article 32 Immunities of Warships and Other Government Ships Operated for Non-Commercial Purposes 25

SECTION 4. CONTIGUOUS ZONE 26

Article 33 Contiguous Zone 26



PART III STRAITS USED FOR INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION 26

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS 26

Article 34 Legal Status of Waters Forming Straits Used for International Navigation 26

Article 35 Scope of this Part 26

Article 36 High Seas Routes or Routes through Exclusive Economic Zones through Straits Used For International Navigation 27



SECTION 2. TRANSIT PASSAGE 27

Article 37 Scope of this Section 27

Article 38 Right of Transit Passage 27

Article 39 Duties of Ships and Aircraft during Transit Passage 27

Article 40 Research and Survey Activities 28

Article 41 Sea Lanes and Traffic Separation Schemes in Straits Used for International Navigation 28

Article 42 Laws and Regulations of States Bordering Straits Relating to Transit Passage 29

Article 43 Navigational and Safety Aids and Other Improvements and the Prevention, Reduction and Control of Pollution 29

Article 44 Duties of States Bordering Straits 30

SECTION 3. INNOCENT PASSAGE 30

Article 45 Innocent Passage 30



PART IV ARCHIPELAGIC STATES 30

Article 46 Use of Terms 30

Article 47 Archipelagic Baselines 30

Article 48 Measurement of the Breadth of the Territorial Sea, the Contiguous Zone, the Exclusive Economic Zone and the Continental Shelf 31

Article 49 Legal Status of Archipelagic Waters, of the Air Space over Archipelagic Waters and of Their Bed and Subsoil 31

Article 50 Delimitation of Internal Waters 32

Article 51 Existing Agreements, Traditional Fishing Rights and Existing Submarine Cables 32

Article 52 Right of Innocent Passage 32

Article 53 Right of Archipelagic Sea Lanes Passage 32

Article 54 Duties of Ships and Aircraft during Their Passage, Research and Survey Activities, Duties of the Archipelagic State and Laws and Regulations of the Archipelagic State Relating to Archipelagic Sea Lanes Passage 33



PART V EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE 34

Article 55 Specific Legal Regime of the Exclusive Economic Zone 34

Article 56 Rights, Jurisdiction and Duties of the Coastal State in the Exclusive Economic Zone 34

Article 57 Breadth of the Exclusive Economic Zone 34

Article 58 Rights and Duties of Other States in the Exclusive Economic Zone 34

Article 59 Basis for the Resolution of Conflicts Regarding the Attribution of Rights and Jurisdiction in the Exclusive Economic Zone 35

Article 60 Artificial Islands, Installations and Structures in the Exclusive Economic Zone 35

Article 61 Conservation of the Living Resources 36

Article 62 Utilization of the Living Resources 37

Article 63 Stocks Occurring Within the Exclusive Economic Zones of Two or More Coastal States or Both Within the Exclusive Economic Zone and in an Area Beyond and Adjacent to It 38

Article 64 Highly Migratory Species 38

Article 65 Marine Mammals 39

Article 66 Anadromous Stocks 39

Article 67 Catadromous Species 40

Article 68 Sedentary Species 40

Article 69 Right of Land-Locked States 40

Article 70 Right of Geographically Disadvantaged States 41

Article 71 Non-applicability of Articles 69 and 70 42

Article 72 Restrictions on Transfer of Rights 42

Article 73 Enforcement of Laws and Regulations of the Coastal State 43

Article 74 Delimitation of the Exclusive Economic Zone between States with Opposite or Adjacent Coasts 43

Article 75 Charts and Lists of Geographical Coordinates 43



PART VI CONTINENTAL SHELF 44

Article 76 Definition of the Continental Shelf 44

Article 77 Rights of the Coastal State over the Continental Shelf 45

Article 78 Legal Status of the Superjacent Waters and Air Space and the Rights and Freedoms of other States 45

Article 79 Submarine Cables and Pipelines on the Continental Shelf 46

Article 80 Artificial Islands, Installations and Structures on the Continental Shelf 46

Article 82 Payments and Contributions with Respect to the Exploitation of the Continental Shelf beyond 200 Nautical Miles 46

