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Holy 8e uloher Holy Sprit



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Holy 8e uloher Holy Sprit

BIBLIOGRAPHY: In general: G. William, The Holy City and the Architecture of the Holy Sepulchre, vol. ii., London, 1849; R. Willis, The Architectural Hut. of the Holy City, ib. 1849; T. Tobler, Golgotha, seine Kirchen and K16eter, Bern, 1851; M. de Vogild, Les LR'alises de la terre sainte, Paris, 1860; P. Schegg, Die Bauten Constantine fiber dem WipenGrab, Freising, 1867; C. Warren and C. Wilson, Recovery of Jerusalem, London, 1876; C. Schick, in ZDPY, viii (1885), 245 sqq., 259 eqq., ui (1889), 1 sqq.; H. Lewis, The Holy Places of Jerusalem, London, 1888; G. Jeffery, The Buildings of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, ib. 1895; Publications of the Pilgrims' Text Society, 13 vols., ib. 1897 (vol. i. is very important, contains excerpts from the writings of Eusebius pertinent to the subject, also the " Pilgrimage of St. Sylvia "); J. Germer Durand La Basilique de Con­stantin, in Echos d'orient, April, 1898; C. Mommert, Die Wigs Grabeskirche zu Jerusalem in ihrem urspranglichen Zustande, Leipsic, 1898; Golgotha and das heilige Grab zu Jerusalem, ib. 1900.

On the location: J. Korte, Reiss nach dem pelobten Lande, Halle, 1743 51; F. A. de Chatesubriand, Itin6raire de Paris h Jerusalem, Paris, 1811; Robinson, Researches and Newer Researches, Passim; A. Schaffter, Die echte Laps des heilipen Grabes, Bern, 1849; J. N. Sepp, Jeru­salem and das heilipe Land, i. 263 sqq., 418 sqq., Schaff­hausen, 1873; C. Clermont Gannesu, L'AuthenticitM du Saint Sbpulae, Paris, 1877; C. Warren and C. Wilson, The Temple or the Tomb, London, 1880; C. Wilson, Goh gotha and the Holy Sepulchre, ib. 1906; K. Baedeker, Pales­tine and Syria, pp. 35 sqq., New York, 1906; PEF, Quar­terly Report, Jan.   Apr., 1907.

Consult further: O. Thenius, in ZHT, 1842, part iv., pp. 3 eqq.; J. Fergusson, The Holy Sepulchre and the Temple at Jerusalem, London, 1865; F. W. Unger, Die Bauten Constantine am heilipen Grabezu Jerusalem, G5t­tingen, 1863; C. R. Conder, in the Survey of Western Pales­tine, pp. 429 sqq., London, 1884; S. Merrill, in Andover Review, 1885, 483 488; PEF Quarterly Statements, par­ticularly for 1892; E. M. Clos, Krenz and Grab Jesu, Kempten, 1898. On the story of Adam referred to in the text consult Das christliche Adamburh des Morgenlandes, in Jahrbucher der biblischen Wiasenschaft, v. 111 sqq., GSttingen, 1853. Plans and reproductions are given in vol. i. of the Publications of the Pilgrims' Text Society, ut sup.

HOLY SEPULCHER, ORDERS OF THE: Among the several Roman Catholic orders of the Holy Sepulcher four deserve special mention:

1. Canons of the Holy Sepulcher (Fratres cruci­feri dominici sepulcri Hierosolymitani) : An order founded at the beginning of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, when Patriarch Arnulf of Jerusalem (1111 18) united the clerks of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher into a community. Calixtus II. confirmed the order in 1122, and in 1144 it had more than seven houses in Palestine. In 1187 the seat of the order was transferred to Acre and in 1291 was centered in the Occident, where its houses furnished lodging and assistance to pilgrims to the Holy Land. In 1489 the Canons of the Holy Sepul­cher were united by Innocent VIII. with the Knights of St. John, and preserved their independence only in Spain, Sicily, and Poland, where some houses survived until the beginning of the nineteenth century. The only house still existing is that at Cracow.

