sing a Synopsis and a Diatessaron, together with an Introduc
tory True, Tables and Indexes and Diagrams, London,
1853; F. Gardiner, Harmony of the Four Gospels in Greek
according to the Text of Tiachendorf, Andover, 1871, 1876;
idem, Harmony of the Four Gospels in English, idem, 1871;
G. Clark, New Harhwhy of the Four Gospels in English, New York, 1870, new ed., Philadelphia, 1892; J. A. Broadue, Harmony of the Gospels in The Revised Version, New York, 1893; w. A. Stevens and E. D. Burton, Harmony of the Gospels . . . in the Version of 1881, Boston, 1894, new ed. 1904. BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. Greswell. Dissertations upon the Principles and Arrangement of an Harmony of the Gospels, 4 vols., Oxford, 1837; T. Zahn, Forechungen our Geschichte des neutestamentlichen Kanons, vols. i. iv., Erlangen, 1881 91; idem, Geschiehte des neutestamentlichen Kanons, 2 vols., Leipsie, 189092; J. w. Burson, Last Twelve Verses of S. Mark, pp. 126 131, 295 312, London, 1871; G. Phillips, Doctrine of Addai, London, 1876; F. Baethgen, Evangelienfrapmente, pp. 62 eqq., Berlin, 1886; E. Sievers, Tatian, Paderborn, 1892; J. H. Hill, Dissertation on the Commentary of Ephraem the Syrian, Edinburgh, 1896; C. Holzhey, Neuentdeckte Syrus Sinaiticus, pp. 42 sqq., Munich, 1896; J. A. Schmeller, Am»wnii . . . harmonic Evangeliorum, Vienna, 1841; G. J. Meijer, Het Leven van Jesus, Groningen, 1838 (cf. A. Robinson, in Academy, Mar. 24, 1894); J. Gildemeieter, De evangeliis in Arabicum de aimplici Syriaw dranslatis, p. 35, Bonn, 1865; Magister de Hussinets (John Huss), Historic gestorum Christi, ed. Lsndstroem, Upsala, 1898; C. A. Briggs,. New Light on the Life of Jesus, New York, 1904 (discusses the principles of a harmony). A full bibliography on the Diatesssron of Tatian will be found under TATIAx. The separate works on the subject usually discuss the principles upon which a harmony is to be constructed, and the same is often done in works on the life of Christ.
HARMONY SOCIETY.See ComnsuNlsm, II., 6.
and reading Schleiermacher, suddenly felt that all
rationalism and human science could not help him,
that his salvation must be sought elsewhere; the
study of Holy Scripture brought about his complete
conversion. In 1802 he finished his theological
studies and became private tutor in Probateier
hagen in Holstein.
In 1806 the congregation of Lunden, in the district of North Ditmarsh, chose him deacon. He devoted himself with great energy to Pastor and the art of preaching, and extended his Preacher. care for his parishioners to all their spiritual and secular affairs. His sermons became very popular, even outside of his parish; and he was at times so fearless in denunciations of existing shortcomings of the government that he was called to account. In 1816 he was appointed archdeacon of St. Nicolai in Kiel, where he was equally popular. Since, however, he became more and more convinced that his time had declined from the faith of the Reformation, and thus from the source of salvation„ he considered the year 1817, the three hundredth anniversary of the Reformation, as an opportune time to speak his
Harms THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 168
mind. Accordingly he published (Kiel, 1,817) the
ninety five theses of Luther with ninety five theses
of his own, needed in his opinion by
Harms's the nineteenth century, and directed
Ninety five against various supposed abuses in the
Theses. Lutheran Church; especially against ra
tionalism; he declared his willingness
to defend and vindicate his theses and to avow his
errors if any should be proved. His first thesis was
In spite of his successful activity at Liirieburg, however, he longed for a position as preacher, but owing to the superabundance of candi
Pastor in dates, it was impossible for him to
Ltineburg. realize his desire. He declined a call
as teacher at the missionary institution
at Hamburg and another as pastor in New York.
He wished to preach among his own Liineburg
people, and his longing was fulfilled in 1844 when
the consistory made him his father's assistant. His
great activity now began, and with it an awakening
such as has seldom been seen in North Germany.
His father had prepared the way, but Harms himself
187 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA ga
worked unremittingly, not only by sermons and services which took up the whole Sunday, but also by his personal association with his congregation. A feature of his work was the meetings held in his house every Sunday afternoon. Harms always used the Low German dialect, the common speech of the peasants, and his gift of popular story telling aided him greatly in these social gatherings.
But after all his main power lay in his sermons. Harms understood, as few have done since Luther, how to preach to the people, especially
His to the peasants. Popularity formed Preaching. the fundamental trait of his manner of preaching, which was based upon simplicityand clearness. His sermons were not artistic from the homiletic point of view, the themes being in most cases mere headings, the different parts only loosely connected, and the structure simple, nor were his sermons above the average from the exegetical standpoint. The range of thought was narrow, the same ideas occurring again and again, often, even in the same words. The main theme was the necessity of a thorough conversion, justification by faith, and the proof of faith in Christian conduct. In bodily gifts Harms was sadly lacking. His voice was hollow and at times shrill, his manner in the pulpit somewhat stiff. But the result of his devoted labor soon showed itself in a real change of life in his congregation. Regular attendance at church, regular devotions at home, and strict observance of Sunday became a fixed rule in his congregation. The charitable work of the congregation assumed large dimensions. People from other parishes poured into his, church, and Harms became their spiritual father, and even in their absence remained their faithful adviser by an .extensive oorrespondence.