Article 83 Delimitation of the Continental Shelf between States with Opposite or Adjacent Coasts 47

Article 84 Charts and Lists of Geographical Coordinates 47

Article 85 Tunnelling 48



PART VII HIGH SEAS 48

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS 48

Article 86 Application of the Provisions of this Part 48

Article 87 Freedom of the High Seas 48

Article 88 Reservation of the High Seas for Peaceful Purposes 48

Article 89 Invalidity of Claims of Sovereignty over the High Seas 48

Article 90 Right of Navigation 49

Article 91 Nationality of Ships 49

Article 92 Status of Ships 49

Article 93 Ships Flying the Flag of the United Nations, its Specialized Agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency 49

Article 94 Duties of the Flag State 49

Article 95 Immunity of Warships on the High Seas 51

Article 96 Immunity of Ships Used only on Government Non-Commercial Service 51

Article 97 Penal Jurisdiction in Matters of Collision or any Other Incident of Navigation 51

Article 98 Duty to Render Assistance 51

Article 99 Prohibition of the Transport of Slaves 52

Article 100 Duty to Cooperate in the Repression of Piracy 52

Article 101 Definition of Piracy 52

Article 102 Piracy by a Warship, Government Ship or Government Aircraft Whose Crew has Mutinied 52

Article 103 Definition of a Pirate Ship or Aircraft 52

Article 104 Retention or Loss of the Nationality of a Pirate Ship or Aircraft 53

Article 105 Seizure of a Pirate Ship or Aircraft 53

Article 106 Liability for Seizure without Adequate Grounds 53

Article 107 Ships and Aircraft which are Entitled to Seize on Account of Piracy 53

Article 108 Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs or Psychotropic Substances 53

Article109 Unauthorized Broadcasting from the High Seas 53

Article 110 Right of Visit 54

Article 111 Right of Hot Pursuit 54

Article 112 Right to Lay Submarine Cables and Pipelines 56

Article 113 Breaking or Injury of a Submarine Cable or Pipeline 56

Article 114 Breaking or Injury by Owners of a Submarine Cable or Pipeline of Another Submarine Cable or Pipeline 56

Article 115 Indemnity for Loss Incurred in Avoiding Injury to a Submarine Cable or Pipeline 56

SECTION 2. CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THELIVING RESOURCES OF THE HIGH SEAS 56

Article 116 Right to Fish on the High Seas 56

Article 117 Duty of States to Adopt with Respect to Their Nationals Measures for the Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas 57

Article 118 Cooperation of States in the Conservation and Management of Living Resources 57

Article 119 Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas 57

Article 120 Marine Mammals 58



PART VIII REGIME OF ISLANDS 58

Article 121 Regime of Islands 58



PART IX ENCLOSED OR SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS 58

Article 122 Definition 58

Article 123 Cooperation of States Bordering Enclosed or Semi-Enclosed Seas 58

PART X RIGHT OF ACCESS OF LAND-LOCKED STATES TO AND FROM THE SEA AND FREEDOM OF TRANSIT 59

Article 124 Use of Terms 59

Article 125 Right of Access To and From the Sea and Freedom of Transit 59

Article 126 Exclusion of Application of the Most-Favoured-Nation Clause 59

Article 127 Customs Duties, Taxes and Other Charges 60

Article 128 Free Zones and Other Customs Facilities 60

Article 129 Cooperation in the Construction and Improvement of Means of Transport 60

Article 130 Measures to Avoid or Eliminate Delays or Other Difficulties of a Technical Nature in Traffic in Transit 60

Article 131 Equal Treatment in Maritime Ports 60

Article 132 Grant of Greater Transit Facilities 60



PART XI THE AREA 61

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS 61

Article 133 Use of Terms 61

Article 134 Scope of This Part 61

Article 135 Legal Status of the Superjacent Waters and Air Space 61



SECTION 2. PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE AREA 61

Article 136 Common Heritage of Mankind 61

Article 137 Legal Status of the Area and its Resources 61

Article 138 General Conduct of States in Relation to the Area 62

Article 139 Responsibility to Ensure Compliance and Liability for Damage 62

Article 140 Benefit of Mankind 62

Article 141 Use of the Area Exclusively for Peaceful Purposes 63

Article 142 Rights and Legitimate Interests of Coastal States 63

Article 143 Marine Scientific Research 63

Article 144 Transfer of Technology 64

Article 145 Protection of the Marine Environment 64

Article 146 Protection of Human Life 65

Article 147 Accommodation of Activities in the Area and in the Marine Environment 65

