1. There is now strong evidence that significant global warming

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Chapter 16

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1. There is now strong evidence that significant global warming 

A. is a marginal threat.
B. is not scientifically proven.
C. is occurring.
D. has not started yet.


2. According to the text, global warming effects do NOT include 

A. increased hurricanes and heat waves.
B. less melting snow and glaciers for rivers during dry seasons.
C. polar icecaps thickening.
D. grazing lands turning into desert.


3. Which of the following statements is TRUE? 

A. There is nothing we can do to stop global warming.
B. The five warmest years on record have occurred since 1998.
C. Fish populations are increasing.
D. Populations are falling in the world's poorest countries.


4. Economically speaking, life in America at the turn of the millennium can be characterized as 

A. "the best of times."
B. "the worst of times."
C. "the age of wisdom."
D. "the winter of despair."


5. According to the text, a global environmental disaster is being caused by 

A. the spread of disease.
B. deforestation of the forests.
C. increasing consumption.
D. both increasing population and consumption.


6. According to the text, fertility rates in more than 40 countries have dropped to replacement levels, or _______ children per woman. 

A. 5.1
B. 3.0
C. 2.1
D. 1.3


7. The United States consumes ___ % of the world's energy. 

A. 3
B. 7
C. 13
D. 26


8. The earth is being assaulted by a "doubly whammy" that includes 

A. high inflation and high taxes.
B. more people and colder climates.
C. more people and greater consumption.
D. fewer people and greater consumption.


9. In 1950, the earth carried 2.5 billion people and 50 million cars. Today it has more than ___ billion people and ___ million cars. 

A. 4; 75
B. 5; 100
C. 5; 200
D. 6; 500


10. According to Myers (2000), if world economic growth enabled all countries to match Americans' present car ownership, the number of cars would multiply ___ times over. 

A. 5
B. 8
C. 11
D. 13


11. Birth rates in developing nations have 

A. dropped.
B. increased.
C. stabilized.
D. continued to double each year.


12. Increased consumption, such as the burning of coal and oil to generate electricity, has contributed to 

A. global warming.
B. the advance of polar icecaps.
C. earthquakes becoming more common.
D. increased birth rates in industrialized nations.


13. One way to moderate consumption is through 

A. public policies.
B. higher taxes on consumption.
C. both public policies and higher taxes on consumption.
D. public warnings.


14. Rising air temperatures in the arctic is causing all of the following EXCEPT the 

A. thawing of the permafrost.
B. number of animals that are dying.
C. retreating glaciers.
D. rising ocean temperatures.


15. Technological advances will help sustain the planet because of 

A. reduced cost.
B. increased consumption.
C. less polluting waste.
D. greater availability of goods.


16. The human demand for things such as land, timber, fish, and fuels is 

A. lowering our standards of living.
B. increasing the fertility rate.
C. exceeding the earth's regenerative capacity.
D. not responsible for global warming.


17. According to Saad (2003), only ___ % of Americans worry a great deal about global warming. 

A. 51
B. 32
C. 28
D. 13


18. People with more money 

A. perceive more control over their lives.
B. have a higher stress level.
C. are less happy in poor countries.
D. are more likely to reduce their consumption.


19. The progressive consumption tax suggested by Frank (1999) would 

A. only tax the rich.
B. only tax the money that is spent.
C. still be based on tax earnings.
D. eliminate exemptions for dependents.


20. Myers (2000) noted that changing the consumption levels among rich nations requires 

A. stronger and stricter laws.
B. a major catastrophe to occur first.
C. a world-wide natural disaster or plague.
D. a shift in public consciousness similar to the civil rights and women's movements.


21. A source of hope for a sustainable future is 

A. increasing technological efficiency and agricultural productivity.
B. moderating consumption.
C. decreasing population.
D. All of the choices are correct.


22. Half the world's people live on 

A. more than $15 per day.
B. between $10 and $15 per day.
C. between $5 and $10 per day.
D. less than $2 per day.


23. A source of hope for a sustainable future is 

A. cloning.
B. reduced consumption.
C. moderating global temperatures.
D. high birth rates in technologically advanced countries.


24. Which of the following is one way to reduce individual consumption? 

A. increase income tax
B. regulate birth rates
C. provide incentives for conservation behaviors
D. create a one-world economy


25. Economist Robert Frank (1999) suggested taxing people _______ as a way to moderate consumption. 

A. on what they earn
B. on what they spend
C. who are rich, but not those who are poor
D. double the current rates


26. Policies that would curb individual consumption require 

A. further research.
B. political acts supported by public attitudes.
C. a one-world economy.
D. dictatorial governance.


27. Among entering collegians, the proportion considering it "very important or essential" that they become "very well off financially" _______ between 1970 and 2005. 