2. Canonesses of the Holy Sepulcher (Sepulcrines)

The female branch of the Canons since the Middle Ages. The order attained its zenith after the rigid reform carried through by the Marchioness Claudia de Mouy, when she erected a house for the Canon­esses at Charleville. Her rule was confirmed by Urban VIII. in 1631, and houses of the order still exist in France and Belgium, with one in Baden­Baden and branches at Bruchsal.

3. Knights of the Holy Sepulcher (Golden Knights)



An oruer, founded toward the close of the Middle Ages, which included all knightly pilgrims to Palestine who had received the accolade at Jerusa­lem from the Guardian of the Holy Sepulcher. The order is said to have been orally confirmed by Leo X., but it was not until 1746 that Benedict XIV. gave it a written confirmation. Pius IX., after re­establishing a Latin patriarchate of Jerusalem in 1847, granted the patriarch the exclusive right to create Knights of the Holy Sepulcher, and by the brief Cum multa of Jan. 24, 1868, promulgated a formal rule for the order. The Knights wear on a white mantle a red enameled quintuple cross (the " cross of Godfrey de Bouillon "). The accolade is to be given in Jerusalem, but may be conferred through a deputy. The recipient promises to be willing to work for the Holy Land, and the order is divided into three classes: knights, commanders, and grand crosses, the first being required to pay 1,000 francs on admission, the second 2,000, and the third 3,000.

4. Fathers of the Holy Sepulcher: A name applied to the Franciscans stationed in Jerusalem. Even after the fall of Acre Franciscan minorites remained in Palestine to protect the Holy Places, notwith­standing the martyrdom of almost 2,000 of their number. Since 1657 the mother house of the order has been the great monastery of San Salvator in Jerusalem, which normally contains twenty five regular priests and fifty five lay brothers. A smaller monastery, adjoining the Church of the Holy Sep­ulcher, serves as a residence for the priests and lay brothers who conduct the services in the church.

(O. ZdCKLERt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: In general consult R. R6hricht, Regesta regni Hierosolymitani no. 75, Innsbruck, 1893; idem, Ge­achichte des Kenigareichs Jerusalem, p. 96 et passim, ib. 1898. On 1 consult: Heimbucher, Orden and Konprepa­tionen, ii. 24; Helyot, Ordres monastiques, ii. 114 sqq.; KL, v. 977. On 2 consult: Heimbucher, ut sup., ii. 81­82; Helyot, ut sup., ii. 124 sqq.; KL, v. 977. On 3 consult: J. Hermes, Der Orden vom heiligen Grabe, Cologne, 1870; Passini, 11 sacro militare ordine perosolimitano del s. sepolrro, Pisa, 1889; KL, v. 978. On 4 consult: Heim­bucher, ut sup., ii. 427; KL, v. 978 980; L. Michiele, Al­bum de la mission franciacaine de terre saints, 2 vole., Venice, 1893.

HOLY SPIRIT (in the A. V. and older English, Holy Ghost): The third person of the Trinity. Other Scriptural designations are: the Spirit (Matt. iv. 1); the Spirit of God (I Cor. ii. 14); the Spirit of Christ (I Pet. i. 11); the Spirit of grace (Heb. x. 29); the Spirit of truth (John xvi. 13); the Comforter (Gk. parakl&es, " advocate, intercessor, helper "; John xiv. 26, xv. 26). For the Trinitarian relation of the Spirit see TRINITY; for the pro­cession of the Spirit see FILIOQUE CONTROVERSY. This article will deal with the personality and work of the Spirit.