Article 148 Participation of Developing States in Activities in the Area 65

Article 149 Archaeological and historical objects 66

SECTION 3. DEVELOPMENT OF RESOURCES OF THE AREA 66

Article 150 Policies Relating to Activities in the Area 66

Article 151 Production Policies 67

Article 152 Exercise of Powers and Functions by the Authority 70

Article 153 System of Exploration and Exploitation 70

Article 154 Periodic Review 71

Article 155 The Review Conference 71

SECTION 4. THE AUTHORITY 72

SUBSECTION A. GENERAL PROVISIONS 72

Article 156 Establishment of the Authority 72

Article 157 Nature and Fundamental Principles of the Authority 72

Article 158 Organs of the Authority 73



SUBSECTION B. THE ASSEMBLY 73

Article 159 Composition, Procedure and Voting 73

Article 160 Powers and Functions 74

SUBSECTION C. THE COUNCIL 76

Article 161 Composition, Procedure and Voting 76

Article 162 Powers and Functions 78

Article 163 Organs of the Council 80

Article 164 The Economic Planning Commission 82

Article 165 The Legal and Technical Commission 82



SUBSECTION D. THE SECRETARIAT 84

Article 166 The Secretariat 84

Article 167 The Staff of the Authority 84

Article 168 International Character of the Secretariat 84



SUBSECTION E. THE ENTERPRISE 85

Article 170 The Enterprise 85



SUBSECTION F. FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS OF THE AUTHORITY 86

Article 171 Funds of the Authority 86

Article 172 Annual Budget of the Authority 86

Article 173 Expenses of the Authority 86

Article 174 Borrowing Power of the Authority 86

Article 175 Annual Audit 87



SUBSECTION G. LEGAL STATUS, PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES 87

Article 176 Legal Status 87

Article 177 Privileges and Immunities 87

Article 178 Immunity from Legal Process 87

Article 179 Immunity from Search and Any Form of Seizure 87

Article 181 Archives and Official Communications of the Authority 87

Article 182 Privileges and Immunities of Certain Persons Connected with the Authority 88

Article 183 Exemption from Taxes and Customs Duties 88



SUBSECTION H. SUSPENSION OF THE EXERCISE OF RIGHTS AND PRIVILEGES OF MEMBERS 89

Article 184 Suspension of the Exercise of Voting Rights 89

Article 185 Suspension of Exercise of Rights and Privileges of Membership 89

SECTION 5. SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES AND ADVISORY OPINIONS 89

Article 186 Seabed Disputes Chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea 89

Article 187 Jurisdiction of the Seabed Disputes Chamber 89

Article 188 Submission of Disputes to a Special Chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea or an Ad Hoc Chamber of The Seabed Disputes Chamber or to Binding Commercial Arbitration 90

Article 189 Limitation on Jurisdiction with Regard to Decisions of the Authority 91

Article 190 Participation and Appearance of Sponsoring States Parties in Proceedings 91

Article 191 Advisory Opinions 91

PART XII PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT 92

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS 92

Article 192 General Obligation 92

Article 193 Sovereign Right of States to Exploit their Natural Resources 92

Article 194 Measures to Prevent, Reduce and Control Pollution of the Marine Environment 92

Article 195 Duty Not to Transfer Damage or Hazards or Transform One Type of Pollution into Another 93

