1861 – 1865 Civil War Emancipation Proclamation Abraham Lincoln 1803



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( ) Middle School

STAAR Facts

8th Grade

United States History



United States History Timeline


1900

1861 – 1865

Civil War

Emancipation Proclamation

Abraham Lincoln






1803

Louisiana Purchase

Thomas Jefferson

Lewis & Clark



Marbury v Madison


1800




1787

Constitutional Convention

James Madison

George Washington





1776

Declaration of Independence

Thomas Jefferson

John Hancock






1700




1620

Pilgrims


Plymouth

Mayflower Compact

William Bradford



1607

Jamestown, VA

House of Burgesses (1619)

John Smith






1600



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Colonial Era


http://www.traditioninaction.org/history/histimages/b001_13colonies.jpg


Northern (New England) Colonies

  • Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine

  • Cold climate, rocky soil

  • Shipbuilding , trade, fishing

Middle Colonies

  • New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware

  • Fertile soil, milder climate than New England

  • Diverse, tolerant

Southern Colonies

  • Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia

  • Warm climate, rich soil, long growing season

  • Farming and agriculture


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Colonial Era

Jamestown, Virginia – Founded in 1607 by the Virginia Company; Colony was saved by tobacco, House of Burgesses

Plymouth, Massachusetts – Founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims for religious freedom and tolerance, Mayflower Compact

Connecticut – Founded in 1636 by Thomas Hooker after leaving Massachusetts, Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

Pennsylvania – Founded in 1680 by William Penn for Quakers; promoted tolerance and equality

Georgia – Founded in 1733 by James Oglethorpe as a debtor’s colony


Tariff – tax on imports

Mercantilism – An economic system that promoted the growth of a country’s economy through a favorable balance of trade. Goal was to build wealth by exploiting the natural resources of colonial territories

Colonial Governments

Mayflower Compact – Agreement among male Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower in which they pledged loyalty to England and promised to obey the laws of the colony; formed a “civil body politic” for “our better ordering and preservation”

House of Burgesses – Created in Virginia in 1619; first representative government in the colonies

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut – First written constitution in America adopted in 1639

Representative Government – System of government where citizens are represented by elected leaders

French & Indian War 1754-1763

Outcome:


  • George Washington gains national prominence

  • England gains control of more territory

  • War plunges England into debt

  • Proclamation of 1763 states that colonists cannot settle west of the Appalachian Mountains



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The Revolutionary Era


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George Washington – Commander of the Continental Army during the American Revolution. He was also elected the first President of the United States in 1789



portrait of thomas jefferson by rembrandt peale.



Thomas Jefferson – Author of the Declaration of Independence and elected third President of the United States in 1800.



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Benjamin Franklin – Publisher and inventor; respected statesman who guided the colonies toward independence; helped convince France to support America during the Revolutionary War



a stern middle-aged man with gray hair is wearing a dark red suit. he is standing behind a table, holding a rolled up document in one hand, and pointing with the other hand to a large document on the table.



Samuel Adams – Cousin to John Adams; Patriot; leader of the Boston Sons of Liberty



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Patrick Henry – Patriot; Delivered his famous “Give me liberty, or give me death” speech in the Virginia House of Burgesses in March, 1775



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Thomas Paine – Author of “Common Sense” which was instrumental in convincing colonists to support the revolution against Britain



full-length portrait in oils of a clean-shaven young man in eighteenth century dress: gold jacket and breeches, ermine cloak, powdered wig, white stockings, and buckled shoes.



