1. Gender (i e., categorizing individuals as males vs females) is considered an example of level data



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1. Gender (i.e., categorizing individuals as males vs. females) is considered an example of ___________ level data.

*A. nominal

B. ordinal

C. interval

D. Ratio
2. When reading a recent journal article John was confused. It seems that the author’s hypotheses were not clearly described. The author should have included descriptions of his hypotheses in the ___________ of his article.

*A. introduction

B. method

C. results

D. discussion
3. The act of making broad generalizations that are based on a large number of specific observations is referred to as

A. deductive reasoning.

*B. inductive reasoning.

C. scientific and disciplined inquiry.



D. reliance on tradition.
4. Jessica is an early childhood researcher. She is conducting a study that tests whether the social-learning theory concept of vicarious learning can explain how children acquire appropriate social behaviors. Her study is best described as:

*A. Basic research.

B. Applied research.

C. Evaluation research.

D. None of the Above.
5. Sophia needs to conduct a survey for the Alumni Association. She takes the list of all the alumni and calls 300 members who were selected at random. Sophia is best illustrating:

A. Stratified random sampling.

B. Cluster sampling.

C. Systematic sampling.

*D. Simple random sampling.
6. Sophia conducts a second survey of the Alumni Association. This time, she separates her membership list into those who graduated with Bachelor’s, Master’s and Doctoral degrees and draws a random sample from each of these three groups. Sophia is best illustrating:

*A. Stratified random sampling

B. Cluster sampling

C. Systematic sampling

D. Simple Random Sampling
7. Francisco is studying young children's color preferences by age. He is interested in comparing three, four, and five-year old children's color preferences. He is reluctant to use simple random sampling because he wants to assure that he has comparable numbers of children at each age. Which quantitative sampling strategy should Francisco use to ensure that each age group is equally represented?

A. Cluster sampling

B. Convenience sampling

*C. Stratified random sampling

D. Systematic random sampling
8. Which of the following sampling problems can occur in a study as a result of pre-existing opinions or positions held by a researcher?

*A. Sampling bias

B. Standard error of the mean

C. Sampling error

D. Standard error of measurement
9. Which of the following represents a null hypothesis regarding the differences between two groups learning biology content?

A. There are differences in a practicum exam between those who learn dissection in the actual lab and those who learn dissection by computer simulation.

*B. There are no differences in a practicum exam between those who learn dissection in the actual lab and those who learn dissection by computer simulation.

C. Those students who learn dissection in the lab will perform better on the practicum exam than those who learn dissection via the computer simulation.

D. Those students who learn dissection via the computer simulation will perform better on the practicum exam than those who learn dissection in the lab.
10. Of the following, which is generally true regarding the differences between qualitative and quantitative research?

A. Quantitative but not qualitative research involves data collection.

B. Qualitative but not quantitative research generally involves a large number of participants.

*C. Qualitative research involves more participant/researcher interaction than does quantitative.

D. Qualitative research but not quantitative research informs educational practice.
11. Some of the students in Mike’s class had to take an AP physics exam on the day his US History final was scheduled, so Mike will have to administer two different versions of his test. With which of the following reliability constructs should Mike be most concerned?

A. Internal consistency

B. Split-Half reliability

C. Test-retest reliability

*D. Alternate forms reliability
12. Michele is doing a paper and wants to start with secondary sources. Which of the following is an example of a secondary source?

*A. A review paper that summarizes previous articles.

B. A conference paper that presents a study.

C. A journal article that shows a series of experiments.

D. A thesis that conducted a study on the topic.
13. Paula is a materials scientist. She does research on the effects of environmental toxins on various materials samples. She carefully designs these studies and collects data in order to derive theory about how toxins affect these materials. Of the following, Paula's research could best be described as:

*A. Basic research.

B. Qualitative research.

C. Evaluation research.

D. Applied research.
14. In a research report, the review of the literature includes a description of

A. the participants included in the study.

B. the procedures for data collection.

*C. the main purpose of the study.

D. the discussion of the data analysis conducted.
15. Your school district is considering having summer library hours at several elementary schools. These hours will allow children to take out books over the summer. A team of researchers has been hired to determine if the local community supports the cost of the program. The researchers develop a brief survey and go to the local public library on Saturday morning to solicit volunteers to fill out their survey. These researchers are illustrating

A. Simple random sampling.

B. Cluster sampling.

*C. Convenience sampling.

D. Systematic random sampling.
16. Of the following, which is considered an achievement measurement?

A. An IQ test

*B. A First Grade Reading Ability Measure

C. An ADHD measure

D. A self-esteem measure
17. Derrick is conducting a study comparing the instructional effectiveness of teachers with and without master’s degrees. Which sampling strategy will best ensure that teachers at each degree level are represented in the study?

A. Cluster Sampling

*B. Stratified Random Sampling.

C. Convenience Sampling.

D. Systematic Random Sampling.
18. Pedro studies inclusion. He needs to generate a directional hypothesis for his study. Which of the following is an appropriate research hypothesis for Pedro.

A. There are no differences in student learning between children who are fully included and those who are not.

B. There are differences in learning between children who are fully included and those who are not.

*C. Children who are fully included learn more than children who are not fully included.
19. Which of the following is a nondirectional hypothesis?

A. There are no differences in reading comprehension between those taught a summarization strategy and those not taught the strategy.

B. Readers who are taught a summarizing strategy have higher reading comprehension scores than those not taught the strategy.

C. Readers taught a summarizing strategy have lower reading comprehension scores than those who were not taught the strategy.

*D. There are differences in reading comprehension between readers who are taught a summarizing strategy and those who are not taught the strategy.
20. Which of the following is a null hypothesis for the research topic Are there differences in final class grades between students who are taught psychology in a lecture format or self-paced?

A. There are differences in final grade between students taught psychology in lecture versus self-paced format.

*B. There are no differences in final grade between students taught psychology in lecture versus self-paced format.

C. Students taught psychology in lecture format receive higher grades than those in self-paced conditions.

D. Students in self-paced conditions have higher grades in psychology than those in lecture classes.
21. Of the following, which is an example of a type of qualitative research?

A. Correlational

B. Causal-comparative

*C. Action Research

D. Experimental
22. Grounded theory is a method employed by

A. quantitative researchers.

*B. qualitative researchers.

C. experimental researchers.

D. empirical researchers.


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