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change produced in him, as though it were the en­

trance of a new spiritual spring. For a considerable

time thereafter his letters were couched in the un­

natural mode of utterance in vogue among Pietists,

and abounded in the bluntest expressions respecting

everybody of a different opinion and all worldly

pursuits. He even condemned all scientific treat­

ment of theology. The Evangelical attempts in

the cause of church union merely aroused his ab­

horrence, and served only to enhance his inclina­

tion toward Roman Catholicism. He manifested

special predilection for the quietistic mysticism of

the extravagant Francis of Sales (q.v.). Although

he then assured his distressed parents that he had

won inward rest and blessedness, he nevertheless

later admitted in retrospect that he had not been a

happy Pietist, but had been without joy. Grad­

ually he felt the lack of satisfying, solid work at the

Wittenberg Seminary, though he had often preached

and studied much there, and, in the autumn of 1822,

he left Wittenberg, not without satisfaction, to re­

turn home. Here, thanks to the good offices of

Heubner, he was called to be chaplain to the Prus­

sian embassy at Rome. He now passed his second

theological examination, was ordained at Berlin,

married Louise von Bruck, a sister in law of Heub­

ner, and journeyed with her to Italy.

He reached Rome early in 1824. What usually

attracted people he regarded with indifference, de­

siring simply to serve his congregation faithfully,

and thereby the kingdom of God. But

Career. owing to the peculiar constituency of

that body, the conscientious execu­

tion of this task was bound to enlarge his field of

vision. The nucleus of the Prussian congregation

at Rome comprised some finely cultivated Evan­

gelical families of the embassy, and a number of

artists of idealistic taste. He soon discerned that

Christianity was not to be presented before these

circles in the form of a narrow minded Pietism.

Not a few of the members, above all the highly

talented, eager personality of Josias Bunsen (q.v.),

counselor of the legation, evinced by their combi­

nation of a vital Christian intelligence with political,

scientific, artistic, and other spiritual and secular

interests, that the two do not exclude each other.

Hence the Pietistic forms, foreign as they always

were to Rothe's individuality, fell gradually away

from his habit of life and thought. In his modesty,

his inner devoutness, his fellowship with Christ, his

preference for quiet, he had much in common with

Pietism, and these he retained enduringly. His style

of correspondence now became more natural, and

his judgment of Pietism more and more critical.

At the same time, being at the very center of Ro­

man Catholicism, he was radically cured of his pre­

dilection for that system, and perceived that a

stanch ecclesiasticism still affords no warrant of

Christian piety. Thus his own Christianity grew

more liberal toward the world, and, stimulated by

his official activity, he awakened more keenly to the

need of scientific studies. Before conferences of cul­

tivated members of his congregation, in response to

the request of some artists, he discussed topics in

ecclesiastical history. This Roman sojourn, how­

ever, had also its dark sides. Rothe's wife ap 

peared unable to bear the climate. Then the frequent changes in the constituency of the Prus­sian congregation rendered the fruits of his activity insecure. With increasing diffidence toward pub­licly disclosing his inmost mind, he began to doubt his qualification for a practical church career, and his desire for active scholarship grew apace. Under the circumstances a call to be professor at the theological seminary at Wit­tenberg in 1828 was gladly accepted, and this was followed by the appointment to be second di­rector and ephor, 1832. In 1837 he became uni­versity preacher, and professor and director of the new seminary at Heidelberg. To be released from the latter office he accepted a call to Bonn in 1849. Feeling too much weighed down by the practical duties of preaching in connection with the public worship of the university, he returned to Heidel­berg, 1854, where he now lectured on ecclesiastical history, exegesis, systematic theology, the life of Christ, encyclopedia, and, occasionally, on practical theology till his death.

