and Nasatya being unmistakable. The indications given by the divine names are strengthened by dynastic and proper names of Iranian type. These facts suggest either Hindu Aryan affinities or bon rowing, the former much the more likely. Decided progress has been made in reading the records, and
HHittite*, The THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 800
the prospects for decipherment of inscriptions and therefore of more complete and accurate information are (1909) very bright.
On the Egyptian monuments the people are always figured as a yellow race, with very prominent protuberant noses and large nostrils, retreating forehead and chin and thick lips, high cheek bones, black hair and eyes. They are generally portrayed as beardless and as wearing the hair in a queue. They appear short in stature, but heavy in build. Since the Assyrians were not expert in drawing, as were the Egyptians, the Assyrian portraiture gives nothing additional. The monuments of the Hittites corroborate all the de
b. The tails afforded by the Egyptian por
People. tfaiture except the color, which the
nature of the remains does not indi
cate. But the men are everywhere portrayed as
wearing high boots with the toes curling upward
and even backward, and generally as wearing mit
tens with a separate stall for the thumb only. The
raiment seems heavy and agrees with the items just
This is the more decisive since the Assyrians were
at the time in conflict with Hittites elsewhere.
Moreover, other physiological characteristics, such as
hair (especially the queue), and the high cheek bones
seem to connect them with the Mongolian race.
The idea of a Hittite " empire " in the sense of a unified rule is not borne out by the historical indications, but what does appear is the appearance of confederation (see § 4 above). As invaders of southern Asia and opponents of Egyptian and later of Assyrian aggression, there was a power of reserve which with other marks suggests mutual support and a power of confederation which contrasts strongly with Semitic
7. Their separativeness. The condition is some"Empire"; thing like that of the Philistines whose
Influence cities were under individual rule yet
on who acted together in case of aggres
Culture. sive campaigns. Their meaning for
civilization is only secondary, through
the Greek. They unquestionably influenced early
Greek inscriptions and art early Greek writing
was boustrophedon. A Hittite seal in the possession of Dr. Ward is unmistakably allied to the Mycenaean seals and drawings. The Eons of Mycen2e, the rope pattern of Greek adornment, the Greek sphinx, and some of the Greek deities are firmly held to be of Hittite origin. Dr. Ward suggests that not improbably they gave to the Greeks the last five letters of the Greek alphabet, a suggestion which does not seem to have been used in attempts at decipherment. See ASSYRIA; CANAAN, CANAANITE6, § 7; CARCHEMISH.
GEO. W. GILmORE.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Brown, in Presbyterian Review, 1880; W. Wright, The Empire of as Hittites, London, 1888; Ball in PSBA, x (1888), 437 aqq.; G. Perrot and C. Chipies, History of Art in . . Assyria, Phanicia . . . and Asia Minor, 2 vols., London, 1884 85; A. H. 8ayee, The Hittites; the Story of a forgotten Empire, London, 1888; C. R. Conder, Altaic Hieroglyphs and Hittite Inscriptions, ib. 1889; J. Campbell, The Hittites, 2 vols.. Toronto, 1890 (covers language, ethnology, and history); Halivy, in MEvaires de Cacad6xiie des inscriptions et belles lettres, Paris, 1892; idem, in Revue almitique, i. 56 sqq., 126 sqq.; F. E. Peiser, Die hditisrhan Inachriftan, Berlin, 1892 (attempts decipherment); T. Tyler, in Religious systems of the world. London, 1893; C. A. de Care. Gill Hethei Palaapi, 3 vole., Rome, 1894 1902 (identifies the Hittites and the Pelasgians); J. F. McCurdy, History, Prophecy and the Monuments, i., ¢§ 156 167, New York. 1894; P. Jensen, Hittiter and Armenier, Strasburg, 1898 (sums up his work on the inscriptions); idem, in H. V. Hilprecht, Explorations in Bible Lands, pp. 753 793, Philadelphia, 1903; L. Messerschmidt, Bemerkunpen su den hetitischsn Inachriften, also Corpus inscriptionum Hitticarum, all in Miuheilunpen der roorderasiatischen Oessllschaft, Berlin, 1898, 1900, 1902, 1906; W. H. Ward, in H. V. Hilpreeh, Recent Research in Bible Lands, pp. 159 190, Philadelphia, 1898; Menant, in MEvwires de 1'acadfie des inscriptions, vol. xxxiv. 1 aqq.; Nowack, Archdolopie, i. 96, 282, 341; especially H. Winokler and O. Puahetem in Mittedunpen der deutachen Orient (lesellackaft, for 1908 08, especially Dec., 1907, and E. Meyer in 3itsunpabarichte der preussischen Akadernie der Wiseenschaften, Jan., 1908. The files of the PSBA since 1887 contain much material which is pertinent.