King George III – ruler of Great Britain during the

American Revolution







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The Revolutionary Era

Declaration of Independence – Written by Thomas

Jefferson; Lists colonial grievances against King George

And justifies the colonies breaking away from England

Unalienable Rights – Rights that cannot be taken away

without due process; such as, life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness Loyalists – Americans who supported Great Britain during the American Revolutione:\00 - 8th grade united states history\01 - maps\map images\world outline.gif



Patriots – Americans who supported declaring independence from Great Britain during the American Revolution

Causes of the American Revolution

  • The British taxed the colonies heavily for revenue to pay for the French and Indian War

  • “No taxation without representation” – Colonists resented being taxed without having a representative in Parliament

  • Tax Acts including; the Stamp Act. Sugar Act, and Tea Act angered the colonists

  • The Boston Massacre

  • The Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts)

The American Revolution (1775-1783)

Lexington & Concord – First battle of the revolution: “shot heard ‘round the world”

Winter at Valley Forge – Washington struggled to keep the Continental Army together

The Battles of Saratoga – Turning point of the revolution – French enter the war as American allies.

Battle of Yorktown – Major British defeat that effectively ends the war

Treaty of Paris of 1783 – Ends the war – Britain forced to recognize American independence

Political Philosophers

William Blackwell – Laws of Nature

John Locke – Natural Rights (life, liberty, and property)


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Charles de MontesquieuSeparation of Powers

Australia


Asia



Antarctica

Africa

Europe


South

America



North

America




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Columbian Exchange






  • Old World


    • Foodstuffs: wheat, sugar, rice, coffee beans

    • Livestock: horses, cows, pigs

    • Diseases: smallpox, measles, influenza, typhus

    New World


    • Foodstuffs: corn, potatoes, beans, cocoa beans

    • Precious Metals: gold & silver

    • Tobacco





This diagram represents the movement of people and goods between Europe, the Americas, and Africa following Christopher Columbus’s discovery of the New World



http://lindgrs.edublogs.org/files/2012/09/columbian-exchange-2bu36s8.jpg



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The United States Constitution

Influences

  • Magna Carta (1215) – Limited the power of the king; provided trial by jury

  • English Bill of Rights (1689) – Influenced the Constitution by forbidding cruel and unusual punishment; granted the right to bear arms; laws must be passed by the legislative branch; taxes must be approved by the legislative branch

  • Declaration of Independence (1776) – The Bill of Rights and the Constitution address grievances from the Declaration of Independence. Also lists the unalienable rights: life, liberty; pursuit of happiness:

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness; that, to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it.”
Replacing the Articles of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation (1781)

  • The first form of government established by the thirteen colonies.

  • Articles were replaced by the U.S. Constitution because the Articles had a weak central government.

Northwest Ordinance (1787)

  • Established an orderly expansion to western territory

  • First attempt by the U.S. to stop the spread of slavery

  • New states given the same rights and privileges as previous states

Anti-Federalists – Opposed the ratification of the Constitution; supported a Bill of Rights; ex. Patrick Henry & George Mason

Federalists – Supported ratification of the Constitution and the creation of a strong central government; ex. James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay

Ratify – to approve

Federalist papers (1787 – 1788) – Essays written to encourage ratification of the Constitution. Authors were Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison


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The United States Constitution

Important Facts on the Constitution:

  • 1787 – Delegates from the thirteen states drafted the U.S. Constitution in Philadelphia, PA


John Adams

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Second President of the U.S.; helped negotiate Treaty of Paris ending the American Revolution



James Madison

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1d/james_madison.jpg/220px-james_madison.jpg

Fourth President of the U.S.; main author of the U.S. Constitution; President during the War of 1812



Alexander Hamilton

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/05/alexander_hamilton_portrait_by_john_trumbull_1806.jpg/220px-alexander_hamilton_portrait_by_john_trumbull_1806.jpg

Author of the Federalist Papers; First Secretary of the Treasury under Washington






  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9d/scene_at_the_signing_of_the_constitution_of_the_united_states.jpg/400px-scene_at_the_signing_of_the_constitution_of_the_united_states.jpg

    Constututional Convention of 1787

    • The Preamble is the introduction to the Constitution that states its purpose

    • Ratification – to formally approve. To go into effect, 9 of the 13 states had to ratify the Constitution



Preamble of the U.S. Constitution:

We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America”


Constitutional Compromises (1787):

  • Great Compromise – Representation: All states get two votes in the senate; number of votes in the house determined by state population


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Three-Fifths Compromise – Slavery: Each slave counts as 3/5 of a person for taxation and representation in the house

Important Terms

Important Economic Systems

  • Free Enterprise System – A system by which people can conduct business free from government control except for reasonable regulations made for the general good. Example: Wealthy, developed nations such as the United States

  • Subsistence Agriculture – The farmer produces just enough to support himself and his family with little left for purchasing manufactured goods.