From the beginning of his independent theolog­ical research, his deepest interest turned to the sci­entific knowledge of the ideal truth of Christianity. But in distinction from the dialectics of Schleier­macher, which seemed to him too formal and ab­stract, he strove after a more replete speculation, rendering more justice to the realities

Work in of the world and of historical Chris 

Exegesis tianity. Hence his theological studies

and were applied, first, to Biblical exegesis History. and ecclesiastical history. His exe­getical studies were taken up at Rome, and pursued with special zeal during the later period of his sojourn there, since Biblical writings formed the topics of discussion in the conferences of culti­vated church members. This gave rise to Rothe's first literary publication, his monograph on Rom. v. 12 21, prepared at Ischia, and published under the title, Neuer Versuch einer Auslegung der Paulini­schen Stelle Romer V., 12 ,21 (Wittenberg, 1836). However, purely exegetical interest was not very lively with him, and he published nothing further in scientific exegesis. Still, his official tasks at Wit­tenberg led him to produce edifying elucidations of Scripture; and his exposition of I John is one of the best of its kind, Der erste Brief Johannis (Witten­berg, 1878). His studies next turned to the his­torical field. Already at Breslau, after Neander had inspired him at Berlin to the academic vocation, he had devoted himself to studies in ecclesiastical his­tory. At Rome association with the versatile and scholarly Bunsen gave him new impetus. Coinci­dent with his own interest the Roman artists be­sought him for information on the history of Roman Catholicism. The reaction which then took place in his critical estimation of Romanism also occa­sioned the need of some independent historical ex­amination on this topic. His deep study of the sources thus prepared him for the course of lectures on " Church Life " that he was pledged to deliver at Wittenberg, in which he treated the nature and history of the Christian religion and Church. An­other fruit of this labor was his much noted work, Die Anfange der christlichen Kirehe  and ihrer Ver 



fassung (1837). Inherent in the nature of all re­ligions, he asserts, there is the radical impulse of self expression. In the Christian religion, the proc­ess of such manifestations has for its goal the con­summation of the kingdom of God on earth, as promised by Christ. But the State, as the most comprehensive structure wrought by mind into matter, is the actual realization of all moral life, which, in its final perfection, must immanently in­volve religion. In contrast, the Church, by virtue of its intrinsic character, shall ever serve purely religious ends. Therefore the kingdom of God on earth can present itself only in the form of a per­fected state or organism of states, wherefore the Church becomes gradually superfluous. For the present, however, the Church still has a lofty sig­nificance. The idea of the Church sprang from an internal necessity, and began to achieve its fulfil­ment. As a matter of fact, the formation of the Church followed soon after the destruction of Jeru­salem, when the surviving apostles instituted the episcopate as an organic expedient for the outward unity of Christian fellowship. Incipiently, the idea of the Church was vaguely identified with this em­pirical Church. As all sorts of contingencies arose to make this identification less congruous, there de­veloped, over against the heresies, with increasing certainty, the recognition of the papal Church of Rome. This fiction, however, was bound ere long to give rise to a contradietion resting fundamentally upon the fact that the Church, as a whole, is not the form of the Christian life in correspondence with it. For the first time was the question funda­mentally involving the transition from Apostolic Christianity to the hierarchical Roman Catholic Church so definitely raised. In comparison with Neander's treatment of church history, whereby the inner life of the individual Christian personal­ities received a one sided emphasis, there was a distinct advance with Rothe, when he placed due importance upon the general development of Chris­tianity in its social forms. A reciprocal defect ap­peared, however, in that, according to Rothe, the idea of the Church realized itself essentially only by the adoption of constitutional forms; and that this abstraction of a constitution did not appear to be evolved from the inner life of the Church, but was externally instituted by the apostles. In this view a reaction from his earlier admiration of Roman Catholicism can not be mistaken, while his thought of a gradual resolution of the Church into the State becomes clear in the light of his impressions in child­hood, and his subsequent transition from narrow Pietism to the wider sphere of life at Rome. Rothe did not publish any further historical development of this view, and his lectures were published in fragmentary form, Vorlesungen fiber Kirchenge­schichte (2 vols., Heidelberg, 1875 76).