HITZE, FRANZ: German Roman Catholic; b. at
Hannemicke, Westphalia, Mar. 16, ,1851. He
studied at Wilrzburg 1872 78, and then was chap
lain of the German Campo Santo at Rome for two
years. He was then appointed secretary of the
Roman Catholic society Arbeiterwohl at Munich
Gladbach, and two years later was elected to the
Landtag, going to the Reichstag in 1904. In 1893
he was appointed associate professor of Christian
sociology at Munster, where he was promoted to
his present position of full professor of the same
subject in 1904. He has written: Die soziale
Frage and die Beatrebungen zu ihrer Uaung (Pader
born, 1877); %apital and Arbeit and die Reorgani
sation der Gesellsehaft (1880);, Quintessenz der 8o
HITZIG,hit'siH, FERDINAND: German exegete and Old Testament critic; b. near L6rrach (28 m. s.s.w. of Freiburg), Baden, June 23, 1807; d. at Heidelberg Jan. 22, 1875. He studied theology at Heidelberg, Halle, and GBttingen, and became privet docent at Heidelberg in 1829. He first at
tracted attention by the two treatises, Begri ff der Kritik am Alter Testament praktisch erortert (Heidelberg, 1831) and Des Propheten Jonas Orakel caber Moab (1831). From 1833 till 1861 he was professor of theology at Zurich. Here his upright character, commanding scholarship, and critical acumen won for him recognition, even among those who did not approve of his rationalizing tendencies. In 1861 he returned to Germany as professor of theology at Heidelberg.
Hitzig was remarkably productive, but whimsical. As in the cuneiform inscriptions he perceived an Indo Germanic speech, similarly he sought to explain certain words of the Old Testament through the Sanskrit. Still more widely prejudicial to his scholarly standing was the constructive criticism which he professed, in contrast to the more negative attitude of De Wette. Thus he thought he could determine exactly the original condition of most of the Psalms from David's era down to the first century l;.c. Another defect was his superficial view of revelation, which he assigned to faith (Geschichte des Volkes Israel, 2 parts, Leipsic, 18691870; cf. vol. i., p. 82), the true God having been discovered " by means of a stronger power of thought." But despite these and other untenable views, Hitzig greatly advanced the exegesis of the Psalms (Die Psalmen, 2 vole., Heidelberg, 18351836; enlarged into a comprehensive commentary, 2 vole., Leipsic, 1863 65). Although he derived many a Psalm from Jeremiah's dungeon, and referred about half of all the Psalms to the Maccabean era, he can not be classed as a distinctly radical critic, even among his own contemporaries, seeing that he held the decalogue to be Mosaic.
Other works on the Old Testament by Hitzig are: Der Prophet Jesaia zibersetzt and ausgelegt (Heidelberg, 1833), his best exegetical work the Minor Prophets (Leipsic, 1838; 4th ed., 1881), Jeremiah (1841; 2d ed., 1866), Ecclesiastes (1847; 2d ed., 1883), Ezekiel (1847), Daniel (1850), and the Song of Songs (1855) in the Kurzgefasstes exegetisches Handbuch zum Alter Testament; Die Sprdche Salomos (Zurich, 1858); and Dab Buch Hiob (Leipsic, 1874). His Vorlesungen tlber bxblische Theologie and messianische WeiBsagungen des Alter Testaments were published at Carlsruhe,1880. A. KAMPHAUBEN.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A Lebew und',Charakter Skisrewas prefixed
by Kneucker to Hitsig's Vorleaunpen fiber bibliaehe Theologie, Carleruhe, 1880. The Gednchtniarede, by A. Hausrath, is in the addition to the Aupaburgieehe allgemoine Zeitung, 1875,, no. 30; and a notice by Kneucker is in F. ion Weech, Badiache Biopraphieen, i. 377 380, Heidelberg, 1875.
HIVITES. See CANAAN.