I. Personality: While early Christian writings (the Shepherd of Hernias, Justin Martyr, Irenmus, Origen) seem at times to teach the subordination of the Spirit to the Father and to the Son, and to waver concerning his personality, upon the whole their testimony is unmistakably in favor of the personality. The doctrine of the Holy Spirit was not made prominent till the fourth century. The Apostles' and Nicene Creed have






Holy Week hit

holy THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 332



the simple statements of belief °' in the Holy Ghost." The Nicene Creed as revised at Constan­tinopIe (381) has the fuller formula, [And we believe] " in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of life, who proceedeth from the Father, and with the Father and the Son is adored and glorified, who spake by the prophets." The personality of the Spirit is rejected by Sabellians, Arians, Socinians, and Unitarians, the Socinians representing the Spirit as an energy or power of God. The personality is proved by the following considerations: (1) The personal pronoun " he " is used of the Spirit (John xvi. 13). (2) He is expressly distinguished from God the Father and the Son (John xiv. 16, 26; I Cor. ii. 10). (3) Acts of will and intelligence are attributed to him, such as belong only to a per­sonal agent (John xv. 26, xvi. 8, 13; Acts xiii. 2; Rom. viii. 26). (4) He is directly contrasted with Satan (Acts v. 3) and may be the object of blas­phemy (Matt. xu. 31), falsehood (Acts v. 3), and grievance (Eph. iv. 30). (5) In the formula of baptism (Matt. xxviii. 19) and in the apostolic benediction (II Cor. xiii. 14) he is distinguished from the Father and the Son; so also in I Pet. i. 1 12 distinct functions are ascribed to the Father, Son, and Spirit.

II. Office and Work: Like the Father and the

Son, the Spirit has ever been active. His person­

ality and his work are brought out

Biblical clearly in the New Testament as effi 

Teaching. cient in the renewal of the soul and its

sanctification. The fact that Christ

promised to send the Holy Spirit and assured the

disciples that they should be filled with the Holy

Spirit indicates that his temporal mission in the

Church involved, if not some now element of ac­

tivity, at least some increase in the efficacy of that

influence which it has always been his office to

exercise upon the hearts of men. According to the

statements of the apostolic writers, he was the

author of the light which the prophets of the Old

Testament had of the coming of Christ (I Pet. i. 11)

and of their inspiration (II Pet. i. 21). It might

be possible to explain all passages of the Old Testa­

ment referring to the " Spirit of God " (Gen. i. 2,

vi. 3; etc.) as meaning the influence of God upon

the heart of man; but in view of the New Testa­

ment revelation the influence of the personal Holy

Spirit appears in the operation of God upon the

hearts of the Old Testament saints and prophets.

As for the New Testament, it is not always possible to determine with assurance whether the personal Holy Spirit is meant or the divine influence (cf. Luke iv. 18). But that he had a definite work assigned to him in the development of our Lord's life the language certainly implies (Matt. iii. 16, iv. 1; Luke i. 35). In his last discourses Jesus promised that the Spirit should come as his repre­sentative after his removal from the earth and the dispenser of the benefits of his life to the souls of believers (John xiv. 16, xv. 26, xvi. 7, 13; Acts i. 8). The Spirit is called the Spirit of Christ (Rom. viii. 9) because he holds the relation of a dispenser to the benefits of Christ's salvation. He has a relation to Christ similar to that which the Son has to the Father: as the Son reveals the Father (John



i. 18), so the Spirit reveals the grace and meritorious atonement and promises of Christ to the heart of the believer (John xvi.15).

The Spirit, as promised, descended with power on the Day of Pentecost (Acts ii.). Since that day

the Church has looked to the Spirit as

The the source of all inner enlightenment,

Descent without whose agency man neither

of the knows Christ as his Savior nor can call

Spirit. him Lord (I Cor. xii. 3). He is called

the " Holy Spirit of promise " (Eph.

i. 13) with reference to the new life of the believer

and the new realm into which the believer is trans­

ferred. He is the originator of the conviction of sin

(John xvi. 8 9) and the author of regeneration

(John iii. 5). He promotes the sanctification of the

soul (I Cor. vi. 11), and imparts to the Church his

special gifts (I Cor. xii. 4). The agency of the Spirit

extends to assuring the believer of his union with

Christ, and participation in the promises of eternal

life (Rom. viii. 16). All spiritual blessings, right­

eousness, peace, and joy, come to the believer by

reason of his reception of the Holy Spirit (Rom. xiv.

17; Eph. ii. 18). All kinds and degrees of sin may

be forgiven, except the sin of blasphemy against the

Holy Spirit (Matt. xii. 31, 32). This sin is unpardon­

able, because it is the final rejection of the saving

knowledge of Christ himself.

