KABO Packet 2 (Written by Kurtis Droge, Ashvin Srivatsa, and Will Nediger)
1. The base of this sculpture contains depictions of the four winds as well as four figures representing Night, Day, Twilight, and Dawn, and was crafted using an ebony background. A primary source relates how this sculpture was created concurrently with its artist’s silver statue of Jupiter, which is now lost. One figure in this sculpture is surrounded by four (*) sea horses with convergent tails. The main female figure in this sculpture is a reclining nude who appears next to a small temple, while her male counterpart holds a trident in his right hand and a boat in his left. Those figures represent the earth and the sea. Though it contains colored work done in enamel, it was primarily executed in gold at the behest of Francis I. For 10 points, name this Benvenuto Cellini sculpture designed to hold some spices.
ANSWER: Salt Cellar 2. Geffert extended this theorem to show that there exist unary languages described by this theorem. The original proof of this theorem used a language defined as the set of inputs that a Turing machine does not accept before visiting a certain number of cells. One corollary of this theorem is that L is a strict subset of the class that contains the quantified Boolean formulas problem. One form of it applies to functions f for which there exists a deterministic Turing machine that halts after visiting a number of cells on its tape equal to f of the size of the input. Those functions are constructible in the sense required by this theorem. Formally, this theorem holds that (*) “SPACE of little-o of f of n” is a strict subset of “SPACE of f of n”. For 10 points, name this theorem that proves that a Turing machine with access to asymptotically more space can decide more languages.
ANSWER: space hierarchy theorem [accept (non-)deterministic space hierarchy theorem; prompt on “hierarchy theorem”]
3. This psychologist claimed that the phallic stage should be renamed the frolic stage in a paper that analyzes female rigidity and male threatening to conclude that biology “is always first and culture is always second.” A misspelling of the address of his laboratory lends itself to the title of a biography about him by Deborah Blum called Love at Goon Park. One of his experiments used a six foot by six foot room called the (*) “open field” to measure emotionality. This thinker postulated that nursing might become a superfluous sign of wealth in his paper “The Nature of Love.” He showed the importance of physical contact in mothering by presenting infants with cloth and wire surrogate mothers. For 10 points, name this man who devised the rape rack and the pit of despair in his experiments on monkeys.
ANSWER: Harry Harlow 4. This adjective refers to an 1843 revolution in which Jean-Pierre Boyer was deposed by the Society for the Rights of Man and the Citizen, leading to the rise of power of Charles Hérard in Haiti. This adjective also describes an 1895 revolution in which Eloy Alfaro curbed the power of the Catholic Church in Ecuador. António de Noronha, the Duke of Terceira, was a victorious commander in a series of (*) wars with this name that restored Maria II to power in Portugal. This word describes a series of reforms carried out in Britain after the election of Henry Campbell-Bannerman that were financed by the People’s Budget. Louis St. Laurent and Pierre Trudeau were members of the Canadian political party of this name. For 10 points, give this word often contrasted with conservative.
ANSWER: liberal [accept more specific answers]
5. The person in charge of this location spends time hoisted into the air in a basket so that his thoughts can be mediated by suspension, and that person explains the gender of nouns by referring to a chickenness. Among the discoveries made by the residents of this location are a hook-like device for stealing peoples’ clothes at the gym. A group of people in this location lie face down so that they can study the ground with their eyes and the skies with their (*) butts. After spending time at this location, one character masturbates while thinking about a lesson, while another character is able to refute his father’s creditors by describing a contradiction in the old and new day. For 10 points, name this philosophical school led by Socrates that Strepsiades makes his son Pheidippides attend in The Clouds.
ANSWER: The Thinkery [or The Thinkeria; or The Phrontisterion]
6. This myth system’s personification of death collects souls on a rickety cart that is pulled by one youthful horse and one frail horse. One creature from this myth system is a fairy spirit with red flashing eyes that is said to lure humans to their death on Halloween. One figure in this system was born after a red headed Queen of the North convinced (*) Gradlon to murder her husband, and that figure was later responsible for handing the keys to a city over to a strange knight dressed in red who turned out to be the devil. Korrigans appear in this myth system, as do the figures Ankou and Dahut. In the best known story from this myth system, a huge wave emerges from the sea and drowns the city of Ys. For 10 points, name this Celtic-based myth system originating in a northwestern region of France.
