1817 – Wartburg Festival 1818 – Formation of the Zollverein



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Growth/Failure of German Nationalism 1815 – 1850
Timeline of Events
1815 – End of the Napoleonic Wars and creation of the Deutscher Bund (German Confederation)
1817 – Wartburg Festival
1818 – Formation of the Zollverein
1819 – Carlsbad Decrees
1848 – Revolutions in Europe (including Austria and Prussia)
1848/9 – Frankfurt Parliament
1849 – Erfurt Union (League of the Three Kings)
1850 – Treaty of Olmutz
Essay Plans
There are three basic types of essay question on this topic:-
A. Why did nationalism grow/What were the reasons for the growth of nationalism?
DO THE ISOLATED FACTOR FIRST.

WEIGH UP THE FACTORS AS YOU GO ALONG – DON’T WAIT TILL THE CONLUSION TO COMPARE THE FACTORS TO EACH OTHER IN TERMS OF THEIR IMPORTANCE.
1. Intro – SEAF

(start date – 1815, end of Napoleonic war/creation of Deutscher Bund, end date – 1850, still no united German state, was a growth of nationalism due to several factors ……..)


2. Impact of French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars

400 – 39 states, more on end of Napoleonic wars and creation of Bund

How Napoleon triggered nationalism in German states, how Bund pleased but frustrated nationalists.
3. Culture

Language, race -‘volk’, music, art, literature, history (Romans).

Burschenschaften, Wartburg Festival 1817, Carlsbad Decrees ‘nipped this nationalism in the bud’, Hambach Festival 1830

‘Talkers and dreamers with no real plan of action’ –McKichan? Or do all revolutions need thinkers to ‘sow the seeds’?


4. Economy

Prussian economy

Zollverein – how it united the German states economically, how it led to other things that contributed to German states moving together e.g. railways, urbanisation.

Was the Zollverein more than an economic union? Stiles Vs AJP Taylor


5. 1848 Revolutions

1848 revolutions and Frankfurt Assembly 1848/9 – causes of these revolutions – harvest failure, economic slump, unemployment, Cholera epidemic – how this stimulated nationalism in the German states, but how attempts to unify states failed when revolutions over.

6. CONCLUSION

Nationalism grew but ultimately failed to unite the German states by 1850.

Which factors were most important in the growth of German nationalism?

WEIGH UP the factors one by one – finish with the one that you think was most important. Include a good quote if you can.



B. How much had nationalism grown by 1850?

1. Intro – SEAF

start date – 1815, end of Napoleonic war/creation of Deutscher Bund, end date – 1850, still no united German state, but nationalism had grown to the extent that had been one serious attempt to unite the German states in 1848 (Frankfurt)

2. Examples of how far nationalism had grown before 1840s - (2 BRIEF paragraphs)



Cultural – Wartburg/Hambach.

Were these real nationalists? Would they ever unite the German states? Mention Carlsbad/Six Acts ‘nipped this in the bud’

3. Economic – Zollverein.

Was this just an economic union? Was it a force for political unity?

4. Extent of nationalism by 1840s. (2 paragraphs)

1848 Revolutions

how economic problems created nationalism amongst peasants and working classes (Berlin demands for constitution and united Germany). Frankfurt Parliament and reasons for failure of revolutions

Had nationalism really grown enough to unite the German states? Or was nationalism in the 1840s simply a short-lived reaction to wider economic problems?

5. Erfurt Union/Olmutz

Attempt by ruling classes to have unification on their own terms and its failure with the humiliation of Olmutz.

Was this really nationalism or a knee-jerk reaction by rulers to protect their own interests?


6. CONCLUSION

Nationalism grew but ultimately failed to unite the German states by 1850. How much more likely was unification by 1850? How many serious attempts had been made to unify the German states? How much closer were the German states economically and culturally?



C. Why did nationalism fail to unite the German states before 1850/ What were the obstacles to German unification before 1850?
DO THE ISOLATED FACTOR FIRST.

WEIGH UP THE FACTORS AS YOU GO ALONG – DON’T WAIT TILL THE CONLUSION TO COMPARE THE FACTORS TO EACH OTHER IN TERMS OF THEIR IMPORTANCE.
1. Intro – SEAF

start date – 1815, end of Napoleonic war/creation of Deutscher Bund, end date – 1850, still no united German state, Germany failed to unify for several reasons …… (Put them in an explained LIST)


REST OF THE MAIN PART IS MADE UP OF ALL THE OBSTACLES TO GERMAN UNIFICATION. MOST OF THESE PARAGRAPHS WILL BE SHORT.

THE MOST IMPORTANT ONES ARE MARKED WITH A *. DO NOT MISS THESE ONES OUT!
2. German Princes/Rulers of German states

Opposed to unification as would lose influence/power

Particularism – loyalty to individual states
3. Religious divisions

Protestant north/Catholic south


4. Nationalism limited to middle-classes and intellectuals

Use Burschenschaften Wartburg/Hambach as an example.
5. Economic divisions

Despite the Zollverein German states still economically diverse and divided.


6. Resentment of Prussia

Resentment of Protestant Prussia from Catholic southern states loyal to Catholic Austria, Resentment of growing Prussian economic strength and later military strength.


*7. Divisions amongst the nationalists

Kleindeutschland/Grossdeutschland, monarchy/republic, democracy?

Nationalists themselves couldn’t agree on what a united Germany should be like.

Use failure of Frankfurt as an example of this.
*8. Austrian Opposition

Why Austrians (and Metternich especially) happy to keep states divided. Conservatives like Metternich scared of nationalism ad went hand in hand with liberalism.



Use Carlsbad Decrees and Olmutz as examples of when Austrian opposition quashed nationalism.
9. Conclusion

Which factor/s was/were most important and why?



WEIGH UP the factors one by one – finish with the one that you think was most important. Include a good quote if you can.


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