July 24, 2012
AP United States History
10 Days That Unexpectedly Changed America Summary: Massacre at Mystic
The Massacre at Mystic took place on May 26, 1637; it was an attack from the English Puritans who arrived with Jonathan Winthrop in 1630 against the Pequot Indian tribe. Right from the start the puritans believed the natives to be ignorant savages. They came to the new world with a closed mind, believing God wanted the puritans to defeat the “savages” or convert them to their Christian faith. They arrived in Massachusetts with all of the workers, and tools they would need to start a war against the natives. Pequots were a superior Native American tribe. There were nearly thirteen thousand by the fifteenth century, and took up most of the space between Connecticut and Rhode Island. By 1637 Pequot Indians created strong hilltop villages including one in Mystic. They were strong, brave, and warlike; they organized trade throughout the region, they also came up with new forms of money.
The massacre at mystic was in response to many years of hatred towards the Pequot. The Pequot would be accused of crimes and punished for them; the Englishmen would try to attack before but never succeeded. So one month after the Pequot brutally murdered a handful of Puritans. So Major John Mason was accompanied by John Underhill; on the night of May 26, 1637 Underhill went to the south entrance of the village to attack, while Mason went to the North entrance and attacked. Very few English soldiers were injured. Mason then saw that most of the Pequots were inside the wigwams, and decided to burn the village. Then Underhill torched his side of the village and by the end of the night the village and its people were burned to the ground. Mystic was ruined.
Once the news of what the colonists did to the Pequot had spread- the other Indians revolted. Realizing this could happen again, but this time to one of their tribes. I understand why this event is considered to have changed America. After they murdered all those Pequots, The other Native Americans refrained from trusting the colonists; they were scared and angry with what they did to the Pequots. This was the end of any type of peace between the Englishmen and the Indians. Nearly 40 years later the Indians still wanted revenge. Out came King Phillip’s war which distinguished many of the Colonists. One historian stated that King Philip’s war indicated all the wars to come. Later the Americans tried to come up with the “Indian Removal Act” but it never happened.
One of the good things to come out of this Massacre was in 1666 the English gave the Pequots three thousand acres of land as an apology. But only 50 Pequots made it to the 20th century. By the 1980’s they were federally recognized. They created multiple casinos and earned billions of dollars. In the 90’s Pequots were the wealthiest Native American tribes in the United States. By 2000 the population had risen to 590. This long term truce with the Pequot is a way to prove America’s ability to redeem themselves for mistakes from the past. We have gone through lows and highs during the growth of our country and these events in time show you both sides of the spectrum.
10 Days That Unexpectedly Changed America Summary: Shays’ Rebellion
Daniel Shays was a Massachusetts born American citizen. He was a farm laborer until he later became a sergeant in the Revolutionary war. He fought against the British in many famous battles. He was known as a “brave and good soldier”. After winning the war, Shays returned home, he bought a farm hoping to quit the military and raise his family. But the way America was after the revolutionary war was not how he expected. You had to rely on trade for goods or services, as opposed to money. The economy was much worse with the Articles of Confederation, which was the first constitution type document for Independent America.
All of the debt came from the Revolutionary war. In the articles of confederation it left the states in charge of trade and taxes so they were responsible to pay off their own war debt with their own plans. But this obviously was not the best way of ruling. Between 1780 and 1782 most of the states cut the time to pay off their debts drastically. These taxes mostly hurt war veterans and farmers, Daniel Shays was both.
By the summer of 1786 people started to rebel, 30 percent of all males could not pay their debts; they weren’t able to make any money. Farmers -including Shays- finally decided they needed to do something about their loss of money and their inability to pay their debts. There were many times the “rebels” got together to protest in front of the court house, the rebels were hard to stop because most everyone was joined up with them. The rebels believed the Revolutionary war was supposed to start a true democracy, but that’s not what happened.
After these small rebellions, Daniel Shays made a plan to march to the federal arsenal in Springfield, MA which was leftover from the Revolutionary war. It carried multiple different types of weapons that Shays hoped to use against General Shepard’s side. But while Shays was planning all this Governor Bowdoin decided to create a paid army of 4,400 soldiers to defeat the rebels, so once Bowdoin heard Shays plan he sent his soldiers over making sure they’d arrive there first. When Shays and his men finally arrived he decided to split up in groups against the opposing side. Once he and his men started for the arsenal they were shot at and four men died while others were injured. The rebels had been defeated, most of Shays’ men ran off into the woods and Shay ran away to Vermont knowing he was in for it.
