|1. In the late 1200's Marco Polo visited the court of Khubilai Khan.
2. In 962 C.E. Pope John XII presented the imperial crown to Otto of Saxony
3. In the high middle ages the state which seemed to have the most potential to recreate centralized,
imperial rule was the Holy Roman Empire
4. The single biggest obstacle to the rise of a powerful Holy Roman Empire was an ongoing conflict with the papacy.
5. The Investiture Contest centered around the appointment of church officials by imperial authorities.
6. In a larger sense, the Investiture Contest represented the struggle between church and state for control in Europe
7. The Investiture Contest reached its peak with a struggle between Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV.
8. Frederick Barbarossa was blocked by the popes in his attempt to gain control over Lombardy.
9. The Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa was blocked from gaining control of Lombardy by the popes.
10. The quip that the Holy Roman Empire was "neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire" is attributed to Voltaire.
11. In 987 the French nobles chose Hugh Capet as their king.
12. Hugh Capet was crowned king of France in 987 but it took centuries for the French kings to build a powerful, centralized state.
13. England developed the most tightly centralized political structure in its early stages.
14. In 1066 William of Normandy conquered England.
15. In Italy the political structure was marked by a series of city-states and principalities.
16. The reconquista took place in the Iberian peninsula.
17. Government and financial support did not help explain the increased agricultural production of the high
18. By the year 1300 the population of Europe had risen to around 79 million.
19. The high middle ages witnessed a resurgence of urbanization.
20. The revival of urban society was most pronounced in Italy.
21. The Hanseatic League was a trading network that operated in the North Sea and Baltic Sea.
22. Eleanor of Aquitaine was famous for her support of romantic poets and troubadours.
23. The guilds of the high middle ages almost always admitted women as members.
24. Central to the philosophy of the high middle ages was the rediscovery of Aristotle.
25. St. Thomas Aquinas believed that it was possible to prove rationally that God exists
26. During the high middle ages the most popular saint was the Virgin Mary.
27. The Dominicans and Franciscans attacked materialism and would allow no personal possessions.
28. The Waldensians attacked the increasing materialism of European society.
29. The Cathars advocated an ascetic, pure, spiritual existence, to attain spiritual perfection they proposed renouncing wealth and marriage, and saw the world as a place of an unrelenting battle between good and evil.
30. Newfoundland was discovered around the year 1000 C.E. by the Scandinavian seafarer Leif Ericsson.
31. Crusading orders included : Templars, Hospitallers, Teutonic Knights.
32. During the eleventh century Roger Guiscard captured Sicily away from Islamic control.
33. The last surviving Islamic outpost in Spain was, Granada.
34. The first attempt in response to Pope Urban II's appeal for a crusade came from Peter the Hermit.
35. Pope Urban II launched the crusades in 1095.
36. The only one of the crusades that managed to achieve its goal of recapturing Jerusalem was the First Crusade.
37. Jerusalem was captured in 1187 by Saladin.
38. Consequence of the Fourth Crusade included: the establishment of a Roman Catholic regime in Constantinople, the sacking of Constantinople, and the beginning of a long period of decline for Constantinople.
39. The Fourth Crusade managed to capture and sack the city of Constantinople.
40. The Crusades increased trade between the eastern and western Mediterranean.