1) Which radiation has no electric charge associated with it? A) gamma rays B) beta rays C) alpha rays D) all of these E) none of these
2) A quark is A) an elementary particle. B) a building block of leptons. C) a building block of nucleons. D) all of these. E) none of these.
3) Different isotopes of an element have different numbers of A) photons. B) neutrinos. C) protons. D) neutrons. E) none of these.
4) The half-life of a radioactive substance is independent of A) whether the substance exists in an elementary state or in a compound. B) the temperature of the substance. C) the age of the substance. D) the number (if large enough) of atoms in the substance. E) all of these.
5) The half-life of an isotope is one day. At the end of two days the amount that remains is A) one-eighth. B) one-half. C) one-quarter. D) none. E) none of these.
6) Carbon-14 is produced in the atmosphere principally by A) cosmic ray bombardment. B) photosynthesis. C) nitrogen bombardment. D) plants and animals. E) none of these.
7) Radioactivity in the world is something A) relatively new. B) as old as the world itself.
8) The helium in a child's balloon is composed of A) former beta particles. B) alpha-particle remnants of previous radioactive processes. C) both of these. D) none of these.
9) When the hydrogen isotope tritium-3 emits a beta particle, it becomes an isotope of A) lithium. B) hydrogen. C) helium. D) carbon. E) none of these.
10) It's impossible for a hydrogen atom to emit an alpha particle. A) True B) False
11) In nuclear fission and nuclear fusion reactions, the amount of mass converted to energy is about A) 20%. B) less than 1%. C) more than 30%. D) 10%. E) 30%.
12) The function of graphite in the first atomic reactor was to A) absorb fast neutrons. B) moderate uranium isotopes. C) emit fast neutrons. D) slow fast neutrons. E) none of these.
13) The nucleus with the greatest mass is A) hydrogen. B) uranium. C) lead. D) iron. E) plutonium.
14) Between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion, radioactive by-products are more characteristic of nuclear A) fission. B) fusion. C) both of these. D) neither of these.
15) Detonation of a fission-type atomic bomb is started by A) splitting a small piece of uranium. B) igniting a small thermonuclear bomb. C) turning on a laser cross fire. D) pressing together several small pieces of uranium. E) none of these.
16) The most abundant element in the universe is A) lead. B) helium. C) americanium. D) hydrogen. E) uranium.
17) Chemistry is the study of the A) microscopic. B) macroscopic. C) submicroscopic. D) All three of these with an emphasis on the submicroscopic.
18) A solid is not considered fluid because A) of the fixed arrangement of its atoms or molecules. B) its atoms or molecules are under too much pressure. C) its atoms or molecules are bound as close together as possible. D) of the heavy nature of its atoms or molecules.
19) The molecules of a gas at room temperature move at about A) 10 km/h. B) 1 km/h. C) 1500 km/h. D) 150 km/h.
20) During a chemical reaction A) old atoms disappear to be replaced by new ones. B) old atoms transform into new ones. C) old atoms stick around merely switching partners. D) none of the above.
21) Growth in a living body is best considered an example of a A) chemical change because of the irreversibility. B) physical change because it eventually comes to a halt with the same person in tact. C) physical change because of changing physical attributes. D) chemical change because chemical reactions are involved. E) Two of the above are correct.
22) One element is distinguished from another by the number of A) neutrons. B) protons. C) electrons. D) all of the above. E) Two of the above are correct.
23) What is the difference between an element and a chemical compound? A) An element consists of only one type of atom. B) Only elements are normally found in nature. C) Only chemical compounds are normally found in nature. D) A chemical compound is always more massive than an element.
24) When two different elements combine to form a compound, the resulting properties of the compound are A) most like the element given in the greatest amount. B) about the average of the properties of the two elements. C) predictable based upon the nature of the combining elements. D) not necessarily anything like those of the elements.