1. The Roman historian Livy attributed the success of the Romans to

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1. The Roman historian Livy attributed the success of the Romans to

a. The great mineral wealth of Italy

b. The large physical size of the Roman people

c. Their upright character

d. The weakness of all the people they conquered
2. The neighboring people that MOST influenced Roman early development were the

a. Etruscans

b. Greeks

c. Gauls

d. Phoenicians
3. The Roman Republic established in 509 B.C. was

a. A fully democratic government

b. An oligarchy controlled by the rich patricians

c. A socialist regime with property having been equally distributed

d. Indirectly controlled by neighboring Etruscan kings

4. In the Roman republic , laws were enacted not by the Senate, but by the

a. Tribal Assembly

b. Censors

c. Vestal Virgins

d. Dictator

5. The “Struggle of orders” between the Patricians and the Plebeians in ancient Rome resulted in

a. The establishment of a permanent dictatorship

b. Wealthy Plebeians achieving virtual equality with the patricians

c. The sack of Rome by the Visigoths

d. The massacre of Patricians by Plebeians
6. The system of patrons and clients in the Roman Republic shows that in practice, government depended heavily on

a. Detailed law codes

b. Informal relations among people

c. The will of the dictator

d. Mob rule
7. The Romans created a united community

during their conquest of Italy by

a. Granting full or partial citizenship to various Latin communities

b. Granting self-government to peoples as long as they supplied troops to Rome and followed Roman foreign policy

c. Placing strategic colonies of Roman citizens throughout the peninsula

d. All of the above

8. Roman children were

a. Highly valued regardless of sex or state of health

b. Given the right to express themselves freely as individuals

c. Carefully shaped and disciplined to be obedient and embody Roman values

d. Not valued since they interfered with pleasurable living

9. The traditional soldier in the Roman army was a

a. Mercenary fighting for hire

b. Tax-paying citizen of Rome

c. Native of one of the conquered Italian communities

d. Member of the poor, propertyless class of citizens

10. The city of Carthage

a. Began as a Greek colony

b. Had an extensive trading network in the Mediterranean and Africa

c. At the time of the Punic Wars was ruled by its great king, Gilgamesh

d. All of the above

11. In order to fight a war with Carthage, the Romans

a. Added new legions with faster horses and more spears

b. Built a navy equipped with ships that enabled soldiers to board the enemy ships

c. Allied themselves with the Macedonians

d. Hired Greek soldiers since they had more experience at sea
12. In the Second Punic War, Hannibal’s strategy was to

a. Blockade the Italian coast with the large Carthaginian fleet

b. Invade southern Italy with the aid of the Egyptian fleet

c. Swiftly cross the Alps into Italy and by winning some big battles persuade Rome’s subject peoples to join his side

d. Entice the Romans to attack him in Spain and defeat them there with his carefully

prepared defenses

13. Hannibal was finally defeated in North Africa near Carthage at the Battle of Zama in 202 B.C. by

a. Scipio Africanus

b. Julius Caesar

c. Cato the Elder

d. Hasdrubal

14. After the defeat of Carthage in the Second Punic War, Rome fought several wars in the eastern Mediterranean with an unexpected consequence

a. The Greeks supported Carthage in the Third Punic War

b. Rome neglected its northern frontier, permitting barbarians to invade Italy

c. The upper classes of Rome started to become partially Hellenized in their culture

d. All of the above

15. One abusive practice of Roman rule over foreign provinces was

a. Roman insistence that all foreigners worship Roman gods

b. To allow tax contractors to extract more taxes than had been assessed

c. Forcing provincials to exchange their laws and customs for those of Rome

d. Giving to all foreigners the status of slaves
16. Which of the following was not true of slavery in ancient Rome?

a. Slaves were overwhelmingly non-white

b. Slaves included persons used as teachers and physicians

c. There were major slave uprisings

d. Roman wars brought in so many slaves that the structure of Roman society changed
17. Which of the following was NOT a factor in the growing disparity between the rich and poor during the second century B.C.

a. Small Roman farmers grew rich from the booty that flowed into Italy

b. Newly conquered provinces provided opportunities for the ruling class to make new fortunes from governing, tax contracts, slave trading, etc.

c. Many common soldiers on long-term campaigns lost their farms to large landholders

d. Slave labor replaced free labor, reducing to poverty many citizens
18. The outstanding example of Roman religious architecture, still in use today, is the

a. Acropolis

b. Ziggurat

c. Forum

d. Pantheon
19. The great Latin orator, statesman, and master

of prose was

a. Romulus

b. Tiberius Gracchus

c. Cicero

d. Hannibal

20. The Gracchi brothers attempted to redistribute land and make jobs for the poor because

a. They wanted to destroy the rich senatorial class

b. They were from the plebeian class themselves

c. The Roman army needed small citizen farmers and taxpayers to fill its ranks

d. The Hellenistic ideal state called for equality of wealth
21. Gaius Marius established the Roman army as a professional long-service corps with loyalty to their generals rather than the state by

a. Recruiting landless poor men who would owe their livelihood to their general

b. Placing soldiers on a payroll, making official the client-patron relationship between soldier and commander

c. Distributing land to the soldiers after their term of service

d. All of the above
22. Julius Caesar achieved supreme power in Rome

a. By defeating Pompey and his Senatorial allies

b. By agreeing to the Egyptian ambitions of Cleopatra VII

c. By a secret alliance with the Senate and the Optimates

d. None of the above
23. Caesar was assassinated by

a. His mutinous troops

b. The tribunes of the plebes

c. A group of senators

d. His chief officer, Mark Antony
1. What influence did the Etruscans have on Rome?
2. What were the features of the Roman republican government that caused the historian Polybius to describe it as a combination of democracy, aristocracy, and monarchy?
3. What was the “Struggle of the Orders” and what effect did it have on the political and social development of Rome?
4. How was Roman family structure related to the religious, political and social structure of Rome?
5. Describe the policies the Romans used to keep the various parts of conquered Italy loyal to her.
6. How did the Romans manage to defeat such a great general as Hannibal?
7. What social and economic problems did the conquest of the empire create in Italy?
8. Describe some of the Roman advances in architecture and technology.
9. Why and how did Julius Caesar achieve dictatorial power in Rome?

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