ANSWER: Breton Myth [or Myths of Brittany; prompt on “Celtic” before mentioned]
7. According to Suetonius, this man garnished a taste of the poison that killed his childhood friend Britannicus, and he was particularly adept in his youth at forging handwriting. He divorced his second wife, Marcia Furnilla, after her potential connection to the Pisonian Conspiracy, and he foiled an assassination attempt on his predecessor by murdering Caecina Alienus. His succession to emperor was troubled by his relationship with (*) Berenice, the sister of Herod Agrippa II. His reign saw the completion of the Colosseum, and his capture of the Antonia Fortress presaged his sack of Jerusalem and destruction of the Great Temple. For 10 points, name this emperor of Rome in power during the eruption of Vesuvius, the second member of the Flavian dynasty who succeeded his father Vespasian.
ANSWER: Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus
8. Adrienne Rich wrote that “I am traveling at the speed of time” in an essay about this author in which Rich claims that she “explored her own mind, without... orthodoxy,” describing her place of writing with the comment “here’s freedom.” The subject of “Vesuvius at Home,” Rebecca Patterson wrote a book about “The Riddle of” this author, using her claim that she “had a (*) terror since September” to support the hypothesis that Kate Anthon was her lesbian partner. She described how the bravest learn to see, even though they stumble, in a poem beginning “We grow accustomed to the dark- / When light is put away.” Known for the extensive use of dashes and slant rhymes, her poems are usually referenced by their first lines. For 10 points, name this poet who wrote “Because I could not stop for Death.”
ANSWER: Emily Dickinson [accept “Vesuvius at Home” before read]
9. Forces of this type yield solvable trajectories only if they take on one of six general four-term forms, as shown by Broucke; those forms include three monomial forms that have a stability index of plus or minus 2. In systems that experience this type of force, one conserved quantity is the cross product of the binormal vector and angular momentum. The motion of a system with an inverse cubic force of this type is a Cotes spiral, and is one of three cases that is soluble in terms of trigonometric functions rather than (*) elliptic integrals. According to Bertrand’s theorem, this type of force can only form closed orbits if it is linear or inverse-square. In two-body systems with this kind of force, the cross product of the position and velocity vectors is constant over time; this is a generalization of the law of areal velocities due to Kepler. For 10 points, name these forces that depend only on the distance between objects and act along the line connecting them.
ANSWER: central forces [reverse-prompt on “inverse-square force” until “inverse cubic” is read]
10. Brennan and Copeland noted a twenty percent increase in this quantity after a stock split in announced, with an additional thirty percent increase occurring after the split is executed. Clarkson and Thompson tracked the decrease of this quantity as information increases, drawing conclusions about the ratios of multiple types of uncertainty. This quantity is usually taken by dividing the covariance of two returns with the variance of a portfolio or a market. For the market as a whole, this quantity is equal to (*) one. For any given stock, this quantity represents the ratio by which it changes given a change in the return of the market as a whole, leading it to sometimes be compared to risk or volatility. For 10 points, name this quantity from finance, often contrasted with a manager’s returns, alpha.
ANSWER: beta 11. The group known as the Low Six had this occupation, and Mark Rudd organized a protest of people with this occupation that began at a sundial after writing a “Letter to Uncle Grayson.” Members of this occupation engaged in the period of unrest called the Ten Days of Resistance, and, in another incident, they surrounded a police car that contained Jack Weinberg to prevent his arrest. Edwin Meese orchestrated the response to that event, which saw members of this occupation roused by the oratory of Mario (*) Savio and was called the Free Speech Movement. Tom Hayden wrote the Port Huron Statement to be the manifesto of a group of these people “for a Democratic Society.” For 10 points, name this occupation of many protesters at Berkeley and Columbia universities.
ANSWER: students [or college students; or university students]
12. This composer wrote a short piece for solo guitar as a homage for the “Tombeau de Claude Debussy” that was played by the soloist Miguel Llobet Soles. He combined with the artist Jose Maria Sert on a massive opera based on a poem by Jacinto Verdaguer that was left unfinished at his death and was completed by his pupil, Ernesto Halffter. One of his works for orchestra features a second movement called “Distant Dance.” This composer of (*)Atlántida included the “Ritual Fire Dance” and the “Dance of the Will-O’-the-Wisp” in a ballet in which the ghost of a dead spouse haunts the gypsy girl Candela. Another of his ballets features a miller and a magistrate. For 10 points, name this composer of Nights in the Gardens of Spain, El Amor Brujo, and The Three-Cornered Hat.