  • Columbian Exchange – The exchange of crops, animals, disease, and ideas of different cultures after Europeans landed in the Americas




The American Contribution

European Contribution

  • Maize, potatoes, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, peanuts, most beans, squash

  • Environmental preservation

  • Horses, pigs, sheep, goats, burros, and cattle

  • Wheat, oranges, onions, lemons

  • Disease such as small pox, influenza, and the measles







  • Immigration – Movement of people into a country from another country

  • Migration – Movement of people from one location to another




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Civil War and Reconstruction

Civil War Battles (1861 – 1865)

  • Fort Sumter (April 12-14, 1861) - Confederate forces attack U.S. fort in harbor of Charleston, South Carolina

  • Antietam (September 17, 1862) – Bloodiest day of the war ‘ Lee retreats and Lincoln decides to take action against slavery

  • Gettysburg (July 1-4, 1863) – Surprise battle in Pennsylvania; Lee retreats

  • Vicksburg (July 1863) – Confederates surrender; Union holds Mississippi River

  • Appomattox Court House (April 9, 1865) – Lee surrenders to Grant; Grant shows mercy and respect to Lee and his troops

Results of the Civil War

  • Robert E. Lee surrenders at Appomattox Court House and the South loses the war

  • Abraham Lincoln is assassinated five days after the surrender

  • The Southern economy is ruined while the Northern economy becomes stronger than before the war

  • Reconstruction begins

Reconstruction (1865-1877) – The period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union

Radical Reconstruction Congress – Wanted Congress, not the President to control a tougher, more extreme approach

Hiram Rhodes Revels – First African American elected to the Senate

Reconstruction Amendments

  • 13th Amendment – Abolished slavery in the United States

  • 14th Amendments – Made former slaves citizens and gave equal protection under the law for all citizens

  • 15th Amendment – African American males are given the right to vote

Legislative Acts

  • Morrill Act (1862) – Funded public colleges focused on agriculture and mechanical arts

  • Homestead Act (1862) – gave free land to settlers who would live on the land for five years; encouraged thousands to the Great Plains


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Dawes Act (1887) – Broke up Native American reservations

The United States Constitution

Grievances under the Declaration of Independence

Articles of Confederation: Weak Central Government

Corrections under the United States Constitution

Centralized power in England left minimal say by colonists over issues such as taxation and trade

Weak central government and strong state governments under a Confederation

Established the federal system with strong central government but shared powers with states. Established checks and balances

Disliked control by monarch and Parliament

No executive branch to enforce laws

Executive branch with limited powers

Strong Parliament with no representation of colonial interests – especially on issues such as taxation

Congressional power limited with only one vote per state. Congress had no power to collect taxes nor settle disputes between states

Separation of powers and checks and balances with votes in the House of Representatives based on state population and equal votes in the Senate. Federal government able to collect taxes and settle disputes between the states

Central control of court system

No national court system which led to inability to deal with grievances between states and individuals

Set up national and state court system with the Supreme Court serving as the highest authority on constitutional issues

Troops quartered in colonist’s homes

Troops could not be quartered in homes

3rd Amendment protects citizens from quartering troops

Many colonists believed that individual rights were not protected and that property could be taxed and taken away without representation

Individual rights protected through strong state governments that were “closer to home” with citizens having the right to vote

Bill of Rights added to the U.S. Constitution to protect individual rights. Propertied men could vote