Article 196 Use of Technologies or Introduction of Alien or New Species 93



SECTION 2. GLOBAL AND REGIONAL COOPERATION 93

Article 197 Cooperation on a Global or Regional Basis 93

Article 198 Notification of Imminent or Actual Damage 93

Article 199 Contingency Plans against Pollution 94

Article 200 Studies, Research Programmes and Exchange of Information and Data 94

Article 201 Scientific Criteria for Regulations 94



SECTION 3. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE 94

Article 202 Scientific and Technical Assistance to Developing States 94

Article 203 Preferential treatment for developing States 95

SECTION 4. MONITORING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT 95

Article 204 Monitoring of the Risks or Effects of Pollution 95

Article 205 Publication of Reports 95

Article 206 Assessment of Potential Effects of Activities 95



SECTION 5. INTERNATIONAL RULES AND NATIONAL LEGISLATION TO PREVENT, REDUCE AND CONTROL POLLUTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT 96

Article 207 Pollution from Land-Based Sources 96

Article 208 Pollution from Seabed Activities Subject to National Jurisdiction 96

Article 209 Pollution from Activities in the Area 97

Article 210 Pollution by Dumping 97

Article 211 Pollution from Vessels 97

Article 212 Pollution From or Through the Atmosphere 99

SECTION 6. ENFORCEMENT 100

Article 213 Enforcement with Respect to Pollution from Land-Based Sources 100

Article 214 Enforcement with Respect to Pollution from Seabed Activities 100

Article 215 Enforcement with Respect to Pollution from Activities in the Area 100

Article 216 Enforcement with Respect to Pollution by Dumping 100

Article 217 Enforcement by Flag States 101

Article 218 Enforcement by Port States 102

Article 219 Measures Relating to Seaworthiness of Vessels to Avoid Pollution 102

Article 220 Enforcement by Coastal States 102

Article 221 Measures to Avoid Pollution Arising from Maritime Casualties 104

Article 222 Enforcement with Respect to Pollution From or Through the Atmosphere 104

SECTION 7. SAFEGUARDS 104

Article 223 Measures to Facilitate Proceedings 104

Article 224 Exercise of Powers of Enforcement 104

Article 225 Duty to Avoid Adverse Consequences in the Exercise of the Powers of Enforcement 105

Article 226 Investigation of Foreign Vessels 105

Article 227 Non-Discrimination with Respect to Foreign Vessels 105

Article 228 Suspension and Restrictions on Institution of Proceedings 106

Article 229 Institution of Civil Proceedings 106

Article 230 Monetary Penalties and the Observance of Recognized Rights of the Accused 106

Article 231 Notification to the Flag State and Other States Concerned 107

Article 232 Liability of States Arising from Enforcement Measures 107

Article 233 Safeguards with Respect to Straits Used for International Navigation 107



SECTION 8. ICE-COVERED AREAS 107

Article 234 Ice-Covered Areas 107



SECTION 9. RESPONSIBILITY AND LIABILITY 108

Article 235 Responsibility and Liability 108



SECTION 10. SOVEREIGN IMMUNITY 108

Article 236 Sovereign Immunity 108



SECTION 11. OBLIGATIONS UNDER OTHER CONVENTIONS ON THE PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT 108

Article 237 Obligations Under Other Conventions on the Protection and Preservation of the Marine Environment 108



PART XIII MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 109

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS 109

Article 238 Right to Conduct Marine Scientific Research 109

Article 239 Promotion of Marine Scientific Research 109

Article 240 General Principles for the Conduct of Marine Scientific Research 109

Article 241 Non-Recognition of Marine Scientific Research Activities as the Legal Basis for Claims 109

SECTION 2. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 110

Article 242 Promotion of International Cooperation 110

Article 243 Creation of Favourable Conditions 110

Article 244 Publication and Dissemination of Information and Knowledge 110



SECTION 3. CONDUCT AND PROMOTION OF MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 110

Article 245 Marine Scientific Research in the Territorial Sea 110

Article 246 Marine Scientific Research in the Exclusive Economic Zone and on the Continental Shelf 111

Article 247 Marine Scientific Research Projects Undertaken By or Under the Auspices of International Organizations 112

Article 248 Duty to Provide Information to the Coastal State 112

Article 249 Duty to Comply with Certain Conditions 112

Article 250 Communications Concerning Marine Scientific Research Projects 113

Article 251 General Criteria and Guidelines 113

Article 252 Implied Consent 113

Article 253 Suspension or Cessation of Marine Scientific Research Activities 114

Article 254 Rights of Neighbouring Land-locked and Geographically Disadvantaged States 114