HOADLY, h6d'li, BENJAMIN: English bishop; b. at Westerham (15 m. s.s.e. of London), Kent, Nov. 14, 1676; d. at Winchester Apr. 17, 1761. He studied at Catherine Hall, Cambridge (B.A., 1696; M.A., 1699), where he was fellow (1697 1701) and tutor (1699 1701). After his ordination in 1701 he was lecturer at St. Mildred's, London, till 1711. Meanwhile he had received in 1704 the rectory of St. Peter le Poer, London. It was as an opponent of Edmund Calamy (q.v.) in the discussion re
Hittites, The 8oadly garding conformity at the beginning of the eighteenth century that he first established his reputation as a controversialist. In 1706 he began a controversy with Francis Atterbury (q.v.) on the interpretation of I Cor. xv. 19. Against Atterbury's view that Christians are compensated in a future world for their unhappiness in this, Hoadly took the ground that the greatest happiness in this life is attained by those who lead a Christian life. In 1709 he became the leader of the Low church party in a controversy with Atterbury and other supporters of hereditary right and passive obedience. In recognition of his strenuous assertion of the " Revolution principles," particularly in his Measures of Submission to the Civil Magistrate (London, 1706) and Original and Institution of Civil Government (1709), parliament presented an address to Queen Anne in Dec., 1709, praying her to bestow some dignity upon him. Through the accession of the Tories to power Hoadly's preferment was indefinitely postponed, though he was presented by a private patron to the rectory of Streatham in 1710. In 1715 he was made a royal chaplain and elevated to the bishopric of Bangor. In 1716 he published his famous treatise, A Preservative against the Principles and Practices of Nonjurors both in Church and State, in which he attacked the divine authority of kings and clergy. On Mar. 31, 1717, he continued his attack in a sermon preached before the king on John xviii. 36, in which he denied pointblank that there is any such thing as a visible Church of Christ, and maintained that, since Christ was the only authoritative lawgiver, no one has the right to make new laws for Christ's subjects, or to interpret or enforce, old laws, in matters relating purely to conscience. This sermon, which was at once printed by royal command, precipitated what is commonly called the Bangorian Controversy. The Highchurch party sought to proceed against Hoadly in convocation, but the king prevented this by proroguing that body on Nov. 22, 1717. This controversy, which raged for three years, produced more than 200 tracts by fifty three different writers, and caused such intense excitement among all classes that for a time business in London was practically at a standstill. Hoadly's most important contribution to this controversy was The Common Rights of Subjects Defended (London, 1719). Among his more prominent opponents were Andrew Snaps, Thomas Sherlock, and William Law (qq.v.). Hoadly was translated to the see of Hereford in 1721, to that of Salisbury in 1723, and to the rich see of Winchester in 1734. He was an aggressive Latitudinarian (see LATITuDINARTANg) and the recognized leader of the extreme Latitudinarian party in Church and State. He was the friend and admirer of Samuel Clarke (q.v.), and was almost in entire accord with Clarke's refined Arianism. Though his writings are heavy, dull, and devoid of originality, they did excellent service in their day for the cause of civil and religious liberty. Hoadly's works were edited by his son, John Hoadly (3 vols., London, 1773).
131BLIOGRAPIIY: John Nichol, Literary Anecdotes of the 18th
Century, vole. i. v., 9 vols., London, 1812 15; John Hunt,
Hia. of Religious Thought in Englnd, vol. iii., i5,. 1873;
C. J. Abbey, The English Church and its Bishops, 17oo
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
1800, ii. 1 20 ib. 1887; J. H. Overton The Church in England, ii. 203, 217 218 227 229, ib. 1897; idem and F. Ftelton, The English Church 171.¢ 1800, pp. 14 18 et passim, ib. 1906; DNB, xxvii. 16 21.
HOBART, ALVAH SABIN: Baptist; b. at Whitby, Ontario, Mar. 7, 1847. He was graduated at Colgate (then Madison) University in 1873 and Hamilton Theological Seminary in 1875. He has held pastorates at Morris, N. Y. (1874 78), Mount Auburn, Cincinnati (187885), First Baptist Church, Toledo, 0. (1885 88), and Warburton Avenue Church, Yonkers, N. Y. (18881900). Since 1900 he has been professor of the English New Testament at Crozer Theological Seminary, Chester, Pa. . He was chairman of the Board of the American Baptist Home Missionary Society in 1897 99, and has been the recording secretary since 1890. He has written Life of Alvah Sabin (Cincinnati, 1885); Those OldFashioned Christians (Philadelphia, 1895); Gifts of the Spirit (Chicago, 1898); and Our Silent Partner (New York, 1908). In theology he ranks as a semiconservative.