Rothe's first production in church history im­pelled him to a purely systematic work. Only then did he approach the task for which he was best fitted, by which he most amply developed his gifts. He sought to arrive at an explanation of his views on Christianity, Church, and State on the basis of the clear representation of the relation between the religious and the ethical. This was the purpose of

his ethics. While he assigned dogmatics to histor­ical theology, ethics, as the conclusive part of specu 

lative theology, was to unfold its sub­Theological ject only in accordance with the law

Ethics. of logical thought. It was to take its

point of departure from the conscious­ness of God; and this, contrary to Schleiermacher, from its objective content. Rothe thus proceeds deductively from God to the creation of the world as the necessary means whereby he is distinguish­able, and from the infinite process of creation to its continuation in the ethical process, which sub­sists in the unity, fixed in the human mind, of personality and material nature. Inasmuch as this concept of the ethical appears in the threefold form of moral good, virtue, and duty, Rothe's ethics falls under three main heads. The first sets forth the ethical process, namely, the original unity of mor­ality and religion; its disturbance by the evil which subsists in the predominance of the nature of sense over personality; the redemption from evil through the second Adam; the primarily religious, then moral efficacy of this redemption upon individual men, through the kingdom of God, first resolved in the form of a church and finally fulfilled in a Chris­tian state organism; and the end of all things. Compared with this comprehensive thought outline of the first part, all else in his ethics, although containing many beautiful details, is like a super­fluous appendix.

Concerning the fundamental views of his religious­ethical system in the first part, his effort to derive the entire organism of Christian truth by logical de 

duction from a single concept can not Estimation. be upheld. It proved itself incapable

of logical conclusion, and led to the tendency of a pantheistic confusion of God and the world; of conceiving the divine and the moral in natural terms; of thinking of the spiritual as a mere product of matter; and of denying, in determinist fashion, all freedom of divine and human action. Yet this tendency was contradicted by Rothe's strong ethical and theistic temperament, as well as by his positive supernaturalism, such as he exhibited in his admirable 7.ur Dogmatik (Goths, 1863). This inconsistency occasioned many palpable contradic­tions and defects in his system. His identification of religion with morality, whence emanated his evi­dently erroneous ideas on the relation of Church and State, was also involved with a pantheistic inclination. A practical consequence of these views was his mode of participation during his closing years in the affairs of the State Church of Baden. In the liberation of culture and of its exponents from domination by the Church, he saw nothing short of an operation by his Savior. Therefore he believed that he was serving him best when he cooperated in the plan of introducing the congregational prin­ciple in constitutional polity, whereby cultivated laymen, with their " unconscious Christianity," were to be associated in congregational autonomy, and when by the " Protestant Union " (q.v.) Chris­tianity became effectually emancipated from its ecclesiastical restrictions offensive as these were to the cultured. Thus Rothe though abhorring all partizan tactics, himself proved a Partizan. Finally,



it should be borne in mind that the defects in Rothe's

ethics are, to some extent, involved with insoluble

antinomies, and they are compensated in his work

by superior merits; such as his dialectical adapta­

bility and his skill in the grouping of his matter,

let alone his affluence of significant and useful ideas,

even of elements of truth in his most vulnerable

representations. F. SIEFTERT.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Nippold, Richard Rothe, 2 vols., Wit­

tenberg, 1873 74; A. Hauarath, Richard Rothe and seine

Freunde, 2 vols., Berlin, 1902 08; J. Cropp, in Protes­

tantische Monatshefte, 1897, 1899; E. Aehelie, Dr. Richard

Rothe, Gotha, 1869; W. Hbnig, Richard Rothe. Charak­

ter, Leben and Denken, Berlin, 1898; H. Bassermann.

Richard Rothe als praktischer Theologe, Freiburg, 1899;

 0. Fhigel, Richard Rothe als apekulativer Theologe, Lang­

ensalza, 1899; P. Mezger, Richard Rothe. Ein theo­

logisches Charakterbild, Berlin, 1899; K. Sell, in Theo­

logische Rundschau, 1899; H. Sp6rri, Zur Erinnerung an

Richard Rothe, Hamburg, 1899; E. Troeliseh, Richard

Rothe. Geddehtnisrede, Freiburg, 1899; R. Kern, Dr.