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The United States Constitution

Seven Principles of the United States Constitution

Separation of Powers – Divides the powers of the federal government into three branches:

Legislative BranchMakes laws

Executive BranchEnforces laws

Judicial BranchInterprets laws

Federalism – Power is shared between the states and the national government

Republicanism – A system where the people vote for elected representatives to run the government

Individual Rights – Basic rights and liberties of all citizens as guaranteed in the Bill of Rights

Checks & Balances – Makes sure no branch of government becomes too powerful (ex. President’s veto of Congress’ legislation; and Congress’ override of President’s veto)

Limited Government – Power of the government is restricted by the Constitution – “no one is above the law”

Popular Sovereignty – The people hold supreme power. Addresses in the preamble to the Constitution: “We the people . . .” Power exercised through voting


The Bill of Rights

  • The first ten amendments of the Constitution

  • Protect individual rights and liberties

  • Bill of Rights was necessary in order for some states to ratify the Constitution

1st Amendment – Freedom of speech, religion, and press; right to assemble and to petition

2nd Amendment – Right to bear arms

3rd Amendment – No quartering of troops during peace time

4th Amendment – No unlawful search and seizures

5th Amendment – No double jeopardy; cannot be compelled to testify against yourself, due process

6th Amendment – The right to a fast and public jury trial and lawyer

7th Amendment – The right to a jury trial in civil cases

8th Amendment – No cruel or unusual punishment

9th Amendment – Rights reserved to the people

10th AmendmentPowers reserved to the states


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Civil War & Reconstruction

Civil War – War between the North and the South from 1861 - 1865

Causes of the Civil War:

Differences between the North and South over slavery and States’ Rights

Increased anti-slavery sentiment in the North

Lincoln is elected president in the Election of 1860



Dred Scott v. Sanford – Supreme Court decision which stated Dred Scott (a slave) was considered property, and not a citizen – therefore had no right to bring a lawsuit. Congress could not ban slavery in the territories.


Resources of the North and South: 1860s



Total Value of Exports: $316 Million

Total Value of Manufactured Goods: $1.9 Billion

Total Number of States: 34

Total Population: 31.5 Million

Total Railroad Mileage: 31,000 Miles



North

34%


South

29% -


South

29%


South

29%


South

32%





South

66%


North

71%


North

71%


North

68%





North

92%





Civil War

North

South

Capital

Washington, D.C.

Richmond, VA

President

Abraham Lincoln

Jefferson Davis

Top General

Ulysses S. Grant

Robert E. Lee


Jefferson Davis’ Inaugural Address (1861) – President of Confederacy compared secession to divorce between husband and wife

Abraham Lincoln (1863) – President of the United States during the Civil War. Lincoln was the first Republican President; election resulted in the South’s secession from the Union; assassinated by John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865.

Gettysburg Address (1863) – Two minute speech uniting Americans; expressed what the war was about “government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth”

Emancipation Proclamation (1863) – Document declaring that all slaves in the south were free

Medal of Honor Recipients: Philip Bazaar and William Carney


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States’ Rights

States’ Rights – Belief in local government close to the people; each state should be able to decide key issues for themselves

Plantation System – Economic system in which slaves provided the necessary labor for planting and harvesting cash crops like cotton, rice, and tobacco


John C. Calhoun

Southern Senator supported slavery



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Daniel Webster

Northern Senator: opposed slavery



file:daniel webster - circa 1847.jpg

Henry Clay

Westerner known as the “Great Compromiser”



henry clay c1850s.jpg


Nullification Crisis – Argument between South Carolina and the federal government regarding the role of the national government

  • South Carolina opposed the high tariff implemented by the national government

  • South Carolina claimed that states had the right to reject (nullify) any national law that harmed it.