As a result of shays People started realizing it was time for a “Strong national government”. In the next election voters decided it was time for a change. His rebellion had showed most people that the federal government under the AOC was weak and it pushed people like James Madison to create a new constitution. Madison and other founding fathers slowly got the states to participate in a constitutional convention, hoping to fix the “futile” AOC. So in September 1787, after much thought, the constitution was signed and officially the new law of the land, soon after holding the bill of rights in honor of the anti-federalists. Without this one event in history it may have taken multiple years, to come up with a new constitution as good as ours.
10 Days That Unexpectedly Changed America Summary: Gold Rush
John Augustus Sutter was a Swiss man born in Germany, always on the search for wealth. He was known to be in debt and traveled to the United States traveling the most in the western areas. In the summer of 1839 he settled in California for good, buying thousands of acres and building on it and planting and farming. Sutter was finally making a comeback. James Marshall was a New Jersey carpenter who was also in debt and traveled across country until he found work farming the marshy lands near the Missouri River. Once he started to become ill from the marshy area he decided to go further west to California. By July 1845 and found himself at Sutter’s Fort.
Marshall soon became one of his employees being paid five dollars a day. Later finding himself able to buy his own land. Soon he became a soldier in the Mexican- American war but when that was finished he had to go back to Sutter for employment. Marshall’s first assignment was to find a site to build a sawmill for Sutter along the American River. In a valley named Coloma. He started building the sawmill which required digging a lot in and around the river. the next day on January 24, 1848 Marshall saw some gold flakes- he picked them up and it was gold. He ran back to Sutter to inform him of what he found They did the tests and it was gold. Together, they planned to prospect the land.
But on May 12 Sam Brannan, a general store owner at Sutter’s Fort he traveled to San Francisco carrying proof of the new discovery. His main goal was to lure himself new clients looking for gold mining equipment. After that day, thousands began go into the hills in search of gold. Until the summer of 1849, Californians had the gold rush to themselves. Eventually people throughout the United States started to hear of this discovery, and came across America, from around the world, in search of gold. People started rumors of absolute wealth which encouraged men to mortgage their homes, borrow from friends and family, and even take out life insurance policies in order to finance or protect their investments in claims of mining land. Thousands of people risked their health and lives to make get to the river in California. They risked dangerous obstacles in the hopes of wealth.
Although James Marshall was the man who discovered the gold he didn’t get recognized financially, nor did Sutter. They both became bankrupt and by the time Marshall died he was only worth a little less than 550 dollars. If only Sam Brannan could keep his mouth shut, Sutter could’ve accomplished his American dream, and Marshall could’ve paid off his debts.
The gold rush continued through the Civil War and even in the 1900’s. It added as much as 500 million dollars to the American wealth, the gold rush also led to the construction of a transcontinental railroad that helped to colonize the country’s open land and grew the nation closer together; it was also what started the microchips and computers. Because of all the people who traveled through America and immigrated from different countries to get gold, California is now one of the most diverse state in America.
10 Days That Unexpectedly Changed America Summary: Antietam
The battle of Antietam happened on September 17, 1862 during the civil war. General Robert E. Lee controlled the Confederate side he was born in Virginia. He later joined the Mexican American war, and was said to be “the very best soldier” his commander had ever seen. President Lincoln wanted him to join the Union, but General Lee refused because he was born in Virginia. After he became Virginia’s commanding officer. General George B. McClellan was in charge of the Union side for the battle at Antietam, he also was a Mexican- American war hero, and he organized an army of the Potomac.
The civil war was caused by the question of allowing slaves in America or not. The Confederates- of course wanted to keep the slaves, viewing it as nothing immoral, and their right to liberty and property. The Union was the North and all the people who opposed slavery, feeling that it was wrong and against the constitution. On April 22, 1861 is when the Civil war officially began. The North completely outweighed the south, but they were strong. It was supposed to be a “painless victory” but it didn’t turn out that way.