Richard Rothe, Camel, 1904; L. Witte, Richard Rothe itber

Jesus als Wunderthllter, Halle, 1907; J. Happel, Richard

Rothes Lehre von der Kirche, Leipsie, 1909.




German Protestant; b. at Puhl, a village of Rhen­

ish Prussia, Mar. 19, 1853. He was educated at the

universities of Bonn (Ph.D., 1877; lic. theol., 1878)

and Halle, where he devoted himself to theology

and Semitics (1872 78). He was a teacher in the

gymnasium at Elberfeld until 1884 and at the girls'

high school in Halle until 1889, when he was ap­

pointed associate professor of Old Testament exe­

gesis at the University of Halle, and in 1910 became

professor in the same branch at Breslau. Theo­

logically he bases his work on a belief in Biblical

revelation, and, though favoring earnest historical

criticism, is opposed to rationalistic interpretations

of the Old and New Testaments from the point of

view of comparative religion. He has written: De

chronographo Arabe anonymo qui Bodice Berolinensi

SprengeKano tricesimo continetur (Bonn, 1877); Das

Bundesbuch and die rehgionsgeschiehtliche Entwick­

lung Israels (Halle, 1888); Das Hohe Lied (1893);

Der Gottesglaube im alters Israel and die religions­

geschichtliche Kritik (1900); Bilder aus der Geschichte

des alters Bundes in gemeinverstondlicher Form, vol.

i. (Erlangen, 1901); Die Genealogie des Konigs von

Juda Jojachin and seiner Naclckommenschaft in 1

Chron. iii. 17 24 (Berlin, 1902); Geschichte and O, fen­

barung mit Bezug auf Israds Religion (Stuttgart,

1903); Juden and Samaritaner. Die grundlegende

Scheidung von Judentum and Heidentum. Eine

kritische Studie zum Buche Haggai and zur jiid­

ischen Geschichte im ersten nachexilischen Jahrhundert

(Leipsic, 1908) ; Grundzuge des hebrdischen Rhythmus

and seiner Formenbildung, nebst lyrischen Texten mit

kritischem Kommentar (1909); Psalmentexte and der

Text des Hohen Liedes (1909; reprinted from the

Grundzvge des . . . Rhythmus); and Die Naehtge­

sichte des Sacharya (1910). He has translated into

German W. R. Smith's The Old Testament in the

Jewish Church (Freiburg, 1894) and S. R. Driver's

Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament

(Berlin, 1896), and contributed Jeremiah and Ze­

phaniah to E. Kautzseh's Das Alte Testament (Frei 

burg, 1894; in the 3d ed., 1910, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Chronicles), the apocryphal portions of Daniel, as well as Baruch and the Epistle of Jeremiah to the same scholar's Apokryphen and Pseudepigraphen des Alters Testaments (1900), and Jeremiah and Eze­kiel to R. Mttel's Biblia Hebraica (Leipsic, 1906).
RODS, raus, FRANCIS: Puritan; b. at Dittisham (25 m. e. of Plymouth) in 1579; d. at Acton (7 m. w. of London) Jan., 1658 59. He was educated at Oxford (B.A., 1596 97), and the University of Ley­den (1598 99); was a member of parliament dur­ing the reign of Charles I., of the Long Parliament, and others (1625 56); was appointed lord of par­liament by Cromwell (1657); and became provost of Eton (1643 44). The Westminster Assembly ap­pointed him one of its lay assessors (1643); and he was chairman of the committee for ordination of ministers after its organization (1643 44). In 1649 Rous went over to the Independents and served on the committee for the propagation of the Gospel, which framed an abortive scheme for a state church on the Congregational plan, revived without suc­cess by the Little Parliament of which he was speaker (1653). When that body dissolved itself, he was sworn on the protector's council of state. He was placed on the committee for the approba­tion of public preachers 1653 54, and with Crom­well on that of discussion of the kingship (1656). He was author of Psalms Translated into English Metre (1643; 1646), a version approved by the Westminster Assembly, authorized by parliament for general use, and adopted by the committee of estates in Scotland, where its popular use has con­tinued till the present day. During a period of re­tirement from the Middle Temple to Landrake, Cornwall (1601 25), he wrote Meditations of hnstruo­Lion, of Exhortation, of Reproof (London, 1616); The. Arts of Happiness (1619); Diseases of the Time (1622); and Oyl of Scorpions (1623). His piety was of an intensely subjective kind, as illustrated in Mystical Marriage (1635), and Heavenly Academie (1638). A number of his works were collectively republished in Treatises and Meditations (London, 1656 57).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. l Wood, Athena Oxoniensis, ed. P. Bliss, iii. 467, 4 vols., London, 1813 20; D. Neal, Hid. of the Puritans, ed. J. Toulmin, 5 vols., Bath, 1793 97; J. A. Alexander, Lives of the Speakers of the House of Commons, London, 1850; S. W. Duffield, English Hymns, p. 533, New York, 1886; W. A. Shaw, History of the English Church . . . 18/,0 60, 2 vols., London, 1900; Julian, Hymnology, pp. 918, 979, 1023; DNB, xlix. 318 317 (where many scattering references are given).

