1. Marketing is defined as producing, promoting, and selling products



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Chapter 1—An Overview of Marketing
TRUE/FALSE
1. Marketing is defined as producing, promoting, and selling products.

ANS: F


Marketing means more than just producing, promoting, and selling products. It is a philosophy that stresses customer relationships as well as benefiting the organization and its stakeholders.

PTS: 1 REF: 3 OBJ: 01-1 TYPE: Def

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Strategy
2. According to the American Marketing Association, marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 3 OBJ: 01-1 TYPE: Def

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Strategy
3. An exchange cannot take place unless each party in the exchange has something that the other party values.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 3 OBJ: 01-1 TYPE: Comp

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Strategy
4. Sara Lee Industries spent considerable money and time developing a crustless bread. Prior to the introduction, the company had not conducted market research among its customers, but it was confident that its science and technology department had produced a successful new product. Based on this example, Sara Lee is a good example of a production-oriented company.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 4 OBJ: 01-2 TYPE: App

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Research
5. Unlike a production orientated firm, a firm embracing a sales orientation focuses on customer wants and needs so it can develop the best product at the lowest cost that will require very little selling effort.

ANS: F


A sales orientation is based on the ideas that people will buy more goods and services if aggressive sales techniques are used and that high sales result in high profits.

PTS: 1 REF: 4 OBJ: 01-2 TYPE: Comp

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Strategy
6. The marketing concept states that the social and economic justification for an organization's existence is the satisfaction of customers’ wants and needs while meeting organizational objectives.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 5 OBJ: 01-2 TYPE: Def

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer
7. The societal marketing concept considers society's long-term best interests along with the satisfaction of customers' wants and needs.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 6 OBJ: 01-2 TYPE: Def

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer
8. The focus of a production-oriented firm is on what it can make or do best.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 6 OBJ: 01-2 TYPE: Comp

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Strategy
9. Personnel in sales-oriented firms tend to be “outward looking,” focusing on selling what the market wants.

ANS: F


Personnel is sales-oriented firms tend to be “inward looking,” focusing on selling what the organization makes rather than making what the market wants.

PTS: 1 REF: 7 OBJ: 01-3 TYPE: Comp

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Strategy
10. Customer value is the relationship between company profits and company costs.

ANS: F


Customer value is the relationship between benefits and the sacrifice necessary to obtain those benefits.

PTS: 1 REF: 7 OBJ: 01-3 TYPE: Def

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer
11. The way to achieve customer satisfaction and value is to offer the lowest price.

ANS: F


Marketers interested in customer value offer realistic prices and try to achieve customer satisfaction and value by ensuring customer expectations are met or exceeded.

PTS: 1 REF: 8-9 OBJ: 01-3 TYPE: Comp

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer
12. 3D Systems is a company that uses computers to generate new product prototypes. It has generated loyal business clients by providing the best customer support in the industry. The company also provides direct sales consultations that gives its salespeople intimate knowledge about what exactly its customers want. This partnership between 3D Systems and its customers entails relationship marketing.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 10 OBJ: 01-3 TYPE: App

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer
13. Only a firm's salespeople need to be customer-oriented.

ANS: F


All employees need to be customer-oriented because in the customer's eyes, the employee (regardless of the position held in the organization) is the firm and may be the only firm representative the customer ever sees.

PTS: 1 REF: 10 OBJ: 01-3 TYPE: Comp

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer
14. Retailers who give their sales clerks the authority to handle customer complaints without having to get approval from a supervisor are using empowerment.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 11 OBJ: 01-3 TYPE: App

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer
15. In the early 1920s, Ford promised its customers any color vehicle they wanted as long as it was black. Ford's management assumed anyone buying a car would accept the color black, so it made products affordable by offering only one variety in large quantities. Ford is an example of a market-oriented firm.

ANS: F


A market-oriented organization recognizes that different customers groups want different features or benefits.

PTS: 1 REF: 12-13 OBJ: 01-3 TYPE: App

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer
16. The ultimate goal of most market-oriented firms is profitability that results from satisfying the wants and needs of its consumers.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 14 OBJ: 01-3 TYPE: Comp

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer
17. While most marketing organizations rely on various forms of promotion to succeed, sales-oriented organizations make the most effective use of their entire marketing mix.

ANS: F


Sales-oriented firms usually rely more heavily on promotion alone than do market-oriented firms.