ANSWER: Manuel de Falla 13. The formation of this substance can yield metastable ikaite as a byproduct. The type of it that encloses polynyas initially forms as frazil. Diatoms that inhabit platelet communities beneath this substance preferentially produce chlorophyll c in response to low-light conditions. April 2012 data from a neutrino detector (*) embedded in and named for this substance suggest that gamma-ray bursts don’t produce ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Prokaryotes living in close proximity to this substance are often enriched in dimethyl sulfoxide and glycols. The thickness of one type of this substance is most accurately measured with seafloor-moored upward-looking sonar. Delta-O-18 in vertical cores of this substance is a proxy for atmospheric temperature. For 10 points, name this solid that is particularly abundant in Antarctica.
ANSWER: ice [prompt on “water” or obvious equivalents; do not accept things made of ice like “glaciers” because that’s not a substance; do not accept other solid forms of water like “snow”]
14. One character in this work proclaims “Roll on, ye dark-brown tears; ye bring no more joy on your course” while lamenting the lack of music compared to a thousand years ago. A different character in it rejects ships in tribute from Swaran, preferring a desert with “its deer and woods.” A battle including Cathmor in this work is engulfed in mist and left up to the reader’s imagination. Containing sections titled (*) “Cath-Loda” and “Temora,” Hugh Blair upheld the authenticity of this work against the attacks of Samuel Johnson, who claimed that its author had not used Gaelic manuscripts in its creation. Including the brutal Starno and the hero Fingal, part of this work brings Werther and Lotte to tears. For 10 points, name this collection of prose poems by James Macpherson named after a legendary poet.
ANSWER: Ossian [accept additional answers like Ossian Poems]
15. This person described the lack of sight of God, the worm of conscience, the vision of the devil, and the everlasting fire as the “four principal torments of the damned.” In the same work, this person used the example of a man drinking from a cup while having it be constantly refilled by a fountain to illustrate the nature of divine love. This person compared the cross to a book written in Christ’s blood and used the word “babbo,” loosely translated as “father,” in addressing (*) Gregory XI in a series of letters. The author of The Dialogue of Divine Providence, this person was closely mentored by Raymond of Capua. This person claimed to have undergone a mystic marriage with Christ. For 10 points, name this Dominican saint, a woman from medieval Italy usually referenced using the name of her home town.
ANSWER: Catherine of Siena [prompt on partial answer]
16. Gamon et al showed that the amount of these things of a certain color is well-correlated with the NDVI, a quantity that is typically computed from near-infrared satellite imagery. YPLANT is a popular tool for simulating energy balance in these things that also accounts for the propagation of sunflecks past them. The Penman-Monteith equation contains a term equal to the ratio of this macroscopic thing’s resistance and the aerodynamic resistance and computes the total water lost by it. Lianas ascend into these places, connecting disjointed parts of them. Hemispherical photography is used to determine the degree of closure of these places; that closure process is part of the final stage of ecological (*) succession. Characterized by the leaf area index and composed of tree crowns, for 10 points, name this most photosynthetic, uppermost part of a forest.
ANSWER: forest canopies [accept tree crowns until it is read; accept any specific type of canopy like rainforest canopies; prompt on “forests” or “trees” or specific examples like “rainforests”]
17. In one scene, this character sits on his bed at night while reciting part of the seventh book of Pliny’s Natural History, which he requests to borrow from one of his friends along with a latin dictionary. Crippled after a horseback riding accident, this character’s comprehension of the idea of the mane of a stallion is compared to a student’s comprehension of a right triangle. Upset at the name of the Thirty Three Immortals, he devises a numbering system wherein (*) each number is represented by a different word, claiming to have reached 24,000 digits. He gives up on his attempt to liken each specific object that he has encountered with a different word, and his understanding of general concepts like “dog” is minimal. For 10 points, name this character with a perfect memory created by Jorge Luis Borges.