Article 255 Measures to Facilitate Marine Scientific Research and Assist Research Vessels 115

Article 256 Marine Scientific Research in the Area 115

Article 257 Marine Scientific Research in the Water Column Beyond the Exclusive Economic Zone 115



SECTION 4. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTALLATIONS OR EQUIPMENT IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT 116

Article 258 Deployment and Use 116

Article 259 Legal Status 116

Article 260 Safety Zones 116

Article 261 Non-Interference with Shipping Routes 116

Article 262 Identification Markings and Warning Signals 116



SECTION 5. RESPONSIBILITY AND LIABILITY 116

Article 263 Responsibility and Liability 116



SECTION 6. SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES AND INTERIM MEASURES 117

Article 264 Settlement of Disputes 117

Article 265 Interim Measures 117

PART XIV DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSFER OF MARINE TECHNOLOGY 117

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS 117

Article 266 Promotion of the Development and Transfer of Marine Technology 117

Article 267 Protection of Legitimate Interests 118

Article 268 Basic Objectives 118

Article 269 Measures to Achieve the Basic Objectives 118

SECTION 2. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 119

Article 270 Ways and Means of International Cooperation 119

Article 271 Guidelines, Criteria and Standards 119

Article 272 Coordination of International Programmes 119

Article 273 Cooperation with International Organizations and the Authority 119

Article 274 Objectives of the Authority 119



SECTION 3. NATIONAL AND REGIONAL MARINE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL CENTRES 120

Article 275 Establishment of National Centres 120

Article 276 Establishment of Regional Centres 120

Article 277 Functions of Regional Centres 120



SECTION 4. COOPERATION AMONG INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 121

Article 278 Cooperation among International Organizations 121



PART XV SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES 121

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS 121

Article 279 Obligation to Settle Disputes by Peaceful Means 121

Article 280 Settlement of Disputes by Any Peaceful Means Chosen by the Parties 122

Article 281 Procedure where No Settlement has been Reached by the Parties 122

Article 282 Obligations under General, Regional or Bilateral Agreements 122

Article 283 Obligation to Exchange Views 122

Article 284 Conciliation 122

Article 285 Application of this section to disputes submitted pursuant to Part XI 123



SECTION 2. COMPULSORY PROCEDURES ENTAILING BINDING DECISIONS 123

Article 286 Application of Procedures under This Section 123

Article 287 Choice of Procedure 123

Article 288 Jurisdiction 124

Article 289 Experts 124

Article 290 Provisional Measures 124

Article 291 Access 125

Article 292 Prompt Release of Vessels and Crews 125

Article 293 Applicable Law 126

Article 294 Preliminary Proceedings 126

Article 295 Exhaustion of Local Remedies 126

Article 296 Finality and Binding Force of Decisions 126



SECTION 3. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS TO APPLICABILITY OF SECTION 2 127

Article 297 Limitations on Applicability of Section 2 127

Article 298 Optional Exceptions to Applicability of Section 2 128

Article 299 Right of the Parties to Agree Upon a Procedure 129



PART XVI GENERAL PROVISIONS 130

Article 300 Good Faith and Abuse of Rights 130

Article 301 Peaceful Uses of the Seas 130

Article 302 Disclosure of Information 130

Article 303 Archaeological and Historical Objects Found at Sea 130

Article 304 Responsibility and Liability for Damage 131



PART XVII FINAL PROVISIONS 131

Article 305 Signature 131

Article 306 Ratification and Formal Confirmation 131

Article 308 Entry into Force 132

Article 309 Reservations and Exceptions 132

Article 310 Declarations and statements 132

Article 311 Relation to Other Conventions and International Agreements 132

Article 312 Amendment 133

Article 313 Amendment by Simplified Procedure 133

Article 314 Amendments to the Provisions of this Convention Relating Exclusively to Activities in the Area 134

Article 315 Signature, Ratification of, Accession to and Authentic Texts of Amendments 134