The present dispensation is called the dispensa­

tion of the Spirit because of the prominence given

to his work and person. The Spirit's work, however,

is in no sense an atoning work or a substitute for

that of Christ. It is mediatorial between the Savior

and the saved, realizing the salvation of Jesus in

the lives and experiences of individuals. The mani­

festation of the Spirit continues, as on the Day of

Pentecost, a manifestation of power the power of

a new life and spiritual energy (Acts i. 8). There

is no indication in the New Testament that this

manifestation of power was to be confined to apos­

tolic times, though it is reasonable that the methods

of the manifestation should be different in kind at

different epochs. D. S. Scam.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Of the Confessions the Westminster Con­

fession as revised in 1903 by the Presbyterian Church con­

tains the fullest treatment. Consult: A. Kuyper, The

Work of the Holy Spirit, New York, 1900 (contains a bib­

liography of the older literature); J. Owen, Of the Holy

Spirit, London, 1674 (the classic in English); R. Heber,

Personality and Office of the , . . Corlforter, ib. 1816; Pye

Smith, On the Holy Ghost, ib. 1831; K. A. Kahnis, Die

Lehre vom heiligen Geisls, Halle, 1847 (incomplete); J.



Buchanan, Ofce and Work of the Holy Spirit, Edinburgh,

1856; J. Hare, The Mission of the Comforter, ed. E. H,

Plumptre, ib. 1877; H. H. Wendt, Die Begrife Pleisch

and Geist in bibliachen SpradWebrauch, Gotha, 1878;



G. Smeaton, Doctrine of the Holy Spirit, Edinburgh, 1882;

H.'Gunkel, Die Wirkunpen des heiliyen Geistes nach der

Anachauung der aposWischen Zeit and each der

Lehre des . . . Paulus, Halle, 1888; J. Robson, The Holy

Spirit, the Paraclete, Aberdeen, 1893; A. J. Gordon, The

Ministry of the Holy Spirit, New York, 1894; W. K511­



ing, Pneumatolopie oder die Lehre von der Person des heili­

pen Geiates, Giitersloh, 1894; J. P. Coyle, The Holy Spirit

in Literature and Life, Boston, 1895; K. von Lechler, Die

biblische Lehre vom heiligen Geiste, Leipsic, 1899; K.



F. Nbegen, Geschichte won der Lehre room heiligen Geiste,

Gatersloh, 1899; idem, Do# Wesen and Wirken des

Heilipen Geietes, Berlin, 1907; F. B. Denio, The Supreme

Leader, Boston, 1900; J. E. C. Welldon, The Revelation

of the Holy Spirit, London, 1902; L. B. Crane, Teachings

of Jesus concerning the Holy Spirit, New York, 1908;




888 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA soles8oly v~e~

t3 11'ft


J. H. B. Masterman, " ! believe in the Holy Ghost." A Study of the Doctrine of the Holy Spirit in the Light of Modern Thought, London, 1907; A. C. A. Hall, The Work of the Holy Spirit, Milwaukee, 1907; J. D. Folsom, The Holy Spirit our Helper, New York, 1907; G. F. Holden, The Holy Ghost the Comforter, New York, 1908; F. C. Porter, The Spirit of God and the Word of God in Modern Theology, ib. 1908; E. W. Winetanley,. The Spirit in the N. T., ib. 1908. Consult also the pertinent sections on the systems of theology cited under DOGMA, DOGMATICS.

HOLY THURSDAY. See HOLY WEEK, 1 4.