In this way Harms laid the basis for his missionary congregation; for that was his idea from the beginning: a parochial mission, a mis
The sion of the State Church. In his earlier Hermanns years he had been asked to found a burg missionary institution, but he declined Mission. until he became the official pastor of Hermannsburg in 1849, after his father's death. In his report to the consistory he stated his reasons for founding his own missionary establishment instead of joining one of the existing institutions. He cherished the idea of colonial missions, holding that missionaries should not be scattered, but form a Christian colony in heathen countries. In this way, he thought, it would be easier to gather a strong congregation. After its development a second colony should be founded in the vicinity of the first, and after the second a third, and so on, so that a connecting chain of congregations would come into existence. Harms thought that by virtue of the close connection of these colonies with the mother congregation, the solidarity of Lutheran confessionalism would be guarded against the disintegrating influences of other denominations. But the consistory did not agree with him; and he was compelled to follow substantially the plan of other missionary societies. He lived long enough to see the growth of his missionary enterprise, but he might have lived longer
if he had not undermined his health by excessive
work, without even temporary recreations. His
publications were sermons and devotional writings,
which achieved an extraordinary popularity in
Germany. (G. UHLaoRNt.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY:T. Harms, Lebenabeschrsibung des Pastors Louis Harms, Hermanmsburg, 1874 (by his brother); H. Kpaut, Louis Harms, Gottingen, 1899.
EARNACg, (KARL GUSTAV) ADOLF: German Lutheran; b. at Dorpat, Livonia, May 7, 1851. He was educated at Dorpat (1869 72), and two years later became privat docent at Leipsic, where he was appointed associate professor in 1876. In 1879 he accepted a call to Giessen as full professor of church history, and remained there until 1886, when he went to Marburg in a similar capacity. In 1889 he was called to Berlin. In addition to his professorship of church history, he has since 1905 held the post of director of the Royal Library there. He is recognized as one of the leaders of the critical school of theology and an authority on the history of the antenicene period. Since 1881 he has been one of the editors of the Theologische Literaturzeitung, and since 1882 of the well known Tezte and Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur, to which series he has contributed many monographs. He has written:
Zur Quellenkritik der Geschichte des Gnostisismus (Leipsic, 1873); De Appellia gnosi monarchica (1874); Die Zeit des Ignatius and die Chronologie der antioehenischen Bischefe Us Tyrannus (1878); Evangeliorum codex purpureus Rosanienaia (in collaboration with the late Oscar von Gebhardt, Leipsic, 1880); Das Mt6nehehum, seine Ideals and Geschichle (Giessen, 1881, 6th ed. 1903, Eng. travel. by O. R. Gillett, Monasticism: its Ideals and its history, New York 1895); Augustin's Confessionen (Giessen, 1888, 3d ed., 1903; Eng. trawl. by E. E. Kellett and F. H. Marseille, together with their trawl. of the lecture on Monasticism, London, 1901); Martin Luther in seiner Bedeutung far die Geschichte der Wissenschaft and der Bildung (Giessen, 1883); Die Ayostellehre and die y4dischen beiden Wege (Leipsie, 1886); Die Quellen der sogenanaten apostolischen %irchenordnung (1886, Eng. trawl. by L. A. Wheatley, Sources of the Apostolic Canons; wroth a Treatise on the Origin of the Readership and Other Lower Orders, London, 1895); Lehrbuch der DopmengeacKichte (3 vols., Freiburg, 1886 90, 3d ed., 1894; Eng. trawl. by Neil Buchanan, History of Dogma, 7 vols., London, 18951900); Grundriss der Dogmengeschichte (1889, 4th ed., 1905; Eng. trans]. by Edward K. Mitchell, Outlines of the History of Dogma, New York, 1893); Geschichte der allchrisitichen Literatur his Eusebius (3 vols., Leipsic, 1893 1904, in collaboration with Edwin Preuschen in the first volume); Thoughts on the Present Position of Protestantism (Eng. trawl. by Thomas Bailey Saunders, London, 1899); Gsschichte der kdniglichen preussischen Akademie der Wiesenschaften zu Berlin (3 vols., Berlin, 1900); Das Wesen des Chrietentums (Leipsic, 1900, 52d thousand, 1905; Eng. trawl. by T. B. Saunders, What is Christianity? London 1901, 3d ed. (1904); Das Chriatentum and die Geschiehte (Leipsic, 1897, 5th ed., 1904; Eng. trawl. by T. B. Saunders, Christianity and History, London, 1900); Apostles' Creed (Eng. travel. by Stewart Means from 3d ed. Herzog's Realeneyklopadie, London, 1901); Die Aufgabe der theologischen Fakultaten and die allgemeine Religionegeschichte (Giessen, 1901); Die Mission and Ausbreitung des Christentums in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten (Leipsie, 1902, 2d ed., 1906; Eng. trawl. by James Moffatt, The Expansion of Christianity in the First, Three Centuries, 2 vole., London, 1904 0.5, new ed.19Q8); Reden and Aufsotw (2 vols.. Giessen, 1904, 2d ed. 1906); Militia Christi. Die chriMliche Religion and der Soldatenstand in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten (T7bingen, 1905); Beitidge zur Einleitung in das Neue Testament (3 parts, Leipsie, 1906 08; Eng. trawl. of part 1:, Luke the Physician, the Author of the Third Gospel and the Ads of the Apostles, London, 1907), Zwei Warts Jesu (Berlin, 1907); Essays on the Social Gospel (London, 1907;
Harnack THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 188
in collaboration with W. Herrmann), and The Ads of the Apostles (1908). He first made his mark by his work on the text of the Apostolic Fathers, in collaboration with Oscar von Gebhardt and T. Zahn (3 vols., Leipeic, 1875 77, minor ed., 1877, 5th ed., 1908).