1. Name and description of the threatening process



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CONCLUSION

It is considered that between them, the current Action Plan for Invasive Ants on Christmas Island and the planned TAP for tramp ants will adequately outline all the threat abatement actions needed to address the Yellow Crazy Ant invasion on Christmas Island. It is considered that the Action Plan for Invasive Ants on Christmas Island specifically addresses the problem of threat abatement for this key threatening process, and that the action plan should be investigated to determine if it can be adopted as the TAP for this key threatening process. The relationship between such an adopted TAP and the tramp ant TAP will also need to be considered.
4. Recommendations

TSSC recommends that:



  1. The list referred to in section 183 of the EPBC Act be amended by including in the list as a key threatening process: ‘Loss of biodiversity and ecosystem integrity following invasion by the Yellow Crazy Ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean’




  1. The development of a TAP is considered to be a feasible, effective and efficient way to abate the impacts of this threatening process, and that the current “Action Plan for Invasive Ants on Christmas Island” should be investigated to determine if it can be adopted as the TAP.


TSSC Revised Recommendation 2010
The TSSC reviewed its original recommendation regarding the requirement for a TAP in April 2010 and recommended that based on the current threat abatement actions and new proposals for whole of island biodiversity management for Christmas Island, the development of a TAP for the KTP is not required at this time
The development of an additional TAP would duplicate current abatement actions. Current actions include the ‘Action Plan for Invasive Ants on Christmas Island’, and the ‘Threat abatement plan for reduction in impacts of tramp ants on biodiversity in Australia and its territories’. In addition, the development of a specific new TAP at this time would interfere with the efforts being made by the Christmas Island Expert Working Group to improve the ongoing management of Christmas Island for the preservation of its biodiversity in general

Publications cited and used to assess the nomination
Andrews, C.W. 1900. A Monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). British Museum of Natural History, London.
Australian Biological Resources Study. 1993. Flora of Australia. Vol 50, Oceanic Islands 2. AGPS, Canberra.
Christmas Island National Park Management Plan. 2002. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
Cogger, H. & Sadlier, R. 1999. The terrestrial reptiles of Christmas Island – a reappraisal of their status. Consultancy for Parks Australia North, Christmas Island. 30 pp.
Davis, N. 2002. The Invasive Yellow Yellow Crazy Ant (Anoplolepsis gracilipes) on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: Impacts on the frugivorous bird fauna. Hons thesis, Monash Univ., Melbourne.
Davis, N., O’Dowd D.J., Green P.T. & Mac Nally, R.N. 2002. The invasive yellow Yellow Crazy Ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: impacts on endemic land birds. Report to Environment Australia.
DOTARS 2004. Territories of Australia, Christmas Island. Dept of Transport and Region Services, Canberra, viewed 20 March 2004 <http://www.dotrs.gov.au/terr/xmas/ >
Dept of the Environment & Heritage 2004. Christmas Island National Park. Dept of the Environment & Heritage, viewed 20 March 2004 <http://www.deh.gov.au/parks/christmas/ >
Duncan, A. Baker G.B. & Montgomery N. 1999. The action plan for Australian bats. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Feare, C. 1998. The sustainable exploitation of sooty tern eggs in the Seychelles. Sixth annual report, June 1998. Unpublished report to the Division of Environment, Republic of the Seychelles.
Feare, C. 1999. Ants take over from rats on Bird Island, Seychelles. Bird Conservation International 9: 95-96.
Garnett, S.T. & Crowley G.M. 2000. The action plan for Australian birds. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Gillespie, R. & Reimer, N. 1993. The effect of alien predatory ants on Hawaiian endemic spiders. Pacific Science 47: 21-33.
Green, P.T. 2002. The management and control of the invasive alien Yellow Crazy Ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: The aerial baiting campaign September 2002 – An appraisal of project objectives and key outcomes. Unpublished report to the Yellow Crazy Ant Steering Committee, December 2002.

Green, P.T., Lake, P.S. & O’Dowd, D.J. 1999. Monopolization of litter processing by a dominant land crab on a tropical oceanic island. Oecologia 119: 235-244.


Green, P.T., O’Dowd, D.J. & Lake, P.S. 1997. Control of seedling recruitment by land crabs in rain forest on a remote oceanic island. Ecology 78: 2474-2486.
Green, P.T., O’Dowd, D.J. & Lake, P.S. 2001. From resistance to meltdown: secondary invasion of an island rainforest. Pp. 451-455 in Ganeshaiah, K.N., R. U. Shaanker, K.S. Bawa (eds) Tropical ecosystems. Structure, diversity and human welfare. Oxford & IBH, New Delhi.
Greenslade, P. J. M. 1971. Phenology of three ant species in the Solomon Islands. J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 10: 241-252.
Greenslade, P.J.M. 1972. Comparative ecology of four tropical ant species. Insect. Soc. 19: 195-212.
Haines, I.H., Haines, J.B. & Cherrett, J.M. 1994. The impact and control of the Yellow Crazy Ant, Anoplolepis longipes (Jerd.), in the Seychelles. pp. 206–218 in Williams, D.F. (ed.), Exotic ants. Biology, impact, and control of introduced species. Westview, Boulder, CO.
Hardy, D.E. 1979. An ecological survey of Puaaluu Stream. Part III. Report on a preliminary entomological survey of Puaaluu Stream, Maui, Coop. Nat. Park Resources Study Unit. Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa. Tech. Rept. 27: 34-39.
Hill, R. 2004a. National Recovery Plan for the Christmas Island Goshawk (Accipter fasciatus natalis). Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
Hill, R. 2004b. National Recovery Plan for the Christmas Island Hawk-Owl (Ninox natalis). Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
Hill, R. and Dunn A. 2004. National Recovery Plan for the Christmas Island Frigatebird (Fregata andrewsi). Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
Hill, R.S., Hom, K., Vel, T., Shah, N.J. & Matyot, P. 2003. Impact of the introduced yellow Yellow Crazy Ant Anoplolepis gracilipes on Bird Island, Seychelles. Biodiversity & Conservation 12: 1969-1984.
Holway, D.A., Lach, L., Suarez A.V., Tsutsui, N.D. & Case, T. 2002. The Causes and Consequences of Ant Invasions. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst 33: 181-233.
Lake, P.S. & O’Dowd, D.J. 1991. Red crabs in rain forest, Christmas Island: biotic resistance to invasion by an exotic snail. Oikos 62: 25-29.
Lawrence, J. 1990. Report: CSIRO Entomological Survey of Christmas Island. Phase 2 and final report. Unpublished report to Australian National Parks & Wildlife Service. 67 pp.