The North had the huge advantage of resources, which the south did not, so Lee tried to come up with a plan to make it less of an advantage. He wanted to get enter Maryland to convince the people to join the Confederacy, and he wanted to capture “Harpers Ferry”. This huge plan had escaped from his hands and was read by the enemy, but Lee still tried to do it and actually won the battle. After, he decided to move to Antietam for another battle. On September 16 McClellan brought in 75,000 men completely outnumbering Lee’s army, but only putting out half of them at a time. He decided to start from the right that way he could block off Lee’s only passage to Potomac. But Lee found ways to fight negate McClellan’s move. The next day they continued their battle at dawn. All the recordings of the battle or journal entries all stated how terribly gruesome it was- blood was everywhere. So many men on both sides died all the Armies wanted was a victory not caring what or who stepped in their way. They fought and they fought non-stop. There were many other smaller ambushes on the sidelines in which Lee was prepared for all of them. But soon after many hours of mass carnage killing over 2,000 men and injuring about 18,000 men. The Union had put a big enough dent in Lee’s offence, and was able to take the victory.
Because of this victory President Lincoln was finally able to submit the Emancipation Proclamation stating that by January 1, 1863 all slaves were declared free men. Although it didn’t happen that day eventually it came to be. Without the Union winning the battle of Antietam the changes in America could’ve never been accomplished. Three constitutional amendments passed after the Civil War, one abolished slavery, one defined American citizenship, and the last guaranteed equal protection for everyone. Even though the Civil war left many Americans dead, we at least got back morality. And our own president could define us as a “nation” as opposed to what he said before as a “union”.
10 Days That Unexpectedly Changed America Summary: The Homestead Strike
In Homestead, Pennsylvania a Scottish man by the name of Andrew Carnegie owned a steel plant. He emigrated from Scotland as a boy and worked his way up the American work industry from there. His business partner was Henry Clay Frick who owned a coke manufacturing company. He and Carnegie were completely against the workers union and later try to stop the steel company from ever having a union worker again. Frick and Carnegie wanted their workers to work for them as individuals not in a union.
Frick and Carnegie they didn’t want to be controlled by anyone, especially not the union. In the summer of 1892 while Andrew Carnegie was vacationing in Scotland, Frick informed all workers the contract with current workers would no longer be honored, anyone who wanted to continue working needed to switch to a nonunion labor, the people were outraged. Frick started building a wooden fence around the mill, he was preparing for a battle. He called up the Pinkertons which was a detective agency. But what they really were a “well-armed mercenary army of private police officials used to crush labor strikes”. They were told to arrive by boat hoping the people of Homestead wouldn’t see them coming. But scouts were watching out and realized what was happening. Once the word got out the workers tore down the fence and ran towards the mill hoping to prevent the Pinkertons from entering. The second the Pinkertons tried to step foot on Homestead a shot was fired which started the battle. There were many casualties on both sides dynamite was even used! Later the Pinkertons raised a white flag. Grateful for their victory- the strikers let them pass, but the people beat them while they walked to the town. The next day they left Homestead defeated. The mill opened back up in only three days being guarded by soldiers.
After the word spread about what had happened at Homestead people grew angry throughout the United States. More and more strikes were reported. Some people felt the federal government had no place with labor disputes but others felt the government should step in and help organize these labor disputes. On July 23rd an angry anarchist broke into Frick’s office, shot him twice, tackled him to the ground and stabbed him a few times. Frick was seriously hurt and doctors rushed in and the anarchist was taken away. Frick refused to leave his office and after he was stitched up he finished his paperwork, making a statement that he can’t be stopped, and it wasn’t his time yet.
Two years after the strike came the depression, leaving thousands of people jobless and unable to support their selves. Because of the Homestead strike we ruined our chances of “creating a working-class democracy in America”. But made the federal government aware they needed to intervene for future problems. Now in America there are limited unions and people do tend to work as individuals. These problems were in response to greedy men in the 1800’s.
10 Days That Unexpectedly Changed America Summary: Murder at the Fair: The Assassination of President McKinley
President William McKinley was a teacher in Poland, Ohio, then once the civil war was declared he signed up and battled, after the war he became a lawyer right before being a congressmen in 1876. In the late 1800’s he won the republican nomination for president. He was noted to be “the most popular president since Abraham Lincoln,” People liked him because he was different. He focused on the mistakes left from the previous president. He managed to take care of his ill wife, he devoted all the time he could give to her, while also running the country.