ANSWER: Funes, the Memorious
18. This man accused an opponent of engaging in “political metaphysics” in a speech in which he aroused controversy be proclaiming that “Superior races have rights over inferior races.” He split with Emile Ollivier after having an affair with Ollivier’s wife Blandine. He gained the nickname “la-Famine” during his time as Prefect of the Seine, and his final administration fell when the (*) Lang Son Telegram, detailing a military defeat in Indochina, precipitated the Tonkin Affair. He first came to prominence after publishing a series of attacks on Baron Haussmann in Le Temps. An advocate of French colonialism, his best known achievement amended the Falloux Laws by curbing the prevalence of Catholicism. For 10 points, name this French statesman, the namesake of laws that provided free and secular education.
ANSWER: Jules Ferry 19. The artist of this work may have been prompted to paint it after the placement of his Veterans Memorial Window in a local church was protested because it was made with German help. The rightmost figure in this painting wears an orange broach, while the leftmost figure in this painting is wearing a pair of pearl earrings. Another person in this painting clasps a (*) teacup with a hand resembling a claw. The smug expressions of the main figures are usually interpreted as constituting one of its artist’s only satirical paintings. The background of this painting is dominated by a sepia reproduction of Leutze’s Washington Crossing the Delaware. For 10 points, name this depiction of three women painted by Grant Wood whose name evokes a patriotic organization.
ANSWER: Daughters of Revolution 20. Amongst these people, aparanga, or bachelors, often took boy lovers, or kumba gude, in what was known as a “court marriage,” while it was rumored that many of their ancient kings had died because they had walked in on their wives engaging in lesbian activities. One study of these people reported on such incidents as a youth who stepped on a stump, leading to an infected foot, and a man who accidentally burned down his beer hut to show how they attributed seemingly common occurrences to (*) witchcraft. The Poison Oracle was said to be the ultimate ruling power amongst these people in that study that was criticized by Peter Winch for applying Western modes of thought towards their customs. For 10 points, name these African people studied by E.E. Evans-Pritchard who are not the Nuer.
21. George Boolos reworked many of this thinker’s results, realising that replacing one of his conclusions with Hume’s Principle allowed a far greater scope of development than this man was able to achieve. He illustrated the lack of a certain concept by contrasting the farthest celestial body from the earth and the least rapidly converging series. This man distinguished between (*) concept and object, and he believed that words should never be analyzed in isolation, his context principle. He introduced notations for such ideas as the universal quantifier and the conditional in his book Begriffschrift, and he used the example of the morning star and the evening star as two ways to signify Venus in his paper “Sense and Reference.” For 10 points, name this German analytic philosopher and logician.
ANSWER: Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege
1. For 10 points each, name some authors who wrote about people passing as a different race:
 This author described a player of ragtime piano music who passes, having a white family in children, in The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man. He wrote the collection God’s Trombones.
ANSWER: James Weldon Johnson  Helga Crane is a representation of this author in one of her novels, and she also wrote a book in which Clare passes as white despite being of mixed heritage, meeting her childhood friend Irene, who is also of mixed heritage but is living as black.
ANSWER: Nella Larsen  This man documented his time hitchhiking and traveling by bus across the American south in 1959 after receiving methoxsalen doses to appear black in his book Black Like Me.
ANSWER: John Howard Griffin 2. This concept is sometimes contrasted with the control principle, which states that we are responsible only to the extent that we had control over our actions. For 10 points each:
 Name this concept, introduced by Bernard Williams, that is exemplified by the idea that attempted murder is not as severe a crime as murder even when the difference between the two crimes is only due to variance.
ANSWER: moral luck [prompt on partial answer]
 Along with Williams, this thinker is responsible for formulating the basis of moral luck. In one essay, he attacked reductionist views of consciousness, and he wrote The View from Nowhere.
ANSWER: Thomas Nagel  Nagel also wrote a book about “The Possibility of” this concept, defined as unneeded kindness towards others. In experimental economics, it is often studied using variations of the dictator game.
ANSWER: altruism 3. The son of Childeric I, this man defeated Syragius at the Battle of Soissons to establish his base of power. For 10 points each:
 Name this king of the Franks who is best known for his conversion to Christianity and baptism by Saint Remi following his victory over the Alamanni at the Battle of Tolbiac.
ANSWER: Clovis I [prompt on partial answer]
 Clovis was supposedly encouraged to convert to Christianity by this woman, his wife, whose father was killed by her uncle Gundobad.