HOLY WATER: Water over which the prayer of consecration has been offered, which is then used symbolically in ceremonial lustration. Purifications in religion and worship by means of water were familiar both to the Oriental and 'to the classical systems of antiquity. On this point Egyptians, Indians, Persians, and Semites stood on a common ground. The custom is found in ancient and later Judaism (see DEFILEMENT AND PURIFICATION, CERE­MONIAL). There was a vessel provided for the lus­tration of priests in both Tabernacle and Temple. Greeks and Romans not only paid reverential honor to sacred wells, but vessels of water stood in the confines of ancient temples, lustration being accom­plished by the individual or the priest. Under the influence of both Jewish and heathen precedent Christianity introduced similar forms of purifica­tion. Tertullian speaks of the custom of washing the hands before prayer (De oratio, xi.), and the Apostolic Constitutions witness to the same habit (viii. 32). A bowl of water (see CANTnARus) was provided in the atrium of the basilica (Eusebius, Hint. eccb., X., iv. 40). In this connection the old inscription was frequently applied, " Cleanse not only the face, but lawlessness," and on the ves­sel before old St. Paul's Church in Rome there was the inscription: " Whoever thou art who ap­proachest the sacred shrine of Paul, venerated for its merits, wash as a suppliant thy hands in the font." In celebrating the Lord's Supper, the hands of those who received, as well as the hands of the ministering priest, were washed (of. the authorities cited in DCA, i. 758 759). These lustrations were symbolic acts and were made with unblessed water, which was distinguished from that which the Church used in the sacrament of baptism. The effects of this sacrament were associated with the blessing of the water, and the sphere of the benediction was superstitiously extended, as was done in the case of the bread in the Lord's Supper (Tertullian, Ad uxorem, ii. 5), being regarded as efficacious in sick­ness and as a protection against demons. But this development required considerable time. Lustrar tion and baptism were for a time found side by side; then a third element was introduced in the fourth century, blessed water or holy water. The blessing element originated from the sacrament, the free use of it from the custom of lustration. The in­crease of popular superstition caused this combina­tion. A formula for benediction occurs in the Apos­tolic Constitutions (viii. 29; Eng. transl. in ANF, vii. 494), and the conferrer of the benediction was the bishop or, in exceptional cases, the presbyter. Stories of miracles made the custom popular. In order to regulate the usage and to protect it against the extension of superstitious practises, at the be 

ginning of the Carolingian age the benediction of water was made an ordinary act of worship. A formula was established for it in the Gregorian Sacramentary, which became the standard and is found in the Roman Ritual. Its connection with the superstition of the ancient Church is evident, especially shown by the fact that in exorcism a prayer was offered beseeching the banishment of the evil one, while the closing petition in the blessing of holy water also mentions the driving away of demons and diseases, freeing the recipients from all evil, and asking that the spirit of pestilence may not reside there, and that all acts of envy of the latent enemy may be averted. Salt was mixed with the water, through an apocryphal direction of Pope Alexander I.; the altar was first sprinkled, then the ministry and clergy, and then the people; the faithful were allowed to take the holy water home for sprinkling the sick, houses, fields, and so on. Holy water is used by the Church for numerous benedictions, besides those mentioned above. It is kept in church in a special movable vessel or in a permanent holy water stoop. Probably the earliest example of this stoop came from Tunis, and dates from about the fifth century. More certainly applied to this use was a Byzantine marble urn (cf. F. X. Kraus, RealencyklaWie der chriatlichen Alterhimer, ii. 980, Freiburg, 1886). Perhaps in the catacombs vessels of holy water were placed to protect the dead from evil spirits. There is an old example of a bronze vessel in the Vatican museum; the first certain representation of a basin is on the ivory cover of the well known sacramentary of Drogo of the ninth century. Various forms came into use later on (cf. K. Atz, Die chrialiche Kunst in Wort and Bild, p. 547, Regensburg, 1899). The Greek Church maintains the close connection between holy water and baptismal water. It distinguishes between the great consecration (on the evening before Epiphany or on Epiphany) and the lesser consecration (whenever occasion requires). Orien­tals practise also the blessing of rivers or the sea. (VICTOR SCHULTZE.) BIawoasAray: Bingbam, Oripines, XI., s.; H. Pfannen­schmid, Dal WeAwaaser im heidniechen and christlichen %ultus, Hanover, 1889; F. Probst, $akramente and Sakra­mentalien in den drei ersten chriatlicAen Jahrhundertsn, pp. 74 83, Ttibingen, 1872; R. de Fleury, La Meese, part v., Paris, 1887; A. von Maltzew, Bitt , Dank  and Weihe­Gottesdienste der orthodox katholischen %irehe des Morgen­landes, Berlin, 1897; John, Marquis of Bute, and E. W. Budge, The Blessing of the Waters on the Eve of the Epiph­any, London, 1901; H. Usener, in Archio for Relipions­misaensccha/t, viii (1904), 290 sqq.; Cabral, Dictionnaire, part 3av., cola. 886 713 (brilliant and minute, deals with the formulae, many of which it collates); HL, rii. 1262­1283.