Article 316 Entry into Force of Amendments 134

Article 317 Denunciation 135

Article 318 Status of Annexes 135

Article 319 Depositary 135

Article 320 Authentic texts 136



ANNEX I HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES 137

ANNEX II COMMISSION ON THE LIMITS OF THE CONTINENTAL SHELF 137

Article 1 137

Article 2 138

Article 3 138

Article 4 139

Article 5 139

Article 6 139

Article 7 139

Article 8 139

Article 9 140



ANNEX III BASIC CONDITIONS OF PROSPECTING, EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION 140

Article 1 Title to Minerals 140

Article 2 Prospecting 140

Article 3 Exploration and Exploitation 140

Article 4 Qualifications of Applicants 141

Article 5 Transfer of Technology 142

Article 6 Approval of Plans of Work 144

Article 7 Selection Among Applicants for Production Authorizations 145

Article 8 Reservation of Areas 146

Article 9 Activities in Reserved Areas 146

Article 10 Preference and Priority Among Applicants 147

Article 11 Joint Arrangements 147

Article 12 Activities Carried Out By the Enterprise 147

Article 13 Financial Terms of Contracts 147

Article 14 Transfer of Data 154

Article 15 Training Programmes 155

Article 16 Exclusive Right to Explore and Exploit 155

Article 17 Rules, Regulations and Procedures of the Authority 155

Article 18 Penalties 158

Article 19 Revision of Contract 158

Article 20 Transfer of Rights and Obligations 158

Article 21 Applicable Law 158

Article 22 Responsibility 159

ANNEX IV STATUTE OF THE ENTERPRISE 159

Article 1 Purposes 159

Article 2 Relationship to the Authority 159

Article 3 Limitation of Liability 160

Article 4 Structure 160

Article 5 Governing Board 160

Article 6 Powers and Functions of the Governing Board 161

Article 7 Director-General and Staff of the Enterprise 162

Article 8 Location 162

Article 9 Reports and Financial Statements 162

Article 10 Allocation of Net Income 163

Article 11 Finances 163

Article 12 Operations 165

Article 13 Legal Status, Privileges and Immunities 166



ANNEX V CONCILIATION 167

SECTION 1 CONCILIATION PROCEDURE PURSUANT TO SECTION 1 OF PART XV 167

Article 1 Institution of Proceedings 167

Article 2 List of Conciliators 168

Article 3 Constitution of Conciliation Commission 168

Article 4 Procedure 169

Article 5 Amicable Settlement 169

Article 6 Functions of the commission 169

Article 7 Report 169

Article 8 Termination 169

Article 9 Fees and Expenses 169

Article 10 Right of Parties to Modify Procedure 170

SECTION 2 COMPULSORY SUBMISSION TO CONCILIATION PROCEDURE PURSUANT TO SECTION 3 OF PART XV 170

Article 11 Institution of Proceedings 170

Article 12 Failure to Reply or to Submit to Conciliation 170

Article 13 Competence 170

Article 14 Application of Section 1 170

ANNEX VI. STATUTE OF THE INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE LAW OF THE SEA 170

Article 1 General Provisions 170



SECTION 1 ORGANIZATION OF THE TRIBUNAL 171

Article 2 Composition 171

Article 3 Membership 171

Article 4 Nominations and Elections 171

Article 5 Term of Office 172

Article 6 Vacancies 172

Article 7 Incompatible Activities 172

Article 8 Conditions Relating to Participation of Members in a Particular Case 173