  • The federal government disagreed and threatened military action

  • Henry Clay proposed a compromise tariff that calmed hostilities

Missouri Compromise (1820)

  • Maine enters Union as a free state

  • Missouri enters Union as a slave state

  • Slavery prohibited in remainder of Louisiana Territory, 36°30” line

Compromise of 1850

  • California admitted as a free state

  • New Mexico Territory to have no restrictions on slavery

  • Set new border between Texas and New Mexico

  • Slave trade (but not slavery) banned in Washington D.C.

  • Stronger fugitive slave laws


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New Republic

Three Branches of Government


CONSTITUTION



Judicial Branch

Interprets Laws

Legislative Branch

Makes Laws





JUDICIAL

EXECUTIVE

LEGISLATIVE



Supreme Court

Congress

President




Vice-President

Senate

House



Executive Branch

Enforces the Laws

Washington’s Farewell Address – warned against: political parties and forming alliances with foreign countries, neutrality

Marbury v. Madison (1803) – Established the principle of Judicial Review giving the Supreme Court authority to decide if laws are constitutional or not (John Marshall)


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Monroe Doctrine – Closed the Americas to further European colonization; in exchange the U.S. promised to stay out of European affairs

War of 1812

  • British attack Washington D.C. and set the capitol on fire


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British retreat from Fort McHenry in Baltimore, MD, Francis Scott Key writes The Star Spangled Banner

  • Andrew Jackson wins the Battle of New Orleans

Jacksonian Democracy

  • Beginning of the Democratic Party; favored states’ rights and opposed a strong central government

  • Jackson ignores Supreme Court decision in Worcester v. Georgia

  • Trail of Tears – Forced removal of Cherokee Indians from their homes to resettle in the west


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Jackson’s War on the Bank – Jackson removes federal funds from national bank, forcing it into bankruptcy

Westward Expansion

Louisiana Purchase (1803): Purchased by President Jefferson - doubled the size of the United Statese:\01 - audio-video-images\image folder\map images\louisiana purchase.png
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Manifest Destiny – The belief that the United States should stretch from the Atlantic Coast to The Pacific Ocean; land acquisition through the 1860s:

  • Texas (1845) – joined the U.S. as the 28th state

  • Mexican Cession (1848) – California and New

Mexico sold to the U.S. for $15 million after the

Mexican-American War



  • Utah Territory (1850) – Established as a territory;

Brigham Young becomes governor

  • Gadsden Purchase (1853) – Purchased from Mexico

for $10 million

  • Oregon Territory (1859) – Becomes the 33rd state

Railroads

  • Encouraged settlement in the west

  • Created thousands of new jobs

Supreme Court Rulings

  • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) – States cannot tax a federal bank

  • Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) – Congress has the authority to regulate all interstate including transportation



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harriet tubman by squyer, npg, c1885.jpg
Reformers

Abolitionist – Person who fights to end slavery

  • Harriet Tubman – Conductor on the Underground Railroad


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Frederick Douglass – Influential speaker and writer; North Star

  • Sojourner Truth – Spoke about her experiences as a slave


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  • William Lloyd Garrison – Published the Abolitionist Newspaper –The Liberator

Civil Disobedience – Peaceful protest of injustice

  • Henry David Thoreau – Refused to pay taxes in protest of the Mexican-American War

Suffrage – Woman’s right to vote

  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan B. Anthony – worked for women’s rights

Inventions

  • Cotton gin (1793) – Invented by Eli Whitney; removed seeds from cotton; increased demands for slaves

  • Steamboat (1807) Invented by Robert Fulton; improved transportation of goods and people

  • Bessemer Steel Process (late 1800s) – Invented by William Kelly and Henry Bessemer; allowed steel to be manufactured cheaply

  • Interchangeable parts – Invented by Eli Whitney; opened the way for factories


a chart illustrating the growing percentage of the u.s. population living in urban areas in comparison to rural areas from 1800 (roughly 10 percent) to (roughly 75 percent).
Urbanization – Population begins to shift away from farms and into cities


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U.S. Census Bureau


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