PTS: 1 REF: 14 OBJ: 01-3 TYPE: Comp

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Strategy
18. Salespeople who work for market-oriented organizations are generally perceived by their customers as problem solvers and important links to supply sources and new products.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 14 OBJ: 01-3 TYPE: Comp

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer
19. Marketing is important to business, so marketing should be part of the job of everyone in the organization, not just those in marketing.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 15 OBJ: 01-4 TYPE: Comp

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Strategy
20. Approximately 50 percent of the U.S. civilian work force performs marketing activities.

ANS: F


Between one-fourth and one-third of the U.S. civilian work force performs marketing activities.

PTS: 1 REF: 15 OBJ: 01-4 TYPE: Def

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Strategy
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. One facet of marketing is that it is:

a.

an approach that focuses on maximizing sales

b.

a short-term oriented approach to profit maximization

c.

an approach that requires diversity

d.

a philosophy that stresses customer satisfaction

e.

independent of value creation

ANS: D


Marketing has two facets. First, it is a philosophy, an attitude, a perspective, or a management orientation that stresses customer satisfaction. Second, marketing is activities and processes used to implement this philosophy.

PTS: 1 REF: 3 OBJ: 01-1 TYPE: Def

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Strategy
2. A business is concerned with many day-to-day activities. Some of the most important of these activities are the planning and development of a product, its pricing policy, and the distribution strategy. These activities are all a part of:

a.

a control system

b.

marketing

c.

accounting

d.

production

e.

human resources

ANS: B


This description contains three of the four main activities included in the marketing function. The fourth main activity is communicating value.

PTS: 1 REF: 3 OBJ: 01-1 TYPE: Comp

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Pricing | TB&E Model Product | TB&E Model Distribution
3. _____ is a set of activities used to implement a management orientation that stresses customer satisfaction.

a.

Planning strategy

b.

Customer management

c.

Marketing

d.

A control system

e.

Reciprocity

ANS: C


This is the focus of marketing.

PTS: 1 REF: 3 OBJ: 01-1 TYPE: Def

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product
4. The American Marketing Association's definition of marketing:

a.

is limited to promotional activities

b.

focuses on the value of empowerment, teamwork, and customer value

c.

shows how marketing benefits the marketer

d.

relies on the synergy created by exchange

e.

includes creating, communicating, delivering and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.

ANS: E


According to the American Marketing Association, marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.

PTS: 1 REF: 3 OBJ: 01-1 TYPE: Def

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Strategy
5. Which of the following occurs when people give up something in order to receive something that they would rather have?

a.

Exchange

b.

Synergy

c.

Transformation

d.

Leveraging

e.

Reciprocity

ANS: A


Exchange is people giving up something to receive something they would rather have.

PTS: 1 REF: 3 OBJ: 01-1 TYPE: Def

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Product
6. All of the following are necessary for exchange to occur EXCEPT:

a.

each party is capable of communication and delivery

b.

each party signs a contract before exchange occurs

c.

each party believes it is appropriate or desirable to deal with the others

d.

each party is free to accept or reject the exchange offer

e.

each party must have something the other party considers to be valuable

ANS: B


Exchange can occur without a legal contract.

PTS: 1 REF: 3-4 OBJ: 01-1 TYPE: Comp

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer
7. A problem facing the timber industry is the absence of any effective way to prove that rain forest timber was legally harvested. In places like Indonesia as much as 80 percent of timber available for sale was illegally cut. Companies like The Home Depot do not want to sell timber from illegally logged forests even though the demand is great for timber from rain forests. Which of the following conditions required for an exchange to occur is missing when a company tries to sell illegally acquired logs to The Home Depot?

a.

There are more than two parties involved.

b.

Each party has something of value to bring to the exchange.

c.

One party is free to accept the exchange offer.

d.

Each party believes it is appropriate to deal with the other party.

e.

Nobody sees the exchange as producing value.

ANS: D


For an exchange to occur, two or more parties must be involved. Both parties are free to accept or reject the exchange. If The Home Depot believes the timber was illegally gotten, then it will not want to deal with the loggers.

PTS: 1 REF: 4 OBJ: 01-1 TYPE: App

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer
8. Kellogg’s is offering free DVDs to consumers who collect 5 official Collection certificates from the back panels of specially marked packages of Kellogg’s cereals and mail them with the official order form. Within 90 days, these consumers will receive the movie of their choice. A(n) _____ will occur when a movie fan mails in his or her certificates for a movie.

a.

synergy

b.

sublimation

c.

exchange

d.

entropy

e.

reciprocity

ANS: C


For an exchange to occur, two or more parties must be involved. Both parties are free to accept or reject the exchange. Furthermore, each party must have something that is of value to the other party. Each party is capable of communication and delivery and believes it is desirable to do so. In this case, the value for Kellogg’s is customer loyalty. The value for the customer is the cereal and free movie.