McKinley needed make an appearance at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo. On September 4, 1901, he was arriving to buffalo on a presidential train with his wife. Although his trip started rocky he kept on going. On September 5th he entered on a horse and made his last presidential speech. On September 6th President McKinley had a good relaxing day but then had to make an appearance at a reception at the ornate redbrick Temple of Music. He was asked by his security not to go because they feared they may not have the ability to protect him in such a large crowd, but he took the risk.
Leon Czolgosz was a twenty-eight-year-old anarchist born to Polish-German immigrants. He never had a formal education and had to start working at the age of 10. The death of his mother and the loss of his job radicalized Leon, making him vengeful of the fact the government didn’t step in to help. He later experienced an emotional breakdown and saw that an Italian American Citizen assassinated a king he was inspired to do the same thing to President McKinley. All he needed was a perfect opportunity. At 4:07 P.M., Czolgosz was standing right in front of the president, and as McKinley extended his hand for a friendly handshake, Czolgosz pushed it aside and pointed his gun at the president’s stomach, shooting him twice. Czolgosz was in for more when security tackled him and took his weapon. And right before McKinley was rushed to the hospital he of course made a statement looking out for his wife. He made many brave comments trying to convince himself and everyone else he was going to be alright but after a lot of care and effort he just couldn’t make it and several days later at 2:15 A.M. on September 14, 1901, the twenty-fifth president of the United States passed away. During his burial it seemed that the whole nation gave him five minutes of silence, mourning for the horrible death. Czolgosz was put on trial then sentenced to the electric chair. He never said he was sorry for McKinley’s death he said it was for the good of everyone.
After President McKinley’s assassination, Theodore Roosevelt became the next president of The United States. Roosevelt made sure that he would continue McKinley’s conservative policies. Roosevelt was popular with the people; they loved his personality and perseverance. Roosevelt helped elevate the Progressive movement and he noticed the difference between “good” trusts and “bad” trusts. Roosevelt was also committed to using his office to bolster the American conservation movement, protecting acres of forest lands and laying the foundation for America’s emergence as a world power in the new century. Roosevelt made his own mark on the office and helped change the course of American history forever.
10 Days That Unexpectedly Changed America Summary: Scopes: The Battle over America’s Soul
In the early twentieth century technology was growing the way that Americans. Technologies such as refrigerators, washing machines, vacuum cleaners, and automatic ovens made people’s lives a lot simpler. Once the 1920’s hit new inventions such as radios, telephones, automobiles, movies, and paved roads happened and people were able to interact with each other more, they were able to watch the same thing listen to the same shows read the same books. It finally seemed that everyone could be connected.
However, this new cosmopolitan culture made people question if America still had traditional morals. The “flapper” image was first introduced during the 1920’s as well which allowed women to be more risqué. Birth control was now being advertised giving the message that it’s ok to have sex for pleasure purposes. With this new era also came new laws, they made the non- alcohol amendment, and the mandate of attendance for schools. Science vs. religion was also beginning to be a problem during this decade. The argument religious ideas and beliefs about the origins of man, as opposed to Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution, also added to the anxiety that traditional values were under assault. Fundamentalists believe in the infallibility of the Bible and therefore, completely rejected Darwin’s theory. People would see it as unacceptable to even teach his theory in school. So much was occurring at once.
On January 21, 1925, John Washington Butler- a Tennessee state representative introduced a bill banning the teaching of evolution in public schools. In March, the bill was signed into a law.
After some persuasion, John Scopes, a twenty-four-year-old math and science teacher, blindly agreed to be the defendant for an American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) promoted case that would challenge Butler’s bill. Scopes’ case was the simple fact he was reading from a textbook that contained Darwin’s theory, he wasn’t teaching it but he was reading in the book. The prosecutor, William Jennings Bryan, strongly opposed the study of Darwin’s theory, to counter Scope’s case; Bryan stated that it should be up to the parents to decide what their kids are being taught, since it’s the parents who pay the teachers’ salaries. The case continued for days and the arguing became progressively extensive. It became such a popular case, that people came from different towns just to watch what happened. The courthouse eventually became so jam packed, that they had to move the case outside! On Tuesday morning the jury found Scopes guilty and fined him $100.
This trial shows us the little bumps in America’s system and how we needed to open up our minds and figure out a way to keep the traditional values while still being able to adapt to the changing society. It taught America that not everyone’s “morals” are the same. There are still ongoing arguments about the separation of church and state. What’s appropriate and what’s not?