HOLY WEEK. Origins (4 1).

Palm Sunday in the East (¢ 2). In the West (§ 3).

Monday to Thursday (§ 4). Good Friday (5 5).

Holy Saturday (¢ 6).

Protestant Usage (§ 7).

Holy Week, that is, the week before Easter, was originally called the " great week." •The oldest witnesses for this designation are the pilgrim Egeria in the account of her travels, the so called Peregrinatio Silvia (text and Eng. transl. in pub 






Holy Week THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 884

lications of Palestine Pilgrim's Text Society, Lon­don, 1896), and Chrysostom (Hom., xxx., c. 1 in

Gen. x. et xi.). In the account of trav 

r. Origins. els of Egeria from the time about 385

we find a detailed description of the rich liturgical celebrations by which the " great week," beginning with Palm Sunday, was distinguished in Jerusalem (in CSEL, xxxix. 78 92). From this account two conclusions may safely be drawn: (1) The liturgical usages, especially the custom to celebrate solemnly this week before Easter, owe their origin to the custom in Jerusalem; (2) at the time when Egeria wrote, similar celebrations must have .been unknown in the Occident; the customs in Jerusalem are evidently strange and new to her. The great week in the East was distinguished in the first place by strict fasting; but the custom was not uniform; some fasted the whole week, others only four or three, or even only two, days, namely, Friday and Saturday. As early as the time of Chrysostom all public amusements were forbidden, all public offices closed, prisoners dismissed, slaves benefited in every way, especially by their release, and the poor were provided with plentiful alma. The Occidental Church adopted the same name for this week; for its official designation in the Roman Church is still to day hebdomada magna or major. It was called also sancta. It is mentioned in litur­gical writings as early as the twelfth century. The German expression Karwoche (Karfreitag) is derived from karen, " to wail, to mourn," hence denotes week of mourning or lamenta­tion. With the Greeks the " great week " began only with the Monday after Palm Sunday, while in the Occident it commenced with that Sunday. Originally it was the same way in 'the East.

The oldest description of the liturgical celebration of this day in Jerusalem in the fourth century is

given in the Peregrinatio Silvi,as (CSEL,

2. Palm xxxix. 82 sqq., Eng. transl. of Palestine

Sunday Pilgrim's Text Society, pp. 57 sqq.).

in the The festival began at one o'clock in the

East. afternoon in the church upon the

Mount of Olives, with singing of hymns

and antiphones and the reading of lessons. The

characteristic feature of the celebration was the

several processions from one church to another which

took place accompanied by the repeated acclamation

of the people, " Blessed is he that cometh in the

name of the Lord." Children held branches of

palms or olives in their hands and accompanied the

bishop, who represented the Lord and rode upon

an ass. Ephraem the Syrian (q.v.) testifies that

the same procession of palms took place as early as

the fourth century in Edessa. In the fifth century

the festival of palms had spread over the whole of

Palestine. It should be noticed that the oldest

testimonies for the procession of palms on Palm

Sunday are entirely silent concerning a consecration

of the palms, and these testimonies prove that

Palm Sunday was considered throughout as a day

of joy, not as a day of mourning; moreover, the

epistle read on this day was Phil. iv. 4 9.