ROUSSEAU, rus"s8', JEAN JACQUES: French deistic philosopher and author; b. at Geneva June 28, 1712; d. at Ermenonville (28 m. n.e. of Paris) July 2, 1778. His mother died at his birth, and his father, a dissipated and violent tempered man, paid little attention to the son's training, and finally de­serted him. The latter developed a passion for reading, with a special fondness for Plutarch's Lives. Apprenticed first to a notary and then to a coppersmith, he ran away (1728) to escape the rigid discipline, and, after wandering for several days, he fell in with Roman Catholic priests at Con­signon in Savoy, who turned him over to Madame de



Warens at Annecy, and she sent him to an educa­tional institution at Turin. Here he duly abjured Protestantism, and next served in various house­holds, in one of which he was charged with theft. After more wanderings he was at Chamb6ry (1730), whither Madame de Warens had removed. In her household he spent eight years diverting himself in the enjoyment of nature, the study of music, the reading of the English, German, and French phil­osophers and chemistry, pursuing the study of mathematics and Latin, and enjoying the play house and opera. He next spent eighteen months at Venice as secretary of the French ambassador, Comte de Montaignu (1744 45). Up to this time, when he was thirty nine, his life, the details of which he publishes in his Confessions (Geneva, 1782; Eng. transl., The Confessions of J. J. Rous­seau, London, 1891), may be styled as subterra­nean. He now returned to Paris, where his opera Les Muses galantes failed, copied music, and was secretary of Madame Dupin. Here he came into association with Diderot, Grimm, D'Alembert, Hol­bach, and Madame d'1Jpinay, and was admitted as a contributor to the Encyclopedie (see ENCYCLOPE­DISTS) ; and his brilliant gifts of entertainment, reck­less manner, and boundless vanity attracted atten­tion. With the Discours sur le sciences et les arts (Paris, 1750), a prize essay in which he set forth the paradox of the superiority of the savage state, he proclaimed his gospel of " back to nature." His operetta Devin du village (1752) met with great success. His second sensational writing appeared: Discours sur l'inegalite parmi les hommes (1753), against the inequalities of society. His fame was then assured. In 1754 he revisited Geneva, was received with great acclamation, and called him­self henceforth " citizen of Geneva." In 1756, upon invitation of Madame d'hpinay, he retired to a cot­tage (afterward " The Hermitage ") in the woods of. Montmorency, where in the quiet of nature he expected to spend his life; but domestic troubles, his violent passion for Countess d'Houdetot, and his morbid mistrust and nervous excitability, which lost him his friends, induced him to change his resi­dence to a chateau in the park of the duke of Lux­embourg, Montmorency (1758 62). His famous works appeared during this period: Lettre d d'Alenl­bert (Amsterdam, 1758); Julie ou la nouvelle He­loase (1761); Du contrat social (Amsterdam, 1762; Paris, 1795; Eng. transl., The Social Contract, 2 vols., New York, 1893, new transl., 1902); and  4mile ou de l'education (Amsterdam, 1762; Eng. transl., Emilius; or an Essay on Education., 2 vols., London, 1763, and again, 1895). The last named work was ordered to be burned by the French parliament and his arrest was ordered; but he fled to Neuchatel, then within the jurisdiction of Prussia. Here he wrote his Lettres ecrites de la Montagne (Amsterdam, 1762), in which, with refer­ence to the Geneva constitution, he advocated the freedom of religion against the Church and police. Driven thence by peasant attacks (Sept., 1765), he returned to the Isle St. Pierre in the Lake of Bienne. The government of Berne ordered him out of its territory, and he accepted the asylum offered him by David Hume in England (Jan., 1766). But his