ANSWER: Clotilde  Clovis convened the first council held at this city in 511, which led to the promulgation of thirty one decrees. Six councils were held at this city during the rule of the Merovingian line.
ANSWER: Orleans 4. This character tries to save a peasant who is being beaten during a show named The Red Detachment of Women. For 10 points each:
 Name this character who earlier receives an elephant figurine, tours a school while reminiscing about when she was a teacher, and imagines world peace in the aria “This is Prophetic.”
ANSWER: Patricia Nixon [or Mrs. Nixon; prompt on “Nixon”]
 Patricia Nixon appears in Nixon in China, an opera by this composer of Shaker Loops, Short Ride in a Fast Machine, and The Death of Klinghoffer.
ANSWER: John Adams  Adams adapted this work from the third act of Nixon in China. This “Foxtrot for Orchestra” ends like a gramophone being wound down to emphasize the nostalgia of Mao and his wife.
ANSWER: The Chairman Dances 5. Doppler broadening of this ubiquitous spectral line was used to compute the first rotation curve for the Milky Way. For 10 points each:
 Name this spectral line that is produced by hyperfine transitions in neutral hydrogen. This line’s wavelength was used as a unit of measure on the Pioneer plaques.
ANSWER: 21-centimeter line [or H I line; accept numerical equivalents like 12 centismoot line or 2.3 millifootball field line]
 The 21-cm line is a valuable probe of the time before this event ended the “dark ages”. This event may have been triggered by radiation from Population III stars carrying over 13.6 electron-volts of energy.
ANSWER: reionization [do not accept “recombination”]
 Reionization can also be studied by observing the absorption spectra of the intergalactic medium between these active galactic nuclei and the earth. The spectrum of distant ones displays a Gunn-Peterson trough.
ANSWER: quasars [or quasi-stellar radio source; or quasi-stellar object]
6. This concept is contrasted with the more blue collar approach of natural growth. For 10 points each:
 Name this type of parenting wherein parents actively encourage their children to join clubs, sports, and other activities to foster their children’s social skills and innate talents.
ANSWER: concerted cultivation  Concerted cultivation was developed by this sociologist in her book Unequal Childhoods, which tells of twelve out of the 88 families that she analyzed in a study of families of varying wealth.
ANSWER: Annette Lareau  Lareau specifically studied families that varied in this parameter. The “consciousness” of this concept partially titles a Georg Lukács book, and it is often divided into upper, middle, and lower types.
ANSWER: class 7. These events occur when T cells become dysregulated. For 10 points each:
 Name these often-fatal immune reactions that result from overproduction of inflammation mediators, named for a class of immunomodulators that cause T cell taxis.
ANSWER: cytokine storms [or hypercytokinemia]
 Cytokine storms are also implicated in this class of diseases, whose characteristic symptom is hypocoagulation. The hantaviruses cause these diseases, as do Marburg and Ebola.
ANSWER: viral hemorrhagic fevers [or VHFs]
 Like all viruses without a DNA stage, Ebola virus has genes that code for an RNA-dependent version of this enzyme. Ebola uses this enzyme to replicate itself.
ANSWER: (RNA-dependent) RNA polymerase [accept RdRP; prompt on “pol” or “polymerase”; do not accept “DNA polymerase”]
8. For 10 points each, name some stuff about female authors from Asia who lived a really long time ago:
 Chinese poet Li Qingzhao lived during this dynasty, as did Su Shi and the author of the Dream Pool Essays, Shen Kuo. Li Qingzhao was forced to flee from Kaifeng after it was sacked by Jurchens during the rule of this dynasty.
ANSWER: Song Dynasty [accept more specific answers]
 This Hindu mystic is known for writing a lot of poems dedicated to Lord Krishna. In one of those works, she wrote “Love shows no external wound / But the pain pervades every pore.”
ANSWER: Mirabai [or Meera]
 In this woman’s best known work, the title character marries the niece of Lady Fujitsubo after the death of his first wife, Aoi no Ue, and has a bunch of steamy affairs with various women at court.
ANSWER: MurasakiShikibu [accept either name]
9. For 10 points each, name some stuff related to Mircea Eliade’s thoughts about religion:
 Eliade placed a lot of importance on these events, defined as manifestations of the sacred. He thought that many myths were focused on one of these events.