10 Days That Unexpectedly Changed America Summary: Einstein’s Letter
Leo Szilard was Hungarian and moved to Berlin, Germany to become a physicist during the 1920’s- during the same time Nazis rose up. They would do anything in their power to ruin Jewish scientist’s theories or research. Once Szilard realized what was starting he left for Vienna and then to London]. One day while sitting at a stop light he thought up the whole process to nuclear fission. Splitting a nucleus, bring in a neutron, create a chain reaction of energy and there you have it. He then tried many attempts to make this theory a reality. He tried and failed then did it again. He knew it was possible he just couldn’t accomplish it. In 1939 two German physicists made it happen. Szilard was both excited and frightened by the results it left. He said it could be a great source of energy or a fatal atomic bomb.
Hitler soon became more and more powerful and Szilard was starting to fear the fate of the world if Hitler found he could create this atomic bomb. He was desperate to find a way to stop all publications of the fission related research, and stop the export of uranium from Belgium. But the only way he could do that was with a more notable scientist. And of course he chose Albert Einstein. Szilard worked with Einstein back in the 1920’s and felt he would be the best candidate to write the letter considering he was famous, had connections to political leaders, and noted for his intellect. He created a major equation that helped in the making of the nuclear bomb. But he was all the way in the United States at the time.
Szilard got to Princeton on July 1939 and started his search for Albert Einstein with another physicist named Eugene Wigner. Einstein was staying in a cottage in Great Peconic Bay. They drove around, getting lost, forgetting the name of the town, asking strangers for directions until finally they found it. Szilard sat Einstein down to explain what was discovered and why it should not be able to spread and end up in the hands of Hitler. Einstein was willing to do whatever it took to help them out. He wrote a letter stating the issues and consequences, to the Belgian Ambassador, and a copy to the State Department. Soon Szilard had another plan, a bigger plan finding a way to get a letter to President Roosevelt, by one of Szilard’s friend, Alexander Sachs. This letter would ask President Roosevelt to start making a nuclear bomb in America. Einstein and Szilard wrote many drafts of it, and finally gave it to Sachs, but right as they did World War II was declared in September of 1939. It was now going to be impossible to get in Roosevelt’s office. After a lot of patients he finally had the chance to read it to Roosevelt, but screwed that opportunity up so he went one more time, completely convincing Roosevelt to create a station where a bomb could be created, soon after Pearl Harbor was bombed by the Japanese.
The “Manhattan Project” was created being absolutely top secret not even Einstein could take part of it. Tons of Physicists worked on a nuclear bomb. And by July of 1945 we had created a nuclear bomb. Then America had to have the hard decision of either dropping an atomic bomb on Japan to scare them or leaving it alone and wait for them to do it again? So on August 6, 1945 we decided to drop it over Japan.
The letter written by Einstein caused so many chains of events. Einstein hoped the atomic bombs would cause less tension and more peace between countries but it did the opposite. Once the soviets developed their own bomb America was on their toes for many years waiting for the world to be abolished. Another major problem was the amount of money the government dropped on this project, a big cause for our national debt today. Although the Manhattan arsenal is what created “Big Science” meaning “more scientific knowledge, government power, and private money” we also created the first computer that was originally used for military purposes, as well as the internet. The nuclear bomb could’ve been the death of our earth.
10 Days That Unexpectedly Changed America Summary: When America Was Rocked
Ed Sullivan was forty-six-years-old and columnist for the New York Daily News. His columns intrigued the CBS network and they decided to let him host what would eventually be the most popular television show of the 1950’s -The Toast of the Town. The show aired at 8 P.M. on Sunday nights and Sullivan’s one cardinal rule was that the acts had to be appropriate for a family. Sullivan’s ideal show was to produce an ideal American life to distract you while American culture was actually going through a period of extremely great changes
During the 1950’s, Americans started to accept the fact that they were all becoming more alike. They were all getting better pay, purchasing new technology, living in similar houses, and watching the same TV shows. Americans also enjoyed the new chains of McDonald’s,
However, no matter how connected American’s may have felt, African Americans were still segregated from other citizens. And while everything else in changing African Americans wanted their change too. They’d protest in sit-ins and boycotts, but the most powerful change was coming from the young blacks and whites. Teenagers were now earning more money than ever because of the post-war finances. And now that school was mandated education also contributed to a new teenage culture because of the over flowing schools, they needed more space so they built new schools. However, around 1948 and 1953 there came a rise in juvenile delinquency. Riots and crime became popular with teenagers but they found their most powerful expression through popular music. Alan Freed a white disk jockey started to play music both black and white teens enjoyed listening to such as rhythm and blues, country, and white gospel music which was referred to at the time as “race music”. But one day in 1951 he refered to this music as rock and roll.