A. declined
B. rose slightly
C. remained stable
D. rose dramatically


28. _______ agree that money buys happiness, whereas _______ agree that a little more money will make one a little happier. 

A. Most; few
B. All; none
C. Few; many
D. None; all


29. For today's collegians, the goal of _______ has been at the top of their list in recent years. 

A. developing a meaningful philosophy of life
B. becoming very well off financially
C. helping others in difficulty
D. becoming an authority in their own field


30. Jacob, a freshman in college, reported on a survey that it is essential to develop a meaningful philosophy of life and that being well-off financially is much less important. This student most likely entered college in 

A. 1965
B. 1985
C. 1995
D. 2000


31. The top-rated objective among entering collegians today is 

A. raising a family.
B. helping others in difficulty.
C. finding fulfilling work.
D. being very well off financially.


32. In the United States, Canada, and Europe, the correlation between increased individual income and personal happiness is 

A. surprisingly strong.
B. moderately strong.
C. about 0.30.
D. surprisingly weak.


33. Myers reported that lottery winners typically gain _______ from their winnings. 

A. long-lasting happiness
B. a temporary jolt of joy
C. anxiety over their new freedom
D. a mixture of happiness and anxiety


34. Which of the following does NOT characterize Americans over the last 40 years? 

A. increased personal income
B. increased subjective well-being
C. increased rates of depression
D. increased consumption


35. Steve strives for intimacy, personal growth, and ways to contribute to his community, whereas Ben works at "getting ahead" financially. In all likelihood 

A. they will be equally happy.
B. Steve will be happier.
C. Ben will be happier.
D. we cannot predict who will be happier.


36. According to the _______, feelings of success, failure, satisfaction, and dissatisfaction are relative to prior experiences. 

A. relative attainment hypothesis
B. achievement motivation syndrome
C. social prestige principle
D. adaptation-level phenomenon


37. The tendency to adapt to a given level of stimulation, and notice and react to changes from that level defines 

A. social comparison.
B. the adaptation-level phenomenon.
C. relative deprivation.
D. Parkinson's second law.


38. Donna has been short of money and worried about her job security. Yesterday she was surprised to find she was being promoted and given a 10% raise. The adaptation-level phenomenon suggests that she will 

A. soon be worried again about her finances.
B. have much better self-esteem from now on.
C. behave much less aggressively from now on.
D. be a much more ambitious, achievement-oriented worker now that she sees that her past behavior has paid off.


39. A 65-degree day seems warm in February but cold in July. This is best explained in terms of 

A. relative deprivation.
B. the adaptation-level phenomenon.
C. displacement.
D. Parkinson's second law.


40. The fact that affluent people often feel as frustrated as those who have less can be understood in terms of 

A. relative deprivation.
B. Parkinson's second law.
C. displacement.
D. the adaptation-level phenomenon.


41. Relative deprivation is frequently the result of 

A. upward social comparison.
B. downward social comparison.
C. Parkinson's second law.
D. the adaptation-level phenomenon.


42. Joseph has just received a 5% increase in his salary. However, after learning that his coworkers have all received 10% increases, Joseph becomes upset with his employer and dissatisfied with his raise. We can understand Joseph's feelings in terms of 

A. relative deprivation.
B. the adaptation-level phenomenon.
C. Parkinson's second law.
D. the hydraulic model of aggression.


43. Tina, a single mom, just making ends meet, feels most dissatisfied with her current material circumstances after watching an episode of "The Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous." Her feelings are best understood in terms of 

A. the adaptation-level phenomenon.
B. reactance theory.
C. relative deprivation.
D. downward social comparison.


44. Social comparison is 

A. evaluating one's abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with others.
B. our tendency to compare a given level of stimulation with an earlier level.
C. a tendency to adapt to social events.
D. often used to recalibrate adaptation levels.


45. Rising affluence in the U.S. has not produced increased happiness because 

A. we discount our belongings.
B. there's always someone richer.
C. growth is not good
D. of greater health problems among baby boomers.


46. Csikszentmihalyi refers to the state wherein we are unselfconsciously absorbed in a mindful challenge as 

A. positive psychology.
B. unconditional positive regard.
C. flow.
D. individual hypnosis.

 Critical Thinking Questions

  1. Describe the effects of global warming.

  1. Summarize the research showing how increased materialism has taken place during the last 30 years.

  1. How have the values of U.S. college students changed since 1971?

  1. What does Myers say about whether or not rich countries are happier?

  1. What does Myers say about whether or not rich people are happier?

55) Describe the pattern of changes that have occurred in personal income, happiness, and depression since 1957 in the United States.

  1. Why does materialism fail to satisfy?

  1. Define and provide an example of the adaptation-level phenomenon.

58) Define and provide an example of the upward social comparison.

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