|MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) The failure of the Equal Rights Amendment showed that
A) Congress was unwilling to support a measure opposed by a strong minority of the public.
B) men are pigs, still unwilling to grant women equal rights.
C) we are a democracy, and majority opinion prevails.
D) most states did not want to grant constitutional equality to women.
E) a national majority in favor of an amendment is not sufficient to add it to the Constitution.
2) The foundation of John Locke's philosophy was that human beings
A) derive their rights from God.
B) are granted their rights by their king.
C) determine their own rights.
D) have rights that are granted them by government.
E) derive their rights from nature.
3) At the time of the Constitutional Convention, slavery
A) was permitted in all 13 states.
B) was prohibited by the Connecticut Compromise, which was never put into effect.
C) was illegal only in Massachusetts.
D) was prohibited north of the Mason-Dixon line.
E) existed only in Georgia and the Carolinas.
4) What was the original, sole, and express purpose of the convention in Philadelphia?
A) revise the Articles of Confederation
B) choose the first President
C) abolish the Articles of Confederation
D) grant women the right to vote
E) negotiate the peace treaty with Great Britain
5) The government designed at the Constitutional Convention allowed the voters to directly elect
A) the President and all members of Congress.
B) both the House and Senate.
C) only the House of Representatives.
D) only the President.
E) only the Senate.
6) Which of these was NOT among John Locke's key philosophical concepts?
A) natural rights
B) property rights
C) limited government
D) consent of the governed
E) checks and balances
7) After the Revolution, power in the state legislatures shifted
A) from the poor to the wealthy.
B) from merchants to lawyers.
C) from merchants to landowners.
D) from radicals to conservatives.
E) from the wealthy to those with more moderate incomes.
8) Which of the following statements about the Anti-Federalists is FALSE?
A) The Anti-Federalists believed the new Constitution was a class-based document.
B) The Anti-Federalists were basically unpatriotic and un-American.
C) The Anti-Federalists fought to prevent ratification of the new Constitution.
D) The Anti-Federalists believed the new government would erode fundamental liberties.
E) The Anti-Federalists believed that the new government was an enemy of freedom.
9) Lockean thought and the Declaration of Independence are similar in that both
A) recognize the right of the people to determine their own form of government, short of resorting to revolution.
B) were developed in the late 1700s.
C) value the preservation of private property.
D) seek common ideals in government through the establishment of a constitutional monarchy.
E) support the concept of natural rights and the idea that government be built on the consent of the governed.
10) Some scholars have suggested that a consequence of separation of powers and checks and balances has been
A) the inability of groups to get their grievances heard.
B) streamlined, but hasty, government decision making.
C) the tyranny of the majority.
D) political instability.
E) fragmented policymaking processes.
11) The American Revolution
A) did not drastically alter the colonists' way of life.
B) was won quickly and decisively by the superior American troops.
C) created class conflicts that split society.
D) produced great societal change.
E) was fought between a large army of colonials and a small British army.
12) John Locke believed in each of the following EXCEPT
A) limited government.
B) consent of the governed.
C) natural rights.
D) sanctity of property.
E) divine right of kings.
13) Political parties are an important example of the
A) unwritten constitution.
B) wishes of the founders.
C) rigidity of the Constitution.
D) formal amendment process.
E) Third Amendment.
14) To propose a formal amendment to the Constitution, one needs to have a
A) three-quarters vote in Congress.
B) national convention requested by half of the states.
C) two-thirds vote in Congress.
D) support of three-quarters of the states.
E) majority vote of the Supreme Court.
15) Two key elements of the Madisonian model were to
A) keep most of the government beyond the control of a popular majority and separate the powers of different institutions.
B) keep as much of the government as possible beyond the control of a popular majority and extend the right to vote to everyone.
C) require a system of checks and balances and extend democracy.
D) combine the powers of different institutions and create a powerful presidency.
E) promote state power while separating the powers of different national institutions.
16) Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) Federal grants can put an unwanted financial burden on states.
B) Congress decreased funding of Medicaid in the 1980s to relieve state financial burdens.
C) When Congress imposes a program on the states, it also provides the funds for the program.
D) States are always seeking increases in grant programs.
E) All of these.
17) The Constitution's provision that Congress has the right to "make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution" its powers is often referred to as the
A) elastic clause.
B) heart of fiscal federalism.
C) privileges and immunities.
D) enumerated powers.
E) Unwritten Amendment.
18) Federalism is a way of organizing a nation so that
A) power is centralized in the national government.
B) there is one federal government and all regional governments are administrative subunits of it.
C) there are three branches of government and a system of checks and balances.
D) both national and state levels of government have authority over the same land and people.