ANSWER: hierophanies  Eliade contrasted the sacred with this concept, a distinction originally developed by Durkheim wherein the sacred represented the religion of the group and this concept represented the everyday affairs of individuals.
ANSWER: the profane  Another of Eliade’s interests was shamans, whom he noted often acted in this role for primitive societies. This term refers to people or spirits that transport the dead to the afterlife.
ANSWER: psychopomps 10. The 1951 Treaty of Paris proposed a European Community for two commodities that created a common market for them between six western European nations. For 10 points each:
 Name these two commodities, one a fuel source that was found in the Ruhr, and the other an alloy of primarily iron and carbon.
ANSWER: coal and steel [accept in either order; prompt on partial answer]
 Europe Day is today celebrated on the day that this French statesman proposed his namesake declaration, stressing Pan-European ideals. A two-time president of France, as foreign minister he was instrumental in establishing the European Coal and Steel Community.
ANSWER: Robert Schuman  This initiative, planned at the Stresa Conference, consists mostly of subsidies paid to farmers. The Mansholt Plan tried to reform it, and it was recently modified to include the Single Payment Scheme.
ANSWER: Common Agricultural Policy
11. For 10 points each, name these think tanks:
 Named after a Roman thinker, this conservative group was initially funded by Charles Koch and included libertarian Murray Rothbard as a founding policy formulator.
ANSWER: Cato Institute
 This other conservative group arose out of dissatisfaction with Nixon’s liberal views and published the Mandate for Leadership, outlining the small government theories of Ronald Reagan.
ANSWER: The Heritage Foundation  One of the longest running think tanks in the U.S., this institution has been led by Harold Moulton and Robert Calkins and was tasked with investigating how to combat the Great Depression by FDR, though many of its members would later come to oppose New Deal programs.
ANSWER: Brookings Institute
12. This phrase was used in a 1969 speech that advocated not passing on the other side of the road to allow totalitarianism to to suffocate the hopes of millions of people. For 10 points each:
 Name this phrase that describes a group of people who did not violently oppose the war in Vietnam and to which the president at the time appealed for their support.
ANSWER: silent majority  This is the president who talked about his plans for eventual peace in Vietnam to the silent majority. He increased the participation of South Vietnamese in the war in his policy of Vietnamization.
ANSWER: Richard Nixon  Nixon’s 1968 bid for the Republican nomination was challenged by several people, including this governor of Michigan whose popularity dropped after he claimed that he had been brainwashed into supporting the Vietnam War.
ANSWER: George Romney [prompt on “Romney”]
13. In this novel, the protagonist’s cousin William is revealed to be a beacon of disaster, having spent all of his money and all of Mrs. Smith’s late husband’s money as well. For 10 points each:
 Name this Jane Austen novel in which Anne Elliot is shocked to find out that Captain Wentworth still retains affections for her despite her having rejected him many years ago.
ANSWER: Persuasion  This novel, by a different author, postulates three possible ending as to the affair between Sarah Woodruff and Charles Smithson while providing a useful commentary on Victorian thoughts about such topics as sexuality and evolution.
ANSWER: The French Lieutenant’s Woman  In Persuasion, Louisa Musgrove suffers an injury to her ankle while on vacation in this town. That incident is referenced in The French Lieutenant’s Woman, in which this city is where Sarah and Charles first meet in the novel’s opening chapters.
ANSWER: Lyme Regis [prompt on partial answer]
14. For 10 points each, name some Greek sculptors:
 Among the works attributed to this man are a cow that was used to display epigrams, a satyr picking up a musical instrument discarded by Athena, and his Discobolus, notable for its portrayal of the body in motion.
ANSWER: Myron of Eleutherae
 This man executed iconic versions of the Apoxyomenos and Oil Pourer, but is better known for showing a hero leaning on his club in the Farnese Hercules and for being the primary sculptor for Alexander the Great.
ANSWER: Lysippos  His individual works include Maenad and Pothos, and he also designed a group of the Daughters of Niobe as well as working on the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus and the temple of Athena Alea.
ANSWER: Scopas 15. The splitting of the spectral lines of these quasiparticles is named for Davydov. For 10 points each:
 Name these neutral quasiparticles, which form polaritons when strongly coupled to photons.
ANSWER: (Frenkel) excitons
 Excitons are composed of an electron bound to this other quasiparticle. This quasiparticle is the primary charge-carrier in p-type semiconductors, and is the lack of an electron in a solid lattice.