In the Occident there was originally no such cele­bration with branches of palms or other branches on

this day. The oldest Western testimonies for

Palm Sunday agree that the day bore entirely the

character of a Passion Sunday, consequently that

of mourning. It was still the same

3. In the way at the time of Leo the Great (d.

West. 461), who calls this Sunday Dominica



Passionis because the history of the

Passion was read. With this agrees entirely the fact

that the Spanish pilgrim evidently, until that time,

had not known of a procession of palms as she

experienced it in Jerusalem. The oldest Occidental

testimony for the procession of palms and their

consecration is found in the Liber ordinum of the

Visigothic Church (ed. Fdrotin, Paris, 1904). There

can be no doubt that this Spanish ceremonial be­

longs to the Visigothic time, hence to the sixth

century. It must have been in the course of the

fifth century that the Eastern custom either directly

or indirectly penetrated Spain. Apart from the

consecration of palms, there is an unmistakable

agreement between the Spanish celebration and

that of Jerusalem as described in the Peregrinatio

Silvim (ut sup.). The consecration of palms is

probably of Occidental origin, and was at first

entirely independent of the celebration. Such a

consecration was hardly necessary for the pro­

cession, but the consecrated branches were believed

to possess the power of exorcism, to expel diseases,

and to guard against demons, lightning, fire, and

tempests. It is not known at what time and place

consecration of palms and procession were com­

bined. One of the oldest testimonies of a special

celebration of Palm Sunday in the Occident is a

passage in the work of the Anglo Saxon bishop

Aldhelm of Sherborne (q.v.), De laudibus virginitatis

(MPL, lxxxix. 128). He speaks of a " very holy

solemnity of the palms." At the celebration on this

day there was sung antiphonally Benedict= qui

venit in namine Domini, to joyful airs. Amalarius

of Metz (q.v.) testifies that on Palm Sunday

branches were carried through the churches while

Hosannah was sung (MPL, cv. 1008); he says

nothing of the consecration of pahns. In the later

Middle Ages the procession developed so as to imi­

tate as faithfully as possible the entrance of Jesus

into Jerusalem. As in the East, the bishop, as

Christ, rode upon an ass or a horse. There devel­

oped, on the other hand, also the ceremony of

consecration. Not only were branches consecrated,

but also flowers, which were then carried in the

procession. Therefore the Sunday was called also

pascha, foridum, dominica forum et ramorum, les

pdques fUuriea; flower day. On the same day the

symbol. was given to the competitors in various

territories of the Church, as in the fifth and sixth

centuries in Gaul and Spain; therefore Palm Sunday

was called in some places dominica or paacha comr

peterdium. In the Roman Catholic Church the fol­

lowing solemn observances take place on Palm

Sunday: (1) the consecration of palms; (2) the

procession; (3) the mass, which throughout bears

the character of mourning. As the Greek Church

does not count Palm Sunday as belonging to the

" great week," and has given to this day from the

beginning the character of joy, it does not now

employ the procession, but only the consecration of




335 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Holy Week

palms. In the Greek Church the names of the day are similar to those in the Latin Church.

Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday of the " great week, " according to the Peregrinatio Silvice (CSEL, xxxix. 84 sqq.; Eng. transl.,

4. Monday ut sup., pp. 59 60), were early dis­

to tinguished by special services. On

Thursday. Tuesday in the vigil the bishop him­

self reads the Gospel of the day, Matt.

xxiv. 4 sqq., upon the Mount of Olives, from the

cave in which the Lord used to teach his disciples.

On Wednesday the vigil takes place in the Church

of the Resurrection; the presbyter reads the Gospel

of the day (Matt. xxvi. 14 16), the history of the

betrayal, whereupon the congregation utters loud

cries of resentment. The same lessons are to a

certain extent still used in the Greek Church. The

masses of the Roman Church on those days are of a

pronounced character of passion.