Lewis, T., Cherrett, J.M., Haines, I., Haines, J.B. & Mathias, P.L. 1976. The Yellow Crazy Ant (Anoplolepis longipes (Jerd.)(Hymenoptera, Formicidae)) in Seychelles, and its chemical control. Bull. Entomol. Res. 66: 97-111.


Lumsden, L., Silins J., & Schulz, M. 1999. Population dynamics and ecology of the Christmas Island Pipistrelle, Pipistrellus murrayi, on Christmas Island. Consultancy for Parks Australia North, Christmas Island. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research, Dept Natural Resources & Environment, Heidelberg, Victoria.
Mitchell, B.A. 1985. A vegetation survey of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Consultancy for the Australian National Parks & Wildlife Service, 1984/1985. 21 pp.
National Biodiversity Team of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. 2000. The Marshall Islands – Living atolls amidst the living sea. The National Biodiversity Report of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Global Environmental Facility/United Nations Development Programme Project. St. Hildgard Publishing Co., Santa Clarita, CA, USA.
O’Dowd, D.J. & Lake, P.S. 1989. Red crabs in rain forest, Christmas Island: removal and relocation of leaf litter. Journal of Tropical Ecology 5: 337-348.
O’Dowd, D.J. & Lake, P.S. 1990. Red crabs in rain forest: differential herbivory of seedlings. Oikos 58: 289-292.
O’Dowd, D.J. & Lake, P.S. 1991. Red crabs in rain forest, Christmas Island: removal and fate of seeds and fruits. Journal of Tropical Ecology 7: 113-122.
O'Dowd, D.J., Green, P.T. & Lake, P.S. 1999. Status, impact, and recommendations for research and management of exotic invasive ants in Christmas Island National Park. Darwin, Northern Territory, Environment Australia.
O’Dowd, D.J., Green, P.T. & Lake, P.S. 2001. Invasional meltdown in island rainforest. Pp. 447-450 in Ganeshaiah, K.N., Shaanker, R. U. & Bawa, K.S. (eds) Tropical ecosystems. Structure, diversity and human welfare. Oxford & IBH, New Delhi.
O’Dowd, D.J., Green, P.T. & Lake, P.S. 2003. Invasional ‘meltdown’ on an oceanic island. Ecology Letters 6: 812-7
Olsen, P. 2002. Draft Abbott’s Booby recovery plan. Environment Australia.
Orchard, M, S. Comport and P. Green. 2002. Control of the Invasive Yellow Yellow Crazy Ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean; progress, problems, and future scenarios. Unpublished Discussion Paper 1 February 2002.
PANCI. 2002. Invasive ants on Christmas Island. Action Plan February 2000-February 2003. Parks Australia North, Christmas Island, Indian Ocean.
PANCI. 2003. Invasive ants on Christmas Island. Draft Action Plan, February 2003, with appendix. Parks Australia North, Christmas Island, Indian Ocean.
Rao, N. S. & Veeresh, G. K. 1991. Nesting and foraging habits of Yellow Crazy Ant Anoplolepis longipes (Jerdon) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Environmental Ecology 9(3): 670-677.
Schulz, M. (2004). National Recovery Plan for the Christmas Island Shrew (Crocidura attenuata trichura). Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.
Schulz, M. and Lumsden, L.F. 2004. National Recovery Plan for the Christmas Island Christmas Island Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus murrayi). Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
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Soans, A.B. & Soans, J.S. 1971. A case of intergeneric competition and replacement in the ants Oecophylla smaragdina (Fab.) and Anoplolepis longipes (Jerdon) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 68: 289-290.
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Stork, N., Kitching, R., Cermak, M., McNeill, K. & Davis, N. 2002. The impact of aerial baiting for control of Yellow Crazy Ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes, on the canopy-dwelling vertebrates and arthropods on Christmas Island. Interim report to Parks Australia North.
Tidemann, C. 1985. A study of the status, habitat requirements and management of the two species of bat on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). Consultancy for the Australian National Parks & Wildlife Service, Canberra. 80 pp.
Townes, H. 1946. Results of an entomological inspection tour of Micronesia. Unpublished report to U.S. Commerical Company, Economic Survey, Honolulu, USA.
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Wilson, E.O. & Taylor, R.W. 1967. The ants of Polynesia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pacific Insects Monogr. 14: 1-109.
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Young, G.R., Bellis, G.A., Brown, G.R. & Smith, E.S.C. 2001. The Yellow Crazy Ant Anoplolepis gracilipes (Smith)(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in east Arnhemland, Australia. Aust. Entomologist 28: 97-104.



1 Predation is taken to include the killing and consumption of an animal that occurs as a result of the animal being attacked by Yellow Crazy Ants instinctively spraying formic acid in defence.



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