E) power is centralized in state and local government.
19) How is a unitary system different from a federal one?
A) Power is decentralized.
B) Administrative subunits, such as states, can collect taxes, conduct elections, and make laws independently of the national government.
C) The national government can coin money, conduct foreign relations, and declare war.
D) The national government can change the boundaries of states, or abolish them.
E) State governments have political autonomy and can nullify national laws.
20) The Supreme Court case of McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
A) stated that the Constitution gave Congress implied powers.
B) recognized that Congress was limited to its enumerated powers.
C) established Baltimore as the capital of Maryland.
D) established the supremacy of state governments.
E) established the principle of judicial review.
21) In __________ federalism, the powers and policy assignments of the different levels of government are distinct, like a layer cake.
22) Fiscal federalism is
A) the distinct separation of national government spending versus state and local government spending.
B) the federal income tax.
C) the pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system.
D) the federal government's regulation of the money supply and interest rates.
E) a sharing of local and national resources practiced in other countries, but not in the United States.
23) On the issue of slaves, the Constitution specified
A) nothing¹it was too controversial a subject and the delegates could not agree on anything regarding it.
B) that slavery would be banned beginning in 1800.
C) that a gradual end to slavery must be worked out by Congress and the states within ten years.
D) that slaves would count as three-fifths persons for counting the nation's population and determining seats in the House.
E) a boundary, known as the Mason-Dixon line, south of which slavery would be legal.
24) John Locke's ideas on natural rights were related to human law in that
A) natural rights were considered higher than human law.
B) natural rights were less important than human law.
C) human law was the source of natural rights.
D) human law protected property rights, making human law equal to natural rights.
E) human law and natural rights were unimportant after revolution.
25) According to James Madison and many of the delegates at the Constitutional Convention, what is the primary source of political conflict?
D) religious beliefs
E) unequal distribution of wealth
26) Which of the following statements about the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) is FALSE?
A) The ERA never became part of the Constitution.
B) The ERA was proposed by Congress in 1978.
C) The ERA was first proposed in 1923.
D) Public opinion polls showed little support for the ERA after 1960.
E) The ERA was opposed by many southern states.
27) A number of states have sued the federal government for reimbursement of funds on the grounds that
A) overcrowded prisons are a form of cruel and unusual punishment.
B) the federal government isn't preventing illegal immigration into their states.
C) it has no right to charter a national bank.
D) the Federal Reserve Board has pushed interest rates too high, increasing state borrowing costs.
E) Trick question! States cannot sue the federal government.
28) Which of the following is NOT an effect of federalism?
A) It decentralizes political power.
B) It simplifies the governmental system.
C) It creates more access points to government.
D) Courts are called upon to be referees, and they gain power.
E) All of these are characteristics of a federal system.
29) After the American Revolution, state legislatures were composed of
A) about the same ratio of wealthy members and not so wealthy members as before the war.
B) significantly more middle-class representatives and fewer wealthy members compared to before the war.
C) revolutionary war militiamen.
D) a higher percentage of wealthy planters, lawyers, and merchants than ever before.
E) significantly more landless laborers and poor farmers than any other group.
30) Only the national government is allowed to
A) make and enforce laws.
B) regulate commerce with foreign nations.
C) levy taxes.
D) take private property for public purposes.
E) all of the above
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.
31) Informal changes to the Constitution have been rare and ineffective.
32) A federal system of government was designed by the founders so that state governments, where most of the governmental activity was expected to take place, would act as checks on the power of the national government.
33) Nearly every successful amendment to the Constitution has been proposed by a national convention.
34) Burning the flag is a legally protected form of political expression.
35) The Constitution obligated the new government to repay all the public debt incurred under the Continental Congress and the Articles of Confederation.
36) The Connecticut Compromise gives more power to the House of Representatives.
37) The philosophy of the writers of the Constitution was based in part on the belief that the principal object of government was the preservation of property.
38) States allow many exceptions to the privileges and immunities clause.
39) The Tenth Amendment is sometimes called the supremacy clause, because it reinforces the power of the national government over the state governments.
40) Federal aid to states and cities is more equitably distributed than income, access to education, or taxes in the United States.
41) The Constitution says that the states must return a person charged with a crime in another state to that state for trial or imprisonment.
42) Those who opposed the ratification of the Constitution were known as Federalists.
43) The President has no formal role in amending the Constitution.
44) Most politicians and political scientists today argue that America's federalist system has moved away from a dual federalism to a cooperative federalism.
45) Amendments to the Constitution over the nation's history have expanded the American electorate by extending the right to vote to women, non-whites, and 18 year-olds, thus further democratizing our system of government.