Elvis Aron Presley was a poor little boy from Tupelo, Mississippi with a dysfunctional family, when he was 13 he was gifted with a little guitar and soon developed a love for the current music in Mephis—getting inspired by music all around him. He wasn’t the cool kid in high school but in the summer of 1953, when he recorded his first record with Sun Records and changed the course of American Pop culture. His music was soulful and had a mixture of delta blues, country, gospel, and jazz. Elvis was also famous for the way that he “wiggled” and danced on stage. Parents considered his performances to be too sexual and inappropriate but Elvis became extremely famous, fast!
The young people of America, no matter their race, were all about Elvis. He was always in high demand. Elvis provided a voice for the youth revolt and brought teenagers closer to one another, despite race, religion, gender, etc. while also changing society’s morals concerning sex, drugs and rock n’ roll forever.
10 Days That Unexpectedly Changed America Summary: Freedom Summer
In the 1920s, less than half of America had the right to vote. The nation soon granted the nineteenth amendment allowing women to vote, which then doubled the size of the voters. But continuously throughout history the African Americans were being discriminated against, their rights were limited. Then in the 1950’s African Americans stared taking a stand, revolting and protesting. During this time came, all the major protests were becoming more popular and innovative.
In 1964 the south states were trying everything in their power to prevent the blacks to vote in the election. The state with the most drastic attempts to prevent the blacks from voting was Mississippi, they first moved the precinct to register in a place that many blacks had to travel long distances, once they got there they would be required to take “understanding” tests. Mississippi was the one state that could not move out of their views on African Americans since the civil war. They still treated Blacks like they were a disease. Mississippi also used violence through the Ku Klux Klan to be sure to scare off the African Americans from voting. They were relentless.
Robert Moses was a man intrigued by all the young people taking a stand for their rights and in 1961 he joined SNCC and traveled out to Mississippi because he was named head of the voting rights campaign. He wanted to find a way that the SNCC could be recognized; he needed to mix his people with white liberal students. If anything were to happen to a white man there would be a lot more publicity towards the campaign. Moses wasn’t meaning this in a cruel way he just knew it was the only thing they could do.
Andrew Goodman was a white student who had a past of participating in civil rights; he came down to Ohio to work with SNCC. He met his two friends along the way James Earl Chaney and Michael Schwerner who were both very active in the civil rights movement. Once they heard about an attack the KKK had in Mississippi- burning a church, the three of them traveled down as an assignment. Mississippi was treating the freedom summer as a foreign invasion. They had tons of armed men waiting for a fight. Once the three men arrived they let their volunteers know all the rules in order to keep everyone safe.
Then on Sunday June 21st 1964 the three men tried to help with some problems about the burned church. Once they were done they were on their way back to Meridian when they got pulled over and arrested for speeding, the officer posted a $20 bail each and they all paid up. Once they got back on the road they were stopped by a carload of Klan men who pulled them out of the car and shot all three of them. They packed up their bodies and drove six miles south west. A construction of a damn was going on and the men dropped them there knowing the bodies would never be found once the damn was finished. Once the Goodman, Chaney, and Shwerner were reported missing Moses got the reaction he wanted considering there were two white men in the mix. The FBI soon got involved in an investigation, searching for the bodies. In July 31st an informant told the FBI where the body was. They went to the damn and dug until they found decaying bodies of all three young men.
These men did not die in vain, after the bodies were found so many positive things came through the civil rights movement. The Freedom summer “marks the dividing line between the hope and idealism in the early 1960’s”. The media made a change in Mississippi, showing people how cruel the KKK was and the brutality of southern racism. Two months later President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The government also banned the use of literary tests and permanently changed the race relations in the south. The FBI also decided to stand against the racist violence in the south. The Klan also dropped from 6,000 members to less than 500! Forty one years later the man guilty for murdering Schwerner, Chaney, and Goodman was sentenced to 60 years in prison- 20 for each victim. Multiple rights were granted to all Americans through the constitution, restoring the original idea to equal protection. Liberation was grated to all the men and women attempting strengthening the foundation of “American Democracy”.