Concerning Maundy Thursday, in the description of the Peregrinatio Silvia (CSEL, xxxix. 85 sqq.; Eng. transl., ut sup., pp. 60 62), which gives a detailed account of the celebration of this day in Jerusalem, it is to be noted that the writer appar­ently has no special name either for Maundy Thurs­day or for the preceding days, and in the second place, that this day is distinguished by a general celebration of the Holy Supper, which takes place in a definite place. This evidently constitutes the proper celebration of this day, while the services in the evening are to be regarded as preparations for the following Friday. The custom of celebrating the Holy Supper on this day extended over the whole Orient. Augustine testifies to the same custom in Africa in the fifth century. An important ceremony on Maundy Thursday was the washing of feet (see Foom wABHINQ). .On the same day there took place the solemn readmission or reconcilia­tion of the penitents to the congregation, but this custom was not universal in the Occident. Ambrose testifies to its existence in Milan, and Innocent I. in Rome. In the Middle Ages this custom dis­appeared. Another custom of the ancient church on this day was the consecration of the Chrism (q.v.) by the bishop. Originally this consecration took place during the act of baptism; but when the bishops had to leave baptism to the presbyters they still claimed for themselves the consecration of the anointing oil, as early as the fourth century in Rome. It is very probable that these blessings were then performed on Maundy Thursday; for baptism took place shortly before Easter. The Roman Catholic Church possesses still other peculiar customs for this day, as, for instance, the chanting of the Tenebrce. During the service a large candle­stick, supporting fifteen lights, arranged in the form of a triangle, which denote Christ and the prophets who predicted his coming, stands in the sanctuary; the lights are one by one extinguished until only the upper one remains, which is taken down and placed under the altar until the close of the office, and then brought back. It is also customary on this day for all clericals to commune. In the Greek Church on this day, beside the washing of pilgrims' feet and the consecration of oil, also the consecration of the holy myron takes place. The derivation of the term

" Green Thursday," the German designation for Holy Thursday, is uncertain. Some derive it from the green herbs that used to be eaten on this day in order to guard against diseases; others, from the penitents who were readmitted on Holy Thursday, and who, according to them, were styled " green." According to Keller, the name originated from the green paraments used in Germany in the mass of that day in contrast with the paraments of other colors used on other days of the "great week." While " Green Thursday " and " Holy Thursday " are only popular designations, the liturgical name of the Church isto day, and has been for a long time, Ca na Domini.

According to the oldest testimonies, this day bears throughout the character of mourning. This ap 

pears in the interesting description of

5. Good the celebration of this day in Peregri 

Friday. natio Silviice (CSEL, xxxix. 87 sqq.;

Eng. transl., ut sup., pp. 62 sqq.). The account shows that on this day there was customary the strictest fasting and vigilance, that a crucifix was exhibited and adored, and that the divine serv­ices consisted in reading of the Scripture, hymns, and prayers, but not in the celebration of the Lord's Supper. The custom of the Greek Church of to day hardly differs from the custom of old Jerusalem as preserved in the account of Silvia. The Syriac Didascalia and the Apostolic Constitutions demand absolute fasting on Good Friday and Saturday before Easter. About the middle of the third cen­tury it was customary also in Alexandria to abstain entirely from food on both days, although not un­conditionally. The custom of the Occident in keep­ing this day is closely related to that of the East; the day is one of deepest mourning and of strict fasting, and there is a tendency to limit church services as much as possible. John of Naples, a contemporary of Paulinus of Nola (d. 431), bears witness that he administered the Lord's Supper on Holy Thursday, but on the next day devoted himself entirely to prayer, which shows that on this day no mass was celebrated. In some parts of Spain in the seventh century the churches were closed on Good Friday. Even in the ninth century in Rome no communion was celebrated. Nevertheless, Good Friday was always distinguished by a peculiar celebration. The morning service in the Roman Catholic Church con­sists of four parts: (1) the readings; (2) the inter­cessory prayers; (3) the unveiling and adoration of the cross; and (4) the celebration of the missy prmsanati, fwatorum (" shortened " mass). In the Middle Ages there was customary also a solemn burial, which used to follow immediately the adora­tion of the cross the cross was laid down in a " holy " grave in the tomb chapel and covered with a piece of cloth (sudarium), and in connection with it there were sung corresponding responsories, ver. sicles and prayers. This custom is said to have arisen in the tenth century. The adoration of the cross was followed by the " shortened " mass, which is explained as follows: On Holy Thursday there are consecrated two wafers; one is eaten by the priest, the other he places back in the chalice, which he puts on a side altar. This " presanetified " wafer (hence the Latin name, ut sup.) is carried on Good




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