PTS: 1 REF: 4 OBJ: 01-1 TYPE: App

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer
9. For an exchange to take place:

a.

there must be at least two parties involved

b.

money must be used in the transaction

c.

each party must feel obligated to accept the offer

d.

at least one party must have something of value that the other party desires

e.

neither party must communicate with the other

ANS: A


For exchange to occur, there must be at least two parties, each party has something that might be of value to the other party, each party is capable of communication and delivery, each party is free to accept or reject the exchange offer, and each party believes it is appropriate or desirable to deal with the other party.

PTS: 1 REF: 3-4 OBJ: 01-1 TYPE: Def

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer
10. The concept of exchange is important to marketing because:

a.

if all the conditions for an exchange are in place, then the exchange will be completed

b.

exchange provides money to marketers

c.

marketing activities help to create exchange

d.

marketing activities are a requirement for exchange to take place

e.

money is the only medium of exchange for business marketers

ANS: C


Marketing activities help the exchange to take place, but marketing can occur without an exchange.

PTS: 1 REF: 3-4 OBJ: 01-1 TYPE: Comp

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer
11. Barry collects antique watches and decided to sell a few of them on eBay. Some of the watches he wants to sell are rare and very valuable. What condition is necessary for an exchange to occur between Barry and a buyer?

a.

His watch should have a certificate of authenticity.

b.

The opening bid must be lower than other watches being sold on the site.

c.

Buyers must provide payment before the item is shipped.

d.

Delivery must take place within 2 days of the purchase.

e.

Potential buyers must be able to see the watch and understand its qualities.

ANS: E


For an exchange to take place, each party must have something the other values; the parties must be able to communicate; each party must believe that it is appropriate to deal with the other; and each party must be free to accept or reject the exchange offer.

PTS: 1 REF: 3-4 OBJ: 01-1 TYPE: App

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Customer
12. All of the following are marketing management philosophies EXCEPT:

a.

sales orientation

b.

societal marketing orientation

c.

market orientation

d.

profitability orientation

e.

production orientation

ANS: D


The four marketing philosophies are commonly referred to as production, sales, market, and societal marketing orientations.

PTS: 1 REF: 4 OBJ: 01-2 TYPE: Def

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Strategy
13. Indonesian logging companies harvest the rain forests for timber and assume that a market exists for their products. The typical Indonesian logging company has a(n) _____ orientation.

a.

exchange

b.

product

c.

production

d.

sales

e.

environmental

ANS: C


A production orientation is a philosophy that focuses on the internal capabilities of the firm rather than on the desires and needs of the marketplace.

PTS: 1 REF: 4 OBJ: 01-2 TYPE: App

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Strategy
14. Firms with a _____ orientation focus on the internal capabilities of the firm rather than on the desires and needs of the marketplace.

a.

sales

b.

production

c.

market

d.

customer

e.

customer-benefit

ANS: B


A production orientation is a philosophy that focuses on the internal capabilities of the firm rather than on the desires and needs of the marketplace.

PTS: 1 REF: 4 OBJ: 01-2 TYPE: Def

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Strategy
15. A company that sets its goals and strategies based on what its current equipment can produce, what products engineering can design, and what the company itself can do best, has a(n) _____ orientation.

a.

marketplace

b.

sales

c.

market

d.

exchange

e.

production

ANS: E


A production orientation focuses on the internal capabilities of the firm.

PTS: 1 REF: 4 OBJ: 01-2 TYPE: Def

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Strategy
16. Researchers at PPG Industries spent considerable time, effort, and money developing a bluish windshield that would let in filtered sunlight but block out the heat. Little market research was done, but the scientists were convinced this new product would be significantly better than existing windshields even though it was more expensive and of a different color than the current models on the market. This scenario suggests PPG most likely has a(n) _____ orientation.

a.

exchange

b.

production

c.

sales

d.

promotion

e.

customer

ANS: B


A production orientation is a philosophy that focuses on the internal capabilities of the firm rather than on the desires and needs of the marketplace.

PTS: 1 REF: 4 OBJ: 01-2 TYPE: App

TOP: AACSB Reflective Thinking | TB&E Model Strategy
17. A newspaper ad for a hospital that states, “We have the most modern delivery rooms and state-of-the art medical equipment,” is an indication of which marketing management philosophy?

a.

sales

b.

customer

c.

market

d.

societal

e.

production

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