Article 9 Consequence of Ceasing to Fulfil Required Conditions 173

Article 10 Privileges and Immunities 173

Article 11 Solemn Declaration by Members 173

Article 12 President, Vice-President and Registrar 173

Article 13 Quorum 173

Article 14 Seabed Disputes Chamber 174

Article 15 Special Chambers 174

Article 16 Rules of the Tribunal 174

Article 17 Nationality of Members 174

Article 18 Remuneration of Members 175

Article 19 Expenses of the Tribunal 176

SECTION 2 COMPETENCE 176

Article 20 Access to the Tribunal 176

Article 21 Jurisdiction 176

Article 22 Reference of Disputes Subject to Other Agreements 176

Article 23 Applicable Law 176

SECTION 3 PROCEDURE 176

Article 24 Institution of Proceedings 176

Article 25 Provisional Measures 177

Article 26 Hearing 177

Article 27 Conduct of Case 177

Article 28 Default 177

Article 29 Majority for Decision 177

Article 30 Judgment 178

Article 3l Request to Intervene 178

Article 32 Right to Intervene in Cases of Interpretation or Application 178

Article 33 Finality and Binding Force of Decisions 178

Article 34 Costs 179



SECTION 4 SEABED DISPUTES CHAMBER 179

Article 35 Composition 179

Article 36 Ad-hoc Chambers 179

Article 37 Access 180

Article 38 Applicable Law 180

Article 39 Enforcement of Decisions of the Chamber 180

Article 40 Applicability of Other Sections of this Annex 180

SECTION 5 AMENDMENTS 180

Article 4l Amendments 180



ANNEX VII ARBITRATION 181

Article 1 Institution of Proceedings 181

Article 2 List of Arbitrators 181

Article 3 Constitution of Arbitral Tribunal 181

Article 4 Functions of Arbitral Tribunal 182

Article 5 Procedure 182

Article 6 Duties of Parties to a Dispute 182

Article 7 Expenses 183

Article 8 Required Majority for Decisions 183

Article 9 Default of Appearance 183

Article 10 Award 183

Article 11 Finality of Award 183

Article 12 Interpretation or Implementation of Award 183

Article 13 Application to Entities Other than States Parties 184



ANNEX VIII SPECIAL ARBITRATION 184

Article 1 Institution of Proceedings 184

Article 2 Lists of Experts 184

Article 3 Constitution of Special Arbitral Tribunal 185

Article 4 General Provisions 185

Article 5 Fact Finding 186



ANNEX IX PARTICIPATION BY INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 186

Article 1 Use of Terms 186

Article 2 Signature 186

Article 3 Formal Confirmation and Accession 186

Article 4 Extent of Participation and Rights and Obligations 187

Article 5 Declarations, Notifications and Communications 187

Article 6 Responsibility and Liability 188

Article 7 Settlement of Disputes 188

Article 8 Applicability of Part XVII 188



PREAMBLE


The States Parties to this Convention,

PROMPTED by the desire to settle, in a spirit of mutual understanding and cooperation, all issues relating to the law of the sea and aware of the historic significance of this Convention as an important contribution to the maintenance of peace, justice and progress for all peoples of the world,

NOTING that developments since the United Nations Conferences on the Law of the Sea held at Geneva in 1958 and 1960 have accentuated the need for a new and generally acceptable Convention on the law of the sea,

CONSCIOUS that the problems of ocean space are closely interrelated and need to be considered as a whole,

RECOGNIZING the desirability of establishing through this Convention, with due regard for the sovereignty of all States, a legal order for the seas and oceans which will facilitate international communication, and will promote the peaceful uses of the seas and oceans, the equitable and efficient utilization of their resources, the conservation of their living resources, and the study, protection and preservation of the marine environment,

BEARING IN MIND that the achievement of these goals will contribute to the realization of a just and equitable international economic order which takes into account the interests and needs of mankind as a whole and, in particular, the special interests and needs of developing countries, whether coastal or land-locked,

DESIRING by this Convention to develop the principles embodied in resolution 2749 (XXV) of 17 December 1970 in which the General Assembly of the United Nations solemnly declared inter alia that the area of the seabed and ocean floor and the subsoil thereof, beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, as well as its resources, are the common heritage of mankind, the exploration and exploitation of which shall be carried out for the benefit of mankind as a whole, irrespective of the geographical location of States,

BELIEVING that the codification and progressive development of the law of the sea achieved in this Convention will contribute to the strengthening of peace, security, cooperation and friendly relations among all nations in conformity with the principles of justice and equal rights and will promote the economic and social advancement of all peoples of the world, in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations as set forth in the Charter,

AFFIRMING that matters not regulated by this Convention continue to be governed by the rules and principles of general international law,

HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS:

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