HOBART, JOHN HENRY: Protestant Episcopal bishop of New York; b. in Philadelphia Sept. 14, 1775; d. at Auburn, N. Y., Sept. 12, 1830. He studied at Princeton (B.A., 1793) and was tutor there 1795 98, when he was admitted to holy orders. After having served parishes in Philadelphia, New Brunswick, N. J., and Hempstead, L. I., he became an assistant at Trinity Church, New York, in 1800. He was elected assistant bishop of New York in 1811, and bishop of New York and rector of Trinity in 1816. In 1821 he was appointed to the chair of pastoral theology and pulpit eloquence in the General Theological Seminary, New York, an institution that had been founded largely through his exertions. He also organized at Geneva, N. Y., an Episcopal college, which in 1860 changed its name to Hobart College. He was an eminently successful leader and organizer in his Church, a zealous advocate of episcopal ordination, and the author, or compiler, of a number of books that attained a wide circulation and contributed in a marked degree to the rapid growth of the Protestant Episcopal Church in America during the first half of the nineteenth century. His more important works are: A Campanionfor the Altar (New York, 1804); Festivals and Fasts (1804); Essays on Episcopacy (1806); The Clergyman's Companion (1806); An Apology for Apostolic Order (1807); The Christian's Manual (1814); and Sermons on . . . Redemption (2 vols., New York and London, 1824). His Posthumous Works were edited, with a Memoir, by W. Berrian (3 vols., New York, 1833).
BIHLIoaRAPHT: J. F. Schroeder Memoir of Bishop Hobart, New York, 1833• J. MaeViekar, Early Years of the Late Bishop Hobart, ib. 1834; W. B. Sprague, Annals of the American Pulpit, v. 440 453 ib. 1859; Appleton's CycloPodia of American Biography, ed. J. G. Wilson and J. Fiske, iii. 221 222 ib. 1898; W. S. Perry, The Episcopate in America, pp. 25 27, ib. 1895.
HOBBES, hebz, THOMAS: English philosopher; b. at Malmesbury, Wiltshire, Apr. 5, 1588; d. at Hardwick Hall (17 m. n.n.e. of Derby), Derbyshire, Dec. 4, 1679. He was educated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford (B.A., 1608), and upon his graduation was recommended to William Cavendish, afterward first
302 earl of Devonshire, as tutor for his eldest son. This was the beginning of a lifelong intimacy with the Cavendiahes. After the death of the second earl, his pupil and patron, he became tutor to the third earl of Devonshire, who in turn became his friend and patron. In his capacity as tutor Hobbes traveled extensively in Europe, meeting many distinguished people and forming friendships with Galileo, Mersenne Gaesendi, and others. In London he met Francis Bacon, Ben Jonaon, Lord Herbert of Cherbury. John Selden, and William Harvey. At the beginning of the Long Parliament in 1640 Hobbes fled to Paris, where in 1646 he became mathematical tutor to the prince of Wales, afterward Charles II. His position in Paris having become difficult by reason of suspicions as to his orthodoxy, he returned to England in 1651, submitted to the new government, resumed his position in the household of his patron, and set about finishing his philosophical system. At the Restoration he received a pension of £100 from Charles II. He now engaged in several controversies, both religious and scientific. He attributed his exclusion from the founders of the Royal Society to the malignity of his opponents. In his later years he busied himself by translating Homer and writing in Latin verse his autobiography and an ecclesiastical history.
In epistemology and psychology Hobbes was a sensualist, in metaphysics almost a materialist, and in ethics a hedonist. The only source of knowledge, he maintains, is sensation, the only objects of knowledge are bodies, either natural or political, and the only end of action is self interest. He regarded motion as the ultimate fact of existence, and self love as the fundamental law of nature. His political philosophy, his greatest achievement, is based upon these general views. The State, as he argued in his beat known work, Leviathan, is a contrivance for putting an end to the war of all against all, in the interest of the pursuit of happiness. That there may be no disturbing dissensions, the power of the sovereign must be absolute. This power is merely delegated to him, and is in no sense original or divine. Against Grotius, Hobbes maintained that the social compact is not between the sovereign and his subjects, but between the subjects to obey the sovereign. This absolutism gives rise to the distinctions of good and bad. Whatever the sovereign commands is good, whatever he forbids is bad. Hobbea_proposed to remove the evils of sectarian animosity by completely subordinating the ecclesiastical to the secular authority, thus making religion dependent upon the whim of the absolute ruler. In 1666 his views were condemned by the House of Commons, and thereafter he was not permitted to publish anything relating to human conduct.
On account of his rationalistic treatment of religious doctrine Hobbes might well be called the second deist, just as Herbert of Cherbury has been called the first (see DEISM). In his day he produced an intellectual ferment comparable only to that produced by Darwinism; and even till the middle of the eighteenth century Hobbism remained a term of reproach. Among his assailants were John Bramhall, Thomas Tenison, John Eachard, Ralph