morbid misanthropy, now goaded to an insane sense of being persecuted, made him suspicious of plots, and led him to quarrel with his friends for not ma­king his opponents their own enemies, and he fled to France (1767). After wandering about and de­pending on friends he was permitted to return to Paris (1770), where he finished the Confessions begun in England, and produced many of his best stories. Here he copied notes, and studied music and botany. His dread of secret enemies grew upon his imagination, until he was glad to accept an in­vitation to retire to Ermenonville (1778), where his death came suddenly.

Rousseau was possessed with an overmastering love of nature, and reacted against the artificiality and corruption of the social customs and institu­tions of the time. He was a keen thinker, and was equipped with the weapons of the philosophical century and with an inspiring eloquence. To these qualities were added a pronounced egotism, self­seeking, and an arrogance that led to bitter antag­onism against his revolutionary views and sensi­tive personality, the reaction against which resulted in a growing misanthropy. Error and prejudice in the name of philosophy, according to him, had stifled reason and nature, and culture, as he found it, had corrupted morals. In Smile he presents the ideal citizen and the means of training the child for the State in accordance with nature, even to a sense of God. This " nature gospel " of education, as Goethe called it, was the inspiration, beginning with Pestalozzi, of world wide pedagogical meth­ods. The most admirable part in this is the creed of the vicar of Savoy, in which, in happy phrase, Rousseau shows a true, natural susceptibility to religion and to God, whose omnipotence and great­ness are published anew every day. The Social Contract, on the text that all men are born free and equal, regards the State as a contract in which in­dividuals surrender none of their natural rights, but rather agree for the protection of them. Most re­markable in this projected republic was the provi­sion to banish aliens to the state religion and to punish dissenters with death. The Social Contract became the text book of the French Revolution, and Rousseau's theories as protests bore fruit in the frenzied bloody orgies of the Commune as well as in the rejuvenation of France and the history of the entire Western world. Among many editions of Rousseau's complete works are those by P. A. Du Peyron (35 vols., Geneva and Paris, 1782) fol­lowed by ('uvres posthumes (12 vols., 1782 83); and by V. D. Musset Pathay, with biography and notes (26 vols., Paris, 1823 27). His Lettres in­Mites, ed. H. de Rothschild, appeared Paris, 1892. Also see DEISM, II., § 4.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Recent issues of some of the works of Rous­seau in English are: Emile, or, Treatise on Education, London, 1895; The Social Contract; or, Principles of Political Right, ib. 1902; Confessions, 2 vols., ib. 1907; Morals, ib. 1908; Humane Philosophy, Maxims and Prin­ciples, selected . . by Frederika Macdonald, ib. 1908.

Studies of Rousseau's life and works are: J. Morley, J. J. Rousseau, 2 vols., London, 1888; A. J. Barruel­Beauvert, Vie de J. J. Rousseau, ib. 1789; V. D. Musset­Pathay, Histoire de to vie et des ouvrapes de J. J. Rous­seau, 2 vols., Paris, 1822; M. G. Streckeisen, J. J. Rous­seau, ses arms et ses ennemis, 2 vols., ib. 1865; F. Broeker 

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