ANSWER: electron hole  Excitons can mediate interactions among members of these weakly-bound electron-sharing complexes. Inorganically, these complexes are typically formed of metals and associated ligands.
ANSWER: charge-transfer complexes [or CT complexes]
16. This drama takes its name from a Beethoven piano piece in D Minor. For 10 points each:
 Name this play in which The Student follows The Old Man, Jacob Hummel, into an apartment complex, where he encounters a strangely dysfunctional family.
ANSWER: The Ghost Sonata [or Spöksonaten]
 The Ghost Sonata was written by this author who created a woman who doesn’t want to leave her pet bird behind when she runs away with Jean in his play Miss Julie.
ANSWER: August Strindberg  This Swedish poet imagined “a crowd whose faces have no expressions” in a poem about a sexual encounter in a hotel room, “The Couple.” This author of the collection The Great Enigma wrote about how he was “nearly killed one night in February” in his poem “Solitude.”
ANSWER: Tomas Tranströmer 17. For 10 points each, name some contemporary economists:
 The founder of The Center for Advanced Hindsight, this Duke economist analyzed common mistakes in Predictably Irrational and wrote a recent book about the causes of cheating.
ANSWER: Dan Ariely  This author of the textbook Principles of Economics is a longtime Harvard professor known for his conservative Keynesian blog and for being an advisor to George W. Bush.
ANSWER: Nicholas Gregory Mankiw  A pioneer of new trade theory, this economist is known for winning the 2008 Nobel, contributing to the New York Times, and authoring a less conservative blog titled “The Conscience of a Liberal.”
ANSWER: Paul Krugman 18. This transformation can be composed of a boost and a rotation, and mixes spacelike and timelike coordinates. For 10 points each:
 Name this transformation which uses a factor equal to the negative one-half power of one minus velocity squared over the speed of light squared, usually denoted gamma.
 Any violation of this symmetry corresponds to a violation of Lorentz invariance. Violation of this symmetry has not been observed, though B meson decays have been observed to violate one of its component symmetries.
ANSWER: CPT symmetry [or charge conjugation, parity inversion, and time reversal symmetry; do not prompt on partial answer]
 If Lorentz symmetry is broken spontaneously, one of these particles corresponding to the generator of the broken symmetry would have to exist. The W and Z bosons get their mass from particles of this type.
ANSWER: Nambu-Goldstone bosons
19. For 10 points each, name some stuff about African migrations:
 Shaka Zulu’s invention of the spear known as the iklwa contributed to this period of chaotic warfare and migration in southern Africa, whose name means “crushing” in Zulu.
ANSWER: Mfecane  This people of sub-Saharan Africa underwent a giant millennia-long expansion. Their namesake language group is a branch of the Niger-Congo languages, and includes Swahili.
ANSWER: Bantu  In the 11th century, this nomadic tribe migrated to the Maghreb along with the Banu Sulaym and the Banu Hilal. The Beni Hassan were one subgroup of this tribe.
ANSWER: Banu Maqil 20. They were given the ability to think by Vili and the ability to sense by Ve. For 10 points each:
 Name this couple, the first humans to be made according to Norse myth. A wall was built around Middle-Earth of Ymir’s eyelashes to protect them from harm.
ANSWER: Ask and Embla [accept in either order; prompt on partial answer]
 Ask and Embla were formed from two of these objects that are morphed into human form.
ANSWER: tree trunks [accept equivalents such as logs]
 The companion and brother of Vili and Ve was this prominent deity of the Norse pantheon. He slew Ymir, and, in another story, he transformed into a bird after obtaining the mead of poetry.
ANSWER: Odin 21. A black man in a rowboat fights against the tumultuous sea and faces the danger of many of these creatures in Winslow Homer’s The Gulf Stream. For 10 points each:
 Name these creatures, some more of which attack a naked man in the water in a different painting.
 That other painting showing a group of men trying to fend off sharks in waters near Morrow Castle is Watson and the Shark, which was painted by this artist of Boy with the Squirrel.
ANSWER: John Singleton Copley  This piece of artwork by Damien Hirst consists of a shark preserved in formaldehyde. Apparently, the shark had to be replaced in 2006 to keep the piece in proper appearances.